OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES OF ELECTROMOBILITY

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1 OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES OF ELECTROMOBILITY Why do we need change? Short history of electric cars Technology aspects Operational aspects Charging demand Intra-city method Inter-city method Total cost of ownership Electric car sales numbers and incentives Smart Grid Novel electromobility services Integrated information system Environmental aspects 1

2 Why do we need change? Limited oil resources, energy demand: 90% of oil is imported in EU Global and local impacts of environmental pollution 2030: reduce CO 2 emission by 40% compared to the basis year of : reduce CO 2 emission by 60% compared to the basis year of 1990 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SECTOR EU28, 2013 (EUROSTAT) Other 17% Households 27% Industry 25% Transport 31% Road 26% Air 3% Railways 1% Inland waterways 1% 2

3 Short history of electric cars When was the first electric car released for public?

4 Elektromos autók rövid története First The car with first a car speed on the of nature 100 km/h (1899) (1971) 4

5 5

6 Technology aspects ELECTROMOBILITY: The use of electric drive in road vehicles Infrastructure to serve electric cars (e.g. charging network) Communication technologies: between traveller, vehicle and infrastructure SMART GRID INTERNAL COMBUSTINE ENGINE E-MOTOR E-MOTOR Simple and reliable technology High efficiency Zero local emission Smart Grid BATTERY SMART GRID FUEL BATTERY Low range Expensive battery Long charging time Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) Battery electric vehicle (BEV) 6

7 7

8 Energy sector Operational aspects Integration to transport system Business model, clearing house Management of traffic (parking) and charging Traveller information sys. (eco-driving) Novel travel modes (car-sharing) Renewable energy sources Development of smart grid technologies ELECTRIC VEHICLE Regulation Incentives Government Alternative drives Battery development Development of autonomous vehicles Vehicle industry An electric vehicle is a part of a complex system 8

9 Operational aspects Do you use an electric vehicle? 37% 7% 8% 2% Yes, Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) Yes, Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) No, but I would use a BEV 46% No, but I would use a PHEV Not at all Number of electric vehicles (HU) (estimating method)

10 Operational aspects Frequent charging demand: the average range of an EV today is 150 km Different connectors and charging power Point and line charging (e-highway) Charging power and time Type Power Time Charging at home 3,7 kw 9-11 h Normal charger <22 kw 5-11 h Fast charger kw 1-4 h Super charger >42 kw 0,5-1 h Lack of integration end interoperability. Separated charging station deployment. 10

11 11

12 Charging demands A B Inter-city charging demand A C D Intra-city charging demand MOT!VATION 12

13 1 2 Inter-city method Determination of strategically important sites Sites where charging station deployment is justified Benefit from local knowledge 3 4 R 13

14 R Inter-city method Determination of strategically important sites Determination of candidate sites Rest-areas not farther than 250 m Reduce installation cost 4 categories Superior Medium Minimum Basic 14

15 R Inter-city method Determination of strategically important sites Determination of candidate sites Evaluation of candidate sites Traffic volume (x 11 ) Road category (x 12 ) Nearby settlements population (x 2 ) Service level of candidate site (x 3 ) Negative effect of the nearest fast charging station (x 4 ) Weights (a 1..a 4 ) are derived from the development plan IP j = a 1 x 11,j + x 12,j + a 2 x 2,j + a 3 x 3,j a 4 x 4,j 15

16 Inter-city method 1 Determination of strategically important sites 2 Determination of candidate sites 3 4 R Evaluation of candidate sites Selection of installation sites Select the highest IP Deployment requirement: Specific number of charging stations, or the maximum distance between neighboring charging station 16

17 Inter-city method 1 Determination of strategically important sites 2 Determination of candidate sites 3 Evaluation of candidate sites 4 Selection of installation sites R Set of installation sites Support long journeys 17

18 Inter-city method Inter-city method strategic points 50 location 70 location Support long-distance journeys, charging stations at gas stations. Determination of charging points based on traffic volume. 18

19 Inter-city method 19

20 Intra-city method PARK!NG Daytime parking services (S) Nighttime parking - population (P) Near charging stations (v q ) W q Parcel the area to hexagons Evaluate hexagons V q = c 1 S q MAX S q 5 + c 2 P q MAX P q 5 W q = b 1 V q + b 2 V q n b 3 v q 20

21 Intra-city method Location Frequency of charging [charging/day/vehicle] Charging time [hh:mm] Home 0,72 5:58 Public charging at home 0,27 1:50 Work 0,59 4:44 Shops and markets 0,18 0:43 Bank, post office 0,09 0:21 P+R parking lot 0,15 2:09 Bus and railway station 0,08 1:21 Gas station 0,25 0:21 Tourist destination, museums, sport and recreation facilities 0,12 1:15 21

22 Intra-city method Where could you charge your vehicle now? 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Home Public charging at home Work None of them Budapest, downtown Budapest, suburban Near Budapest Big town (population over ) Small town Small settlement

23 Application of intra-city method New charging stations close to services and high density areas 23

24 24

25 Total cost of ownership High purchase price lower operational cost 25

26 Electric car sales numbers and incentives The number of sales follows an S curve, we are still in the accelerating state Expected: Purchase price difference vanishes by 2022 More EV sold than conventional vehicle in a year by

27 Electric car sales numbers and incentives 1. Support purchase of EVs 2. Support the use of EVs 3. Support charging station deployment 4. Support the operation of a charging station Incentives related to vehicles Incentives related to chargers Soft incentives 5. Other (communication, R&D, education etc.) incentives The use of incentives in a conjoint manner increase its efficiency 27

28 Electric car sales numbers and incentives New vehicle purchase Non-refundable subsidies Tax benefit Green plate numbers: bus lane use, parking discount, traffic zone discount, etc. Free charging Replace old vehicles Expand the charging network Simplify the terms and conditions of a new charging station installation Charging network develepoment with system approach Unify connectors Control of charging station use and operation Development of integrated information system/ service (find and book charging station, easy-to-pay) Development of public transportation Carsharing, bikesharing, taxi, electric buses It influence the travellers and raise the awareness Governmental fleets Education, research and development Reduce the fear of unknown Implementation of novel solutions

29 29

30 Smart Grid Smart grid combines the latest developments in energy, communication and information technology 30

31 Smart Grid Daytime charging raise the fluctuation of grid load 31

32 Smart Grid Intelligent charging management decrease the fluctuation of grid load 32

33 Novel electromobility services e-car-sharing Registration required, short period car rentals Crowded and high density areas Part of the transportatin system. Together with other transportation modes are an alternative of private car use e-bike-sharing Similar to carsharing, but bikes Short trips, flat areas e-fleet and e-bus: It is advised to replace the frequently used internal combustine engine vehicles with electric vehicles at first. Vehicles in public service are available for a wide range of travellers e-highway Trolley cables over the highway 33

34 34

35 35

36 Integrated information system Negatives N 1 : Expensive vehicles Functions F 1 : Support for new vehicle selection N 2 : Limited range N 3 : Low density of charging points N 4 : Long refueling time N 5 : Fear of new technology N 6 : Battery life is shorter than car longevity F 2 : Charging planning F 3 : Assistance during charging F 4 : Journey planning/ navigation F 5 : Support for Smart Grid technologies Functions are derived from drawbacks. Activity based journey planner.

37 Two-way data stream One-way data stream Integrated information system Community of electric vehicle users (C) Vehicle manufacturers (VM) Transportation network and environment (TNE) Traveller information system (IS) Database (DB) User (U) User interface (UI) Server (S) Electric network (EN) Operator Electric vehicle (EV) Direction of data stream Possible data stream with direction Charging point Charging infrastructure (CI) The elements are derived from the data need 37

38 Environmental aspects Which vehicle is more environment friendly, if both EV and ICE vehicle are charged in Hungary? (or less CO 2 emission) 38

39 Local emission (PM and NO X ) Environmental aspects Biodiesel Diesel Petrol Biogas E 95 E 85 Petrol hybrid CNG LPG Hydrogen, electricity (water plant) Electricity (EU mix) Global emission (CO 2 ) The answer depends on how the electricity is made 39

40 Environmental aspects 40

41 41

42 Conclusion Simple technology, expensive battery Two types of chargind demand, different motivations: Super chargers at gas stations along highways: longdistany journeys Normal or fast chargers in urban areas close to services and in high density areas: short-distance trips in the city The use of electric vehicles in public service raise awareness and lot of people can benefit from the advantages Integrated information service can ease the drawback of electric vehicle use An EV is as environment friendly as the technology how the electricity was made 42

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