ROAD SAFETY ANNUAL REPORT 2018 LITHUANIA

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1 ROAD SAFETY ANNUAL REPORT 2018 LITHUANIA

2 LITHUANIA In 2017, 192 persons lost their lives in traffic crashes. Lithuania is one of the IRTAD countries that has achieved the strongest reduction in the number of road deaths in recent years. Since 2000, the number of road deaths decreased by 70%. In 2017, the mortality rate was 6.7 road deaths per population and is approaching the EU average. A new road safety strategy is under preparation and will be based on a vision of zero killed and seriously injured in traffic. Trends Lithuania s number of road deaths in 2017 stagnated following a marked decrease in In 2017, 192 persons lost their lives in traffic crashes in Lithuania, this is the same number as in In 2016, the number of reported road deaths dropped by 20.7% compared to The longer-term trend for road deaths in Lithuania has been positive. Between 1990 and 2017, the number of annual road fatalities Country Profile Population in 2016: 2.9 million GDP per capita in 2016: USD Cost of road crashes: 0.8% of GDP (2017) Road network in 2017: kilometres (urban roads 77%; rural roads 23%; motorways 0.4%) Registered motor vehicles in 2016: 1.6 million (cars 81%; goods vehicles 16%; motorcycles 2%) Speed limits: 50 km/h on urban roads; 90 km/h on rural roads; km/h on motorways) Limits on Blood Alcohol Content: 0.4 g/l for general drivers; 0.0 g/l for professional drivers, novice drivers and motorcyclists fell by 82%. The decline in the number of road safety accelerated in Within only four years, between 2007 and 2011, the number of road deaths decreased by 60%. Since 2011, the downward trend continued but at a slower pace. The number of traffic deaths per inhabitants in Lithuania fell by 77% between 1990 and In 2017, 6.7 traffic deaths per inhabitants were recorded, compared to 29.3 in Lithuania recorded 1.2 road fatalities per registered vehicles in This represents a decrease of 91% compared to the year 1990, when the rate of deaths to registered vehicles stood at In the period, the rate of road deaths per registered vehicles decreased by 64%, and by 30% in the period. INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM/OECD 2

3 Figure 1. Road safety, vehicle stock and GDP trends Index 1995 = 100 Analysis by road user group shows that more than half of road deaths are vulnerable road users. In 2017, car occupants accounted for the largest share of road deaths with 51% of the total. They were followed by pedestrians (35%), motorised twowheelers (7%) and cyclists (7%). Compared to other IRTAD countries, the share of pedestrians among road deaths is very high. Since 2010, all road users have benefited from the improvement in road safety. The largest decrease was registered among cyclists (-43.5%), pedestrians (-37%) and motorcyclists (-33%). Figure 2. Road fatalities by road user group in percentage of total, 2017 Road deaths by age group showed a strong improvement for the young population since Between 2010 and 2017, while the overall number of deaths decreased by INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM/OECD 3

4 35%, it dropped by 83% for year-olds, by 65% for year-olds and by 57% for the year old group. It decreased, but at a slower pace, for the older age groups. In particular, for the over-65 age group the number of road deaths only decreased by 19%. The age groups the most at risk in traffic are the young population aged and the older population aged 65 and above, with a mortality rate of respectively 9.2 and 9.1 road deaths per inhabitants in the same age group. While the road mortality rate of the older population has fluctuated at around the same level in the past 10 years, it has dropped considerably for the age group since Figure 3. Road fatality rates by age group, Deaths per population in a given age group Figure 4. Road fatality rate by age and road user group, 2017 Fatalities per population INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM/OECD 4

5 Analysis of fatalities by road type shows that the large majority of fatalities occur on rural roads. In 2017, 57% of road deaths occurred on rural roads and 43% on urban roads. Crashes on the rural network are more severe as speeds are higher and infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians less developed. The motorway network has not developed much, currently representing only 0.4% of the road network (i.e. around 500 km). It is, however, the safest road network and no road deaths were reported on the motorway network in Since 2010, the number of road deaths has steadily decreased on urban roads (-25%) and on rural roads (-44%). Figure 5. Road fatalities by road type Economic costs of road crashes Traffic crashes represent a significant cost for society, estimated in 2017 at around EUR 334 million, i.e. 0.8% of GDP. Costs are estimated using a capital approach method. Table 1. Costs of road crashes, 2017 Total [EUR] 2 Fatalities Injured Total million 210 million million Total as % of GDP 0.8% Source: PE Road and Transport Research Institute. Statistics of fatal and injury road accidents in Lithuania, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM/OECD 5

6 Behaviour The behaviour of road users is an important determinant of a country s road safety performance. According to police data, inappropriate speed is the main cause of traffic crashes in Lithuania. Speeding at 30 km/h above the limit is considered a serious violation, incurring severe sanctions, including immediate licence withdrawal for novice drivers. Observations in 2015 indicate that 16% to 26% of all drivers exceed the speed limit by more than 10 km/h on different types of state roads. In 2014, research showed that 33% of drivers exceed the speed limit by more than 10 km/h in urban areas. The table below summarises the main speed limits in Lithuania. Table 2. Passenger car speed limits by road type, 2018 General speed limit Comments Urban roads Rural roads 50 km/h 90 km/h (70 km/h on gravel roads) 70 km/h for novice drivers (driving experience of less than 24 months) Motorways 120 or 130 km/h (110 km/h in winter) 90 km/h for novice drivers Driving under the influence of alcohol is another major cause of road crashes in Lithuania. Nevertheless, progress has been made on this front, as between 2004 and 2015, the number of alcohol-related crashes was halved. In 2017, 7% of fatalities were caused by drink driving. The general maximum authorised blood alcohol content (BAC) in Lithuania is 0.4 g/l and since 1 May 2015, 0.0 g/l for novice drivers (less than 24 months driving experience), professional drivers, moped and motorcycle drivers. Important legislation changes entered into force in Since 1 January 2016, it is prohibited to sell alcohol in gas stations. Since 1 April 2016, driving with a BAC of 1.5 g/l and above is considered as a crime and subject to a sanction of up to one year imprisonment. Drivers that test positive for driving under the influence of drugs are subject to a fine of EUR and licence withdrawal of months. They can also be subject to days administrative arrest. In 2017, the police only reported one injury road crash with a driver under the influence of drugs. The real number of drug-related crashes is certainly higher as there is not yet a systematic process to check the presence of drugs in the case of a road crash. An increasing problem for traffic safety in Lithuania is distraction, for instance through the use of mobile phones while driving. However, there is no estimate of the number INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM/OECD 6

7 of fatal crashes due to the use of mobile phones. In Lithuania, it is not permitted to drive using a hand-held mobile phone. Hands-free mobile phones may be operated. The share of sleepiness and fatigue as a causal factor in crashes is especially challenging to detect. In Lithuania, there is no estimate of the number of fatal crashes due to drowsiness. Seat-belt wearing is compulsory in Lithuania in both front and rear seats. Children below 135 cm in height must use dedicated child restraints. Based on a 2016 survey on roads of national significance, 98% of car drivers and 97% of front seat passengers were wearing a seatbelt, while only 26% of rear seat passengers did so. Table 3. Seat belt wearing rate by car occupancy 1 Percentages Front seats General (driver + passenger) Driver Passenger Rear seats General Data refer to roads of national significance. For motorcyclists, helmet wearing is the most effective passive safety habit. In Lithuania, helmets have been compulsory for users of all of motorised two-wheelers. There is no information on the helmet-wearing rate of riders of motorised two-wheelers. Bicycle helmets are compulsory for children under 18 years old. Road safety management and strategies There are several factors of influence on Lithuania s road safety performance as captured by the above indicators. Since 1991, road safety can be analysed for the following periods: : In 1992, a significant reduction in the number of fatalities was observed immediately after the fall of the Soviet Union. The following years saw dramatic changes politically, as well as economic austerity. Nevertheless, there was a positive impact on road safety, mainly through the introduction of safer European vehicles into the market : A slight increase was seen in the number of traffic fatalities, which reached a new peak in The number of casualties then dropped over the next two years as a result of an economic crisis in neighbouring Russia. INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM/OECD 7

8 : The economic situation in Lithuania started to improve and brought a rapid increase in traffic volume, which was accompanied by a yearly increase in road traffic fatalities : An important breakthrough was achieved in 2008 with growing awareness among citizens of road safety issues and the leading role of the EU in setting a target to reduce by 50% the number of fatalities between 2001 and 2010, which many countries achieved. In 2010, Lithuania reached the EU road safety target. The economic downturn in also probably contributed to a reduction in traffic and a decrease in the number of road fatalities. In 2016, there was another important marked decrease in the number of road deaths explained partly by a total ban on alcohol sales in the gas stations. Responsibility for the organisation of road safety in Lithuania lies with the Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Lithuania, supported by the Lithuanian Road Administration. Police and municipalities are also agencies responsible for road safety. Nominated by the government, the State Traffic Safety Commission comprises representatives of state and municipal administration bodies and NGOs. The commission makes recommendations on road safety policy. The new National Traffic Safety Development Programme is under preparation after the implementation of the Programme. The new programme will be based on a vision of zero killed and seriously injured in traffic. Figure 6. Trends in road fatalities towards EU and national target Measures Road safety management As of 2018, Lithuania has started collecting injury data based on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS3+). INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM/OECD 8

9 In 2017, the Lithuanian Transport Safety administration started conducting in-depth investigations of all fatal crashes. This allows for the collection of additional information about the circumstances of crashes and design more targeted road safety measures. Speed management In 2018, Lithuania introduced section control to enforce speed limits on sections of road. As of June 2018, there were already 50 sections equipped with automated enforcement. Road users The Parliament should approve legislation in 2018 to introduce an alcohol lock programme. Since 1 January 2016, it is forbidden to sell alcohol in petrol stations. Since 1 May 2015, there is a 0.0 g/l maximum authorised BAC level for novice drivers (less than 24 months driving experience), professional drivers, moped and motorcycle drivers. Definitions, methodology, data collection Road fatality: any person killed in a traffic crash within 30 days of the crash (prior to 1995, the limit was 7 days). Injured persons: there is no official definition of slight and serious injuries. Nevertheless, in 2015 police reported the number of traffic injuries by severity, based on health sector definitions: Seriously injured: persons suffering a road injury entailing an irreversible mutilation of one part of the body or a loss of more than 30% of working capacity; Lightly injured: persons suffering a road injury for more than 10 days, or a loss of working capacity between 5 and 30%; Slightly injured: persons suffering a road injury for less than 10 days or a loss of working capacity inferior to 5%. Lithuania will start collecting serious injury data based on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale of three or more (MAIS3+) in Traffic police collect and manage most crash data in Lithuania. Hospitals and insurance companies also have data on some crashes. There is no estimate of under-reporting. According to the police, nearly 100% of injury crash data are collected and recorded in the police database. Information about the severity of an injury is defined in only 65% of injury crashes. Road safety experts lack information to help identify the causes of INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM/OECD 9

10 crashes. Information on road user behaviour is also limited, and information on injury type is not systematically recorded. Resources Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Lithuania: Road and Transport Research Institute: Lithuanian Road Administration: State Enterprise Regitra: INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM/OECD 10

11 Road safety and traffic data 2016 % change over Reported safety data Fatalities % -35.8% -70.0% -82.2% 192 Injury crashes % -9.3% -44.9% -37.7% Deaths per population Deaths per registered vehicles % -30.2% -63.6% -77.3% % -14.7% -76.1% -90.7% 1.3 Fatalities by road user Pedestrians % -32.4% Cyclists % -26.1% Moped riders % % Motorcyclists % -6.7% Passenger car occupants % -35.4% Other road users % -80.0% Fatalities by age group 0-14 years % -20.0% years % -50.0% years % -71.4% years % -53.8% years % -30.1% years % years % -24.1% Fatalities by road type Urban roads % -17.6% Rural roads % -44.0% Motorways % 0.0% Traffic data Registered vehicles (thousands) Registered vehicles per population % -24.7% 25.5% 90.2% % -18.1% 52.6% 143.2% INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM/OECD 11

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