Electric mobility Status, policies and prospects. Clean Transport Forum - 22 September 2016, Bogotá Marine Gorner, International Energy Agency

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1 Electric mobility Status, policies and prospects Clean Transport Forum - 22 September 216, Bogotá Marine Gorner, International Energy Agency

2 Well to wheel GHG emissions (Gt CO₂) GHG emissions (Gt CO₂) Well to wheel GHG emissions (Gt CO₂) Well to wheel GHG emissions (Gt CO₂) The 14 role of electric cars Aviation reduction in Shipping reduction 12 sustainable transport 1 Total GHG emissions all sectors Rail reduction Trucks reduction Buses reduction GHG emissions transport 8 Cars and LCVs reduction 2 and 3 wheelers reduction 14 Avia 6 Aviation 45 Other transformation reduction 4DS Ship Power reduction Shipping 4 4 4DS 12 Rail Transport Rail reduction Tru 35 Agriculture Trucks reduction 1 2 Bus 3 Services reduction Buses Residential Cars reduction 8 Car and LCVs 25 2 an Industry reduction 2 and 3 wheelers 2 6 2DS Avia Other transformation reduction Other transformation 14 Aviation reduction 22% 15 Power reduction Ship Power 2DS Shipping reduction 4 Transport reduction Transport Rail 1 12 Rail reduction Agriculture reduction Agriculture 44% Tru 5 Trucks reduction 2 1 Services reduction Services Bus Buses reduction Residential reduction Residential Car Cars and LCVs reduction Industry reduction Industry an Other transformation reductionother transformation 2 and 3 wheelers reduction Power 6 reduction Power Aviation Transport reduction Transport Shipping Electric cars can make a major contribution, but 4 Agriculture reduction Agriculture Rail are also needed: Services reduction Services Trucks 2 Residential reduction Residential avoid, Buses shift, improve Industry 24 reduction Industry Cars and LCVs electrified road freight and mass transport Other 215 transformation and 3 wheelers Power

3 The role of electric cars in sustainable transport Electric cars benefits Climate Health Energy security Better energy efficiency than internal combustion engines Absence of tailpipe emissions (CO 2 and pollutants) Low-carbon mode, provided that the electricity mix is low-carbon Reduction of oil dependency Main hurdles and challenges Upfront cost Charging infrastructure and range anxiety (paramount in urban areas) (+ potential for harvesting local, renewable energy sources) Need for policy action to lift up barriers, spur adoption and harvest the benefits of EVs.

4 The Electric Vehicles Initiative and IEA s EV-related work EVI: Multi-government policy forum established in 29 under CEM Knowledge-sharing on policies and programs that support EV deployment Global EV Outlook 216, released on 31 May EVI data and analysis are at the basis of IEA s WEO and ETP scenarios

5 New electric car registrations (thousands) China United States Netherlands Norway United Kingdom Japan Germany France Sweden Others Market share (215) GEVO 216: the electric car market in % % 15% % 5% % market share 55, EVs sold in 215 (+ 7%) China became the first EV market in 215 9/1 EVs sold in 8 countries (China, US, Netherlands, Norway, UK, Japan, Germany, France) 7 countries >1% market share (Norway, Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, France, China, UK)

6 Electric car stock (thousands) EV stock evolution, : 1 million EVs Others Canada Germany United Kingdom France Norway Netherlands Japan China United States BEV BEV + PHEV 1.26 million EVs in circulation by end of % BEVs 4/5 EVs in 5 countries (US, China, Japan, Netherlands, Norway) Other modes: 2 M e-2wheelers, 173 k e-buses (mainly in China)

7 Battery cost (USD/kWh) Battery energy density (Wh/L) RD&D: battery costs and energy density Battery cost (PHEV) 222 DOE Battery cost target (PHEV) 22 Tesla Battery cost target (BEV) 222 GM Battery cost target (BEV) Energy density (PHEV) PHEV battery costs: -73% in the past 7 years Ambitious announcements in the next future: -58% to go in the next 7 years Wider model availability (Renault-Nissan, BMW, GM, Tesla ( ) did not offer the same variety of EVs 5 years ago ) Further improvements needed to enable longer ranges for lower costs, addressing range anxiety and increasing EV competitiveness 295Wh/L $268/kWh 4Wh/L $125/kWh 222 DOE Energy density target (PHEV)

8 China France Japan Netherlands Norway Portugal Sweden United Kingdom United States Estimated magnitude of purchase incentive (USD) Share of PHEV or BEV in total car market Purchase incentives and EV market shares, % 18% PHEVs 2 16% 14% BEVs 15 12% 1 1% 8% BEV market share 5 6% 4% PHEV market share 2% % Various policy mechanisms behind the market pull Differentiated taxation: CO 2 -based rebates, technology-based rebates, feebates, VAT exemptions Waivers on charges, preferential treatment possible if differentiated number plates are in place Norway stands out in terms of incentives and EV adoption Difficult to come to conclusions for other markets (very early phase)

9 Charging outlets Year-on-year growth rate EV Supply Equipment million 14% 12% 1% Private chargers Publicly available fast chargers million 8% 6% 4% 2% Publicly available slow chargers Growth rate of publicly available fast chargers Growth rate of publicly accessible slow chargers % Growth rate of private chargers The deployment of publicly accessible chargers is positively correlated with the growth in EV sales Need for charging network to overcome range anxiety barrier Incentives are not just needed for vehicle purchase

10 Policy needs A policy framework with high taxes on conventional fuels and stringent fuel economy standards is favorable for EVs Purchase and circulation incentives and the availability of charging infrastructure are positively correlated with EV uptake Need for fiscal measures (e.g. differentiated taxation, feebates) to kick start the market uptake Need for mechanisms supporting the deployment of recharging infrastructure Additional measures can further increase the value proposition of EVs Examples: waivers on access restrictions (bus lanes) and urban/parking pricing schemes Incentives can only be transitional Risk of tax revenue losses (incl. from fuel purchase). Need to adapt taxation mechanisms. Risk of congestion effects and detrimental effects to public transportation. Need for close monitoring and periodical revisions to adapt to a fast evolving market

11 Illustration: a possibly sizeable contribution of EVs to fuel economy targets New PLDV average fuel economy - test values, NEDC (Lge/1km) World DS 2DS - no EVs 2DS - EVs GFEI targets 23: fuel consumption per km of new LDVs 5% better than in 25 IEA 2DS GFEI target needs ICE improvement, hybrids & EVs EVs (PHEV and BEVs): sizeable impact after 22

12 million electric cars Electric cars in the vehicle stock (millions) EV deployment targets World Horizon 25 (2DS): million EVs 25% global car stock 1.26 million 13 million 2 million 14 million 1 million Historical IEA 2DS Paris Declaration EVI 22 target Cumulative country targets % 12% 5 1% 4 8% PHEV stock BEV stock 3 6% EV sales share 2 4% EV stock share Latin America, IEA 2DS % %

13 Thank you for your attention

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