Young drivers. Drivers involved in fatal or injury crashes. Drivers involved in fatal/injury crashes per 100. per licence holders (lines)

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1 Young drivers CRASH FACTSHEET 2012 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2011 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In 2011 young drivers aged were involved in 80 fatal traffic crashes, 544 serious injury crashes and 2,906 minor injury crashes. Of these crashes, the year-old drivers had the primary responsibility 1 in 71 of the fatal crashes, 439 of the serious injury crashes and 2,222 of the minor injury crashes. These crashes resulted in 80 deaths, 585 serious injuries and 3,198 minor injuries. 2 The total social cost of the crashes in which year-old drivers had the primary responsibility was $816 million. This is 27 percent of the social cost associated with all injury crashes. The graph below (from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey 3 ) shows that male drivers in the year age group are approximately nine times more likely to crash (per 100 million kilometres driven) than male drivers in the lowest risk age group of years. Female drivers aged have a lower crash risk than males of the same age, but are still seven times more likely to crash (per 100 million kilometres driven) than female drivers in the lowest risk group of year-olds. Drivers in the year-old age group are approximately three to five times more likely to crash than year-old drivers of the same gender. Number of drivers involved in fatal or injury crashes per 100 million km driven (bars) and per licence holders (lines), by age and gender ( ) Drivers involved in fatal/injury crashes per 100 million km driven (bars) Female Male Female Male Age group (years) Drivers involved in fatal or injury crashes per licence holders (lines) 1 The determination of primary responsibility for a crash is based on the crash movements and crash cause factors assigned in the Crash Analysis System. It is not based on legal liability or court conviction. 2 Definitions for fatal, serious and minor injuries and social cost are given in Terminology at the end of the fact sheet. 3

2 As the graphs below illustrate, young drivers tend to be over-represented in all types of crash. Recent figures show that year-old drivers make up just 5 percent of all licensed car drivers 4. Yet, between 2009 and 2011, year-old drivers accounted for 13 percent of all drivers involved in minor injury crashes, 13 percent of drivers in serious injury crashes, and 11 percent of drivers involved in fatal crashes. Similarly, year-old drivers make up approximately 9 percent of licensed car drivers but, between 2009 and 2011, they accounted for 15 percent of drivers involved in minor injury crashes, 14 percent of drivers in serious injury crashes, and 14 percent of drivers involved in fatal crashes. Of all young drivers (15 24 years old) involved in fatal crashes between 2009 and 2011, 76 percent were male. Males accounted for 69 percent of young drivers involved in serious injury crashes and 61 percent of those involved in minor injury crashes over the same period. Young drivers as a proportion of all crash involved drivers ( ) Minor Crash severity Serious Fatal 0% 5% 10% 15% Percentage years years Percentage of all fatal crashes that involve younger drivers ( ) Age group (years) years years Urban Open road 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Percentage of fatal crashes Note: This graph includes drivers of all types of motorised vehicle, including motorcycles. A high proportion of fatal crashes involving young drivers (15 24 years old) occur on the open road. This is due to the typically high speeds on these roads, which results in a higher impact speed if a crash occurs. Thirty-four percent of all fatal crashes involve a driver between the ages of 15 and The car licence population consists of drivers with full, restricted or learner car licences. (Motor Vehicle Crashes in New Zealand, 2010)

3 Time series Drivers involved in fatal and injury crashes year-old drivers year-old drivers Fatal Injury Fatal Injury Year Number % Number % Number % Number % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Note: This table includes drivers of all types of motorised vehicle, including motorcycles. Vehicle type and gender of young drivers involved in fatal crashes year-old drivers year-old drivers Car/van Motorcycle Car/van Motorcycle Year Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total

4 Vehicle type for young drivers involved in fatal crashes year old drivers involved in fatal crashes by vehicle type ( ) Car/Van Motorcycle For the first time since 1985, there have been no year-old motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes. There has also been a 73 percent reduction in the number of year-old car drivers involved in fatal crashes. Year year old drivers involved in fatal crashes by vehicle type ( ) Car/Van Motorcycle Since 1985 there has been a 66 percent reduction in the number of year-old car drivers involved in fatal crashes, and a 91 percent reduction in the number of motorcycle riders in the same age group involved in fatal crashes Most of that drop occurred prior to Year

5 Who dies? People in the year-old age group are most likely to die in fatal crashes in which young drivers of a similar age have the primary responsibility. Between 2009 and 2011, approximately 79 percent of the passengers who died in vehicles driven by young at-fault drivers were in the year-old age group. Deaths in crashes where year-old drivers were at fault 5 ( ) Age At-fault drivers At-fault drivers passengers Other road users Total Note: The table includes drivers of all types of motorised vehicle, including motorcycles. When do young driver crashes occur? Young drivers tend to be disproportionately represented in fatal crashes at night. For example, between 2009 and 2011, over 50 percent of fatal crashes occurring on Friday and Saturday nights involved a young driver, whereas only 26 percent of daytime crashes involved a young driver. Day involving year-old drivers by time of day and day of week ( ) Day ( ) Evening ( ) Night ( ) involving young drivers % all fatal crashes involving young drivers % all fatal crashes involving young drivers % all fatal crashes Monday 16 23% 6 38% 4 33% Tuesday 14 20% 7 35% 6 32% Wednesday 16 22% 6 30% 16 48% Thursday 19 25% 10 38% 14 54% Friday 20 27% 13 37% 27 55% Saturday 23 28% 9 29% 41 56% Sunday 29 35% 8 33% 11 55% Total % 59 34% % Note: On the day shown, night begins at 2200 and finishes the following day at At-fault drivers are those with the primary responsibility for the crash.

6 Types of crash Driver contribution to fatal crashes ( ), by age group year olds 25 + years old Too fast for conditions Lost control Alcohol Inexperience Inattention or attention diverted Failed to keep left Driver tired or fell asleep Showing off Too far left Failed to give way Alcohol/drugs, losing control and speed are the major contributing factors for young drivers involved in fatal crashes. Young drivers are more than 2.5 times as likely to have speed as a factor than drivers over the age of 25. Overtaking Did not see other party Misjudged speed, distance etc Suddenly braked or turned Illness/Disability 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Percentage of drivers Crashes which involve drivers losing control of their vehicles ( Lost control/off road on the graph below) are a major feature in crashes involving young drivers. Thirty-six percent of year-old drivers involved in fatal crashes were in single-vehicle loss of control or run off road crashes, compared with 23 percent for older drivers. In addition, many of the head-on crashes also involve drivers losing control of their vehicles. Percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes by crash movement type ( ) Overtaking or lane change Head on Lost control / off road Collision with obstruction or rear end Intersection or turning Pedestrian years 25 years and over Other 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Percentage of drivers

7 Licence status of young drivers in fatal crashes The pie graphs below show the licence status of year-old drivers involved in fatal crashes. Restricted and learner licence holders make up a large proportion of these drivers. A similar pattern occurs for year-old drivers involved in injury crashes. This reflects the high number of learner and restricted licence holders in this age group. Licence status of year old drivers involved in fatal crashes ( ) Overseas, 3% Disqualified / Forbidden, 4% Full, 28% Restricted, 32% Never licensed, 11% Learner, 21% Unknown / other, 5% Licence status of year old drivers involved in fatal crashes ( ) Overseas, 7% Disqualified / Forbidden, 8% Never licensed, 3% Full, 40% Unknown / other, 7% Learner, 12% Restricted, 23% Note: Unknown/other includes drivers with an expired, unknown or wrong licence class.

8 Terminology Fatal injuries: injuries that result in death within 30 days of the crash. Serious injuries: fractures, concussions, internal injuries, crushings, severe cuts and lacerations, severe general shock necessitating medical treatment and any other injury involving removal to and detention in hospital. Minor injuries: injuries of a minor nature such as sprains and bruises. Social cost: a measure of the total cost of road crashes to the nation. It includes: loss of life and life quality; loss of productivity; and medical, legal, court, and property damage costs. Additional Information For further information on crash statistics see Motor Vehicle Crashes in New Zealand, the annual statistical statement produced by the Ministry of Transport. This publication is online at Enquires relating to crash statistics may be directed to the Ministry of Transport, PO Box 3175, Wellington, or by at For more information about road safety, visit the Ministry of Transport website at A selection of fact sheets is available via the research section of the Ministry of Transport website. These include: Crash facts: Travel survey: Alcohol and drugs Comparing travel modes Speed Driver travel Cyclists Parking Diverted attention Walking Fatigue Cycling Motorcyclists Public transport Pedestrians Motorcycling Trucks Risk on the road Young drivers Introduction and mode comparison Drivers and their passengers Pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists

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