1 The Convergence of Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Vehicles Kevin Martin, Ph.D
2 Climate Change 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recommended that global warming limit of 2 C or below (relative to pre-industrial levels) 60% reduction in CO 2 emissions compared to 1990 levels by 2050 EU is working towards a 80% reduction by IPCC developed a carbon budget concept (66% Chance to Maintain + 2 o C) At current rates we have about ~ 25 years left before we reached our limit for the world M Meinshausen et al. Nature 458, (2009)
3 Where does the CO 2 come from? World CO 2 Emissions by Sector in % 6% 20% Industry Transport Electricity and heat Other 22% Residential 41%
4 U.S. Electricity Generation by Source Hydropower 7% Renewables 6% Petroleum 1% Nuclear 19% Coal 39% Other Gases 1% Natural Gas 27% Renewables = Wind 4.13% Biomass 1.48% Geothermal 0.41% Solar 0.23%
5 Carbon Intensity In 2000, the carbon intensity of U.S. electricity production coal thermal combustion 2,249 lbs/mwh (1,029 kg/mwh) of CO 2 oil thermal generation 1,672 lb/mwh (758 kg/mwh) of CO 2 natural gas thermal production was 1,135 lb/mwh (515 kg/mwh) of CO 2 ~50% cut by switching to natural gas
6 Where does the energy go? Units are in Quads. 1 Quad is equal to 293 billion kwh or 8 billion gallons of gasoline U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2011, Tables 1.3, 2.1b-2.1f, 10.3, and 10.4.
7 Look at the Losses!!!
8 Renewable Energy Potential
9 U.S. Wind Resource Class 3 winds or winds in excess of 6.4 m/s tend to be economically viable
10 Wind Energy Capacity U.S added 3,600 MW
11 Cost of Generation EIA, Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2013
12 Wind Electricity Prices
13 Building Integrated Wind Bahrain World Trade Center (3) 95 ft diameter turbines 10-15% of power for both towers 3.5% of total cost of construction
14 Building Integrated Wind 2010 Strata Tower, London First building with built in wind turbines 482 Feet with 35 mph wind gusts 8% of building electricity 29 ft diameter turbine 19kW each 5 blade design to reduce noise Building designed to create Venturi effect 50 MWh annual production Building Front
15 Building Integrated Wind Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation Oklahoma City World's Largest Rooftop Wind Farm 18 turbines 4.5 kw Each Turbine Height 18.5 ft
16 Emerging Wind Applications Denmark targets 50% Wind Power by 2020 Germany targets 45% by 2025 and 80% by 2050
17 Solar Energy Potential If 0.8% of the world s desert area (or 80,700 km 2 ) were covered with 10% efficient modules that would equal nearly the total world electricity consumption of TWh in 2008 However, cumulative installation of PV panels to date is only 25 km 2 14 MW solar PV power plant built outside of Nellis Air Force Base in the Nevada Desert.
18 Solar Power Production Average Total Irradiance Per Day For A Tilt-Latitude Collector
19 Solar Prices Leading Chinese solar companies have decreased from around $1.31/W in 2011 $0.50/W in 2014 (60% decrease) Primarily due to the reduction in processing costs, the fall in polysilicon costs and improvement in conversion efficiencies. Total costs could fall another 30-40% over the next couple years Greatest cost reductions are likely to come from the residential segments as scale and operating efficiencies improve
20 Price Parity with Grid Currently - 10 States States Solar Electricity Prices
21 March 17, 2015 Solar Energy News SunShot Prize: Race to 7 Day Solar Implement creative solutions to cut the permit-toplug-in time toward seven days for small PV systems up to 100 kilowatts, or seven weeks for large PV systems up to 1 megawatt. Currently, can take six months for even small projects.
22 Transportation and GHGs Highway Vehicles (Cars, Buses, Light/Heavy Trucks) 86% of all transportation petroleum use in U.S. 84% transportation GHG 45% of all petroleum use in U.S.
23 Vehicle Predictions
24 GHG Pollution Projected greenhouse gases for different alternative vehicle scenarios over the 21st century for the US light duty vehicle fleet, assuming that both the electrical grid and hydrogen production reduce their carbon footprints over time. Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 34 (2009)
25 Battery Electric Vehicles Nissan Leaf $29, miles electric range Tesla Model S $71, miles electric range
26 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles BMW i3 80 miles electric $42, miles with range extender $47,200 Toyota Prius PHEV $30, miles electric 540 miles with range extender Chevy Volt $34, miles electric 380 miles with range extender
27 Electric Grid and Vehicles Connect? The Elektron Solar installation in Baldwin, CA lot would generate annual electricity output worth about $350
28 Electric Vehicle Charging AC Level 1 Charging AC Level 1 EVSE (often referred to simply as Level 1) provides charging through a 120 volt (V) AC plug and requires electrical installation per the National Electrical Code. 8 hours of charging at 120V can replenish 40 miles of electric range, which is over 30% further than the average daily driving distance for vehicle owners in the United States
29 Electric Vehicle Charging AC Level 2 Charging AC Level 2 equipment (often referred to simply as Level 2) offers charging through 240 V (typical in residential applications) or 208 V (typical in commercial applications) electrical service. AC Level 2 EVSE requires installation of home charging or public charging equipment and a dedicated circuit of 20 to 100 amps, depending on the EVSE requirements. This charging option can operate at up to 80 amperes and 19.2 kw. However, most residential AC Level 2 EVSE will operate at lower power. Many such units operate at up to 30 amperes, delivering 7.2 kw of power. These units require a dedicated 40 amp circuit.
30 Electric Vehicle Charging Future AC Charging Options An additional standard (SAE J3068) is under development for higher rates of AC charging using three-phase power, which is common at commercial and industrial locations in the United States. The standard will target power levels between 6kW and 130kW.
31 Electric Vehicle Charging DC Fast Charging Direct-current (DC) fast charging equipment, sometimes called DC Level 2 (typically 208/480 V AC three-phase input), enables rapid charging along heavy traffic corridors and at public stations. EVs equipped with either a CHAdeMO or SAE DC fast charge receptacle can add 50 to 70 miles of range in about 20 minutes.
32 Electric Vehicle Charging Inductive Charging Inductive charging equipment, which uses an electromagnetic field to transfer electricity to a PEV without a cord, has been recently introduced commercially for installation as an aftermarket add-on. Currently available wireless charging stations operate at power levels comparable to AC Level 2.
33 Which plug to use? Any vehicle with this plug receptacle should be able to use any SAE J1772-compliant AC Level 1 or AC Level 2 EVSE.
34 Which plug to use?
35 Which plug to use? Combo 1 Combo 2
36 Which plug to use? The current Supercharges out there deliver up to 120 kw. (~400V, ~250A) miles in 30 minutes 5-10 minute charge would theoretically take 720 kw charger
37 What about Hydrogen? Linde and Siemens team up to convert excess wind into hydrogen Up to 6 MW of power conversion in 2015 Open in 2011
38 Hydrogen Pathways
39 Electrolysis 1 kg of Hydrogen = 1 gallon of gasoline ( in terms of energy content) Wind powered electrolysis, as low as, Short Term $5.55/kg Long Term $2.27/kg
40 Fuel Cell When used in a vehicle, roughly twice the fuel economy than a standard vehicle Jan 28, 2013 Daimler, Ford, Nissan enlarge partnership to bring fuel cell vehicles to mass market as early as 2017 Jul 25, 2008 Honda started limited leasing of FCX Clarity for $600/month Fall 2007 GM begins deployment of 119 fuel cell vehicles To date, over 2.5 million miles driven Capable of deployment in time frame 1968 GM Announces World s First Operational Fuel Cell Powered Vehicle
42 Hawaii Is Leading the Way
43 Vehicle to Grid Honda testing vehicle to grid with Honda FCV Provides up to 6 days of power Smith Electric Partners with DOD Power Factor Correction Peak Power Shaving Frequency Regulation miles range kwh Battery
44 Waste Water Treatment Plant Palmdale Water Reclamation Plant (2004) Los Angeles County, CA 9.5 MM gal/day waster water treatment plant King County Treatment Plant (2004) Renton, WA 86 MM gal/day waster water treatment plant 30 MM gal/day used to power a 1MW Digester produced 11,500 ft 3 /day of biogas 250 kw molten carbonate fuel cell installed $1.9 MM Cost Uses 70-80% of produced gas to generate 225 kw Heat recovery unit provides heat to the digesters Net thermal and electrical efficiency is 73% $227,000 annual savings 1.7 MM Btu s of heat recovery 44% electrical efficiency 64% thermal efficiency Reduced power costs by 15% 93% availability
45 Stationary Power In AT&T announced that it will purchase an additional 9.6 MW of Bloom fuel cells, making AT&T Bloom s largest non-utility consumer with more than 17 MW at 28 sites in California and Connecticut. Apple increased its initial 4.8 MW order to 10 MW to help power a new data center in Maiden, North Carolina. ebay Inc. announced plans to install 30 Bloom fuel cells (6 MW) in a new data center. Each of the 30 fuel cells will generate 1.75 million kwh of electricity annually and will displace the need for large and expensive backup generators and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) components, because the electric grid will be used as backup. The fuel cells will be powered by biogas. Power outages cost the U.S. $80 billion every year Bloom Energy Bloom Box
46 Sprint Takes Fuel Cells to Rooftops Sprint Started using fuel cells in 2009 expanding to rooftop installations in 2014 To date, we ve deployed approximately 500 hydrogen fuel cells in our network, said Bob Azzi, chief network officer at Sprint The solution should allow for lower network site maintenance and cleaner network energy sources and will increase network survivability during power outages. The rooftop sites in question make up probably 30 percent of Sprint s coverage area in some major metropolitan areas. One of the reasons hydrogen fuel cells are interesting to the teleco is that they are modular and relatively lightweight, which makes them simpler to install. What s more, they can be refueled from the ground, which means that fuel doesn t have to be hauled up to the roof, as would be the case with a diesel generator. Currently there are over 2,000 telecommunication systems using fuel cells for backup power in the United States
47 Fuel Cell Forklift Walmart 350 fuel cell lift trucks to work in temperatures as low as -29 C at its sustainable refrigerated distribution centers in the U.S. and Canada Annual operational savings of $269,000, far exceeding the additional capital costs of fuel cells as compared with battery-powered equipment at the Canada distribution center Potential greenhouse gas emissions reductions of up to 72%, compared to batteries charged from the grid. Coca-Cola Refreshments USA 56 fuel cells are used to power a fleet of lift trucks at its sprawling bottling and distribution center in San Leandro, CA Gained 2,000-square-feet of battery storage space for other business operations Reduced its electrical consumption by an estimated 1.6 million kwh each year and its carbon emissions by 15%
48 The Future is already here 1 kw Fuel Cell Natural Gas Powered 43,000 units have been installed in Japan. M-CHP units supply electrical power, hot water and space heating for a typical Japanese home Retail price of about US $20,000 per unit, a 30% reduction from the previous model H 2 Home Fueling Station
49 Leveraging Technology Power Systems Transportation
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