Environmental and EnergyStrategies for Freight Transport. Dipl.-Ing. Håkan Samuelsson, Chairman of the MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Gruppe

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1 Environmental and EnergyStrategies for Freight Transport Dipl.-Ing. Håkan Samuelsson, Chairman of the MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Group MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Gruppe FS-MN < >

2 Growing freight traffic Expansion of theeu Governmental regulations (emissionen / CO 2 ) Finite energy resources General conditions Ensuring the optimum use of our energy resources and the preservation of the environment has been a major focus of the world s freight-forwarding sector for decades. The manufacturers, customers and legislators all rose to the challenge and have since then accomplished much. Due to the steady growth in global trade and the expansion of the EU, freight traffic is continuously on the increase. New approaches are therefore needed to ensure that this development can continue in the future. Governmental regulations (such as the Euro emissions standards) and the finite nature of the world s crude oil reserves are further reasons for focusing on a strategy that supports environmental protection and the efficient use of energy.

3 Emission limit reductions PM [g/kwh] 0,7 Euro 0, ,4 Euro 1, ,15 0,1 Euro 2, 1996 Euro 3, 2000 COP-limlits EEC 88/77 0,02 0 Euro 5, Euro 4, from 2008 from , NO 14,4 x [g/kwh] Emission limit reductions Since the introduction of the Euro emission standards, development departments have not only been focusing on reducing consumption; they have also been increasingly concentrating on cutting pollutant emissions. Tremendous progress has especially been made in reducing the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The introduction of the Euro 4 and Euro 5 standards have set the course for further improvements in terms of exhaust gas emissions.

4 Particulate emissions [kt/a] Particulate and NOx emissions Road traffic in Germany Particulates, passenger cars Particulate, commercial vehicles NO X passenger cars NO X commercial vehicles Quelle: Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen, TU Vienna, status november 2001 NO x emissions [kt/a] Particulate and NOx emissions Since the introduction of the Euro standards, the improvements in exhaust gas systems have lead to a dramatic decrease in particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions. Despite the continuing increase in traffic, the development and implementation of the technical innovations necessary for Euro IV / V compliance will lead to a further reduction in exhaust gas emissions.

5 Reducing CO2 output increasingly has priority Boosting efficiency Alternative fuels Reducing CO2 output increasingly has priority The limited availability of crude oil and the findings regarding the influence CO2 has on the greenhouse effect is forcing experts to increasingly focus on ways to reduce consumption. Because consumption reduction measures also have a positive effect on customer utility, development departments will deal with this issue even more extensively in the future. CO2 emissions can essentially be reduced in one of two ways: Either by increasing the efficiency of conventional engines in combination with new transport concepts, or by using alternative fuels and drive systems.

6 Increase in gross vehicle weight 40 t Example 50 t 10% improvement in consumption CO 2 reduction Increase in gross vehicle weight The following three approaches offer the most promise for boosting efficiency over the short and medium-term: If legislators provide the required support, an increase in permitted payloads would make it possible to optimise consumption levels. Using current vehicle configurations, payloads could be increased by 10 tonnes to a gross vehicle weight of 50 tonnes. An improved overall traction force relative to the permissible gross combination weight could make it possible to reduce consumption by up to 10 percent. If the axle configuration shown were used, the roads would not be subject to any increased stresses and the number of vehicles would tend to decline.

7 Drive optimisation Ancillary units Integrierter Starter / Generator Mild hybrid Automated manuel transmission Energy store + braking energy recovery fuel savings of up to 15 % Drive optimisation Further potential could be tapped by using new technology in the area of the conventional drive. The biggest opportunities would be provided by using ancillary components that have been optimised in accordance to the respective need and by using automated manual transmissions with management systems. In addition, efficiency in this sector can be increased by combining an integrated starter / generator with energy storage devices for recovering braking energy. This combination is referred to as a mild hybrid. Taken together, these measures can cut fuel consumption by up to 15 percent, depending on the application.

8 Road transport in Germany Quelle: ifo, own calculations Road transport in Germany Transport volume [in billion tonne-kilometers] Forecast: fuel savings of up to 10 % Distance travelled [in billion tonne-kilometers A forecast of the development of road transport in Germany until 2014 shows that the figures for both the number of kilometres travelled and the transportation volume are expected to continuously increase. However, because of improved transport logistics and rapid advances in information and communications technology (telematics), the number of miles travelled will increase at a lower rate than the transportation volume. This development is expected to lead to fuel savings of up to 10 percent between 2002 and 2014.

9 Traffic management / road utilisation Position Communications infrastructure Communikation Traffic control centres Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) Navigation Traffic management / road utilisation Excessive traffic and construction sites are the cause of two-thirds of all traffic jams. According to traffic congestion experts, preventable small disturbances can lead to extensive traffic jams. By using a combination of satellite tracking, driver assistance systems, traffic control centres and improved communications, the number of disturbances that cause traffic congestion and stop-and-go situations can be minimised. The resulting improvement in traffic flow has a direct and positive effect on fuel consumption. The aforementioned technologies can also be used to better manage the utilisation and deployment of commercial vehicles. In view of expected increases in transport costs per kilometre (tolls / taxes / fuel), this would also be a major benefit to customers.

10 Alternative fuel solutions Liquid Synthetic Diesel from natural gas Biomass fuels Synthetic Diesel from biomass Biodiesel e.g. RME Alternative fuels Gaseous LNG (liquified natural Gas) CNG (compressed natural Gas) H 2 (hydrogen) Alternative fuel solutions In addition to more efficient conventional systems, the use of alternative fuels and drive systems can also contribute to the reduction of CO2 output. The main alternatives to conventional fuels derived from crude oil can be differentiated on the basis of their state of aggregation at the ambient temperature and pressure. The liquid alternatives include: Synthetic diesel (Syn-Fuel). The main advantage of this fuel is its improved exhaust characteristics (PM, NOx). A disadvantage is that it does not improve the CO2 balance. Biofuels such as synthetic diesel from biomass (Sun Fuel), sulphur-free synthetic fuel produced from biomass, and the rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) known as biodiesel. These fuels have the advantage that they improve the CO2 balance. In general, these fuels can be mixed with conventional fuels, so that they do not need a separate infrastructure. The gaseous alternatives include: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) Compressed natural gas (CNG) Hydrogen (H2), which can be produced by using primary sources of energy (both renewable and fossil energy sources) In general, the gaseous fuels shown here have better exhaust emission characteristics. In addition, hydrogen can make a major contribution to reducing CO2 emissions.

11 Assessment of the various energy carriers Fuel Liquid + High energy density + Infrastructure exists + Handling + Low storage costs Gaseous - High volume weight - Range - Limited infrastructure - Handling - High storage costs Assessment of the various energy carriers The evaluation of gaseous and liquid fuels with regard to their properties, storage possibilities, infrastructures and handling at ambient temperature and pressure shows that gaseous fuels are at a major disadvantage. A major advantage of liquid fuels is their higher energy density. A comparison of diesel fuel and CNG shows that even at a pressure of 250 bars, CNG occupies four times more volume than does diesel (hydrogen occupies 16 times more volume). As a result, the tanks of vehicles using gaseous fuels have to be four to sixteen times larger than those of other vehicles in order to carry the same amount of energy. In addition to offering a higher energy density, liquid fuels also have the advantage of lower storage costs. In Germany, gas-powered vehicles require special, TÜV-approved tanks that are expensive to procure and maintain. Compared to gaseous fuels, liquid fuels also have the advantage that an extensive infrastructure already exists for their use and that the handling of diesel has been widely tested in everyday practice.

12 Conclusion Use Long-distance haulage Power train Combustion engine Increased efficiency Fuel Diesel Clear diesel Syn-Diesel from petroleum Admixture of biofuels Short-radius distribution Combustion engine Possibly mild hybrid Fuel Cell Precondition: passenger car technology Diesel Natural gas Hydrogen Local public transport Conclusion Conventional diesel engines will have to be improved further in the future, as there are no economically feasible alternatives to diesel fuel on the horizon for long-distance haulage. A number of interrelated measures, including higher vehicle weights, an optimised drive train, telematics systems and other concepts will have to be used to achieve optimum results for each area of application. The partial substitution of fossil fuels through the admixture of Syn- Fuels or biofuels / Sun Fuels will lead to a desirable decline in the demand for crude oil and some reduction in CO2 emissions. There is considerable potential for using alternative gaseous fuels such as natural gas (CNG/LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in delivery vehicles and local public transport, due to the fuels lower pollutant emissions and high availability worldwide. In fact, these fuels are already being reliably employed today. At least in urban areas, the long-term trend will be towards the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, as this fuel is carbon-free and not dependent on finite resources. However, this will require that the hydrogen is produced with the help of renewable sources of energy. The two most suitable drive systems for hydrogen are: Cost-efficient combustion engines with internal mixture formation

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