Exercise 4-1. Flowmeters EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Rotameters. How do rotameter tubes work?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Exercise 4-1. Flowmeters EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Rotameters. How do rotameter tubes work?"

Transcription

1 Exercise 4-1 Flowmeters EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Learn the basics of differential pressure flowmeters via the use of a Venturi tube and learn how to safely connect (and disconnect) a differential pressure flowmeter to (and from) a running process using a three-valve manifold. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Rotameters How do rotameter tubes work? Correct installation of rotameters. Advantages and limitations of rotameters. Venturi tubes How do Venturi tubes work? Permanent pressure loss. Correct installation of Venturi tubes. Advantages and limitations of Venturi tubes. Three-valve manifold How to connect a differential-pressure transmitter to a flowmeter. How to disconnect a differential-pressure transmitter from a flowmeter. DISCUSSION Rotameters Rotameters belong to the variable-area flowmeters category. That is, flowmeters that allow the fluid to flow through a cross-sectional area that varies with the flow rate. A typical rotameter consists of a tapered metering tube. Rotameters are usually made of glass, although some are made of stainless steel to resist higher pressure and temperature. Inside the rotameter tube, there is a metering float (also called a bob) usually made of a metal such as brass or stainless steel. When liquid flows in the rotameter, the height of the float varies with the flow rate. Glass rotameters provide a direct reading of the flow rate by allowing the user to look at the float through the glass tube. Metal rotameters are equipped with a pointer indicator for reading measurement values. How do rotameter tubes work? Rotameters take advantage of the weight of the float for the measurement of the flow rate of fluids. Therefore, the only way to install a rotameter is vertically, so that the float rests at the bottom of the tube when no fluid flows through the meter. When a fluid flows from the bottom to the top of the rotameter, it pushes the metering float until the weight of the metering float, the buoyancy, and the drag force are at equilibrium. The higher the flow rate, the higher the level of the float. An annular passage between the float and the wall of the tube allows fluid to pass. The tapered shape of the tube allows this annular cross-sectional area to increase as the fluid pushes the float upward. This keeps the pressure loss across the rotameter nearly constant as the flow rate increases. Festo Didactic

2 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Discussion Manufacturers design the rotameter tube and the float for a specific fluid. The weight and shape of the float is important in the design of the rotameter. The manufacturer must adapt the design of the instrument to the density, specific gravity, and dynamic viscosity of a specific fluid (for example water). Floats come in various shapes and, depending on the float shape, the user reads the flow rate either when the top of the float or when the reading mark on the float is in line with the tube scale. The float is either free to move sideways as well as vertically in the rotameter tube or a rod may restrict its motion and allow it to slide only up and down. If the float is free to move, the manufacturer adds some special grooves to its design, so that it rotates at a frequency of about 1 Hz to improve the stability of the float. It is from the rotation of the float that the rotameter takes its name. Figure 4-8 shows a typical rotameter. Figure 4-8. Typical rotameter. Correct installation of rotameters Because of their design, you must always install rotameters vertically, with the small end of the tapered tube at the bottom. The bottom of the rotameter is the inlet. The fluid must flow from the inlet to the top of the rotameter so that the fluid pushes the float upward. Always avoid installing a valve that may create a sudden burst of pressure in the rotameter and cause the float to strike the float stop. Glass or acrylic rotameters are sensitive to vibrations and heavy loads. On industrial installations, always install rotameters using the appropriate supports. Rotameters are also limited in pressure and temperature. Make sure your process cannot exceed the physical limitations of your rotameter. Advantages and limitations of rotameters Rotameters are easy to use, they cause a small constant pressure loss, and they do not require any power supply to operate. Their construction is robust and simple and they offer high reliability. The accuracy of most rotameters is usually within 2% of their full scale. If the manufacturer has not indicated the accuracy on the instrument, you can assume that it is plus or minus half of the smallest division. Rotameters are inexpensive when compared to other types of flowmeters and they require almost no maintenance over their relatively long operating lives. 66 Festo Didactic

3 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Discussion On the other hand, rotameters can only operate in a vertical position since their working principle relies on gravity. The design and the graduation of a rotameter are always specific to a fluid, a range of temperature, and a range of pressure. If the temperature or the pressure of the process fluid changes, its density and viscosity also change and large measurement errors may occur. Another disadvantage of rotameters is that most of them provide only a visual indication of the volumetric flow rate. Therefore, it is impossible to use a rotameter for closed-loop control of the flow rate, unless a magnetic coupling is used to sense and transmit the position of the float to the controller. Venturi tubes A Venturi tube is a differential pressure flowmeter; it is the oldest and the most accurate type of differential pressure flowmeter. Clemens Herschel ( ) designed the first Venturi tube in Herschel based his design on principles derived from the Bernoulli equation. Venturi tubes sticking to this first design are sometimes referred to as classic Venturi tubes or Herschel Venturi tubes. The design of Venturi tubes has been fine-tuned over the years to reduce the cost and shorten the laying length. The short form Venturi tube was first introduced in the 1950 s. The Venturi tube provided with your system is a short form Venturi with a low permanent pressure-loss design. Figure 4-9 shows a Venturi tube similar to the one provided with the Instrumentation and Process Control Training System. It consists of a cylindrical inlet section, a convergent section, a throat, a divergent section, and a cylindrical outlet section. The ends of the Venturi have National Pipe Threads (NPT) to avoid leakage where the Venturi connects to the PVC pipes. Low-pressure port High-pressure port Low-pressure port Divergent section Flow NPT NPT Inlet Convergent section Outlet Throat Figure 4-9. Typical Venturi tube design. Festo Didactic

4 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Discussion How do Venturi tubes work? Like all differential pressure flowmeters, the Venturi tube operates by restricting the area through which the liquid flows in order to produce a pressure drop. The pressure drop ( P) is measured between a high-pressure tap (H), located upstream of the convergent section, and a low-pressure (L) tap, located at the middle of the throat. Figure 4-10 shows the main steps of flow measurement using a Venturi tube. The built-in taps of the Venturi tube allow the measurement of a difference in the static pressure. You cannot measure a dynamic pressure using this kind of taps. To measure the dynamic pressure, you must use a Pitot tube. Flow Figure Flow measurement using a Venturi tube. The fluid enters the straight inlet section and a pressure transmitter measures the static pressure at the high-pressure tap. The fluid continues to the convergent section where the Venturi cross-section reduces gradually. This causes the velocity of the fluid to increase and the static pressure to decrease. A second tap allows pressure measurement at the center of the throat, the narrowest section of the Venturi. The flow rate of the fluid can be calculated from the static pressure drop between the high and the low pressure taps. The divergent section of the Venturi allows the fluid velocity to decrease and the pressure to recover most of its initial level. There is only a small permanent pressure loss over the Venturi. Like other differential pressure flowmeters, the Venturi tube is characterized by its ratio (beta ratio). The ratio of a Venturi tube is the ratio of the diameter of the throat (d) to the diameter of the inlet section (D). Since is a ratio of two diameters, it is dimensionless. The Venturi tube provided with the system has a ratio of The following equation is used to calculate the flow rate Q using the pressure differential between the high-pressure tap and the low-pressure tap: (4-10) where is the volumetric flow rate is the discharge coefficient, which takes into account the magnitude of the restriction and the frictional losses through this restriction is the throat area, is the pressure differential between the high and low pressure taps is the fluid density is the ratio, 68 Festo Didactic

5 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Discussion Permanent pressure loss Because Venturi tubes have no sharp edges or corners, unlike orifice plates, they allow the liquid to flow smoothly, which minimizes friction. However, friction cannot be eliminated altogether, so there is always a permanent pressure loss across the Venturi tube. The permanent pressure loss of a Venturi tube is typically between 10% and 25% of the pressure drop it produces. The permanent pressure loss of differential pressure flowmeters, such as Venturi tubes, is usually defined as the ratio of the pressure differential between the inlet and outlet of the instrument and the differential pressure between the high pressure and low pressure ports of the flowmeter: (4-11) where is the percentage of permanent pressure loss of the differential pressure flowmeter is the pressure differential between the inlet and outlet of the flowmeter is the pressure differential between the high pressure and low pressure ports of the flowmeter The permanent pressure loss of a Venturi tube depends both on its ratio and on the angle of divergence of its outlet section. Some Venturis have a lowpressure loss design, which minimizes the pressure loss. When it comes to the reduction of the permanent pressure loss of a Venturi, the manufacturer has two main options: The permanent pressure loss in a Venturi is inversely proportional to the ratio. The manufacturer can increase the ratio to decrease the permanent pressure loss. To increase the ratio, the manufacturer can either increase the diameter of the throat or reduce the diameter of the inlet section. The permanent pressure loss in a Venturi is directly proportional to the angle of divergence of the outlet section. The manufacturer can design a Venturi with a small angle at the outlet cone in order to reduce the permanent pressure loss. However, reducing the angle of the outlet cone increases the length of the outlet section. The Venturi tube provided with the system is a good compromise between the two solutions. It has a high ratio, which reduces the pressure loss. On the other hand, it has a large outlet-cone angle compared to a Herschel Venturi, which reduces its laying length but slightly increases the permanent pressure loss. Festo Didactic

6 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Discussion Correct installation of Venturi tubes Figure Pressure port position for air-flow measurement. Figure Pressure port position for liquid-flow measurement As for most flowmeters, a minimum length of straight pipe run must be present before and after a Venturi tube. This minimizes the effect of turbulences on the measurement. For a Venturi tube, the worst-case scenario is an installation where two elbows in different planes are present before the tube. This type of setup may require a straight pipe run of at least 20 times the diameter of the pipe before the Venturi tube. In such a case, a straight pipe run of 4 times the diameter of the pipe must be located after the flowmeter. Venturi tubes also require a fully developed turbulent flow to produce accurate results. If an application requires a laminar or transitional flow to be measured, you will have to rely on a more sophisticated type of instrument such as a magnetic flowmeter or a mass flowmeter to measure the flow rate. The differential-pressure transmitter used to measure the pressure differential between the ports of the Venturi tube must be located as close as possible to the flowmeter. For a horizontal installation to measure a gas flow, the pressure ports of the Venturi should be on the top (Figure 4-11). For a horizontal installation to measure a liquid flow, the Venturi tube should be positioned so that its pressure ports are on the side (Figure 4-12). This prevents air from entering in the impulse lines and dirt from blocking the pressure ports. Advantages and limitations of Venturi tubes Venturi tubes are highly accurate; they recover most of the pressure drop they produce, and they are less susceptible to erosion than orifice plates because of their smoother contour. Moreover, Venturi tubes can generally be used in slurry processes, because their gradually sloping shape allows solids to flow through. However, Venturi tubes are relatively expensive and they require the use of a differential-pressure transmitter, which contributes to the total cost of the flow measurement setup. They tend to be voluminous, and they may be difficult to install. Venturi tubes also require a certain length of straight pipe both upstream and downstream to ensure a flow that is undisturbed by fittings, valves, or other equipment. However, the required pipe lengths are shorter than those required for orifice plates. Three-valve manifold Differential pressure flowmeters such as Venturi tubes or orifice plates require a differential-pressure transmitter for flow measurement. In most industrial applications, the differential-pressure transmitter must be connected to the flowmeter without stopping the process. If the pipe pressure is high, the transmitter may be damaged if it is not connected correctly. Because of their design, most differential-pressure transmitters cannot withstand high pressure being applied only on one side of their sensing diaphragm or capsule. Applying too much pressure on the sensing cell of the transmitter is called overranging. To avoid overranging the sensing cell, an equal pressure must be applied on both sides of the transmitter when connecting it to the flowmeter. A three-valve manifold is a simple device used for this purpose. Using a three-valve manifold isolates the differential-pressure transmitter from the process, avoids overranging, and allows the zero of the transmitter to be set. 70 Festo Didactic

7 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Discussion Figure 4-13 shows how a three-valve manifold is connected to a differentialpressure transmitter. To the lowpressure port of the flow meter To the highpressure port of the flow meter Equalizing valve Three-valve manifold Low-pressure block valve High-pressure block valve Figure Three-valve manifold connected to a differential-pressure transmitter. How to connect a differential-pressure transmitter to a flowmeter Table 4-1 below lists the operational sequence for connecting a differentialpressure transmitter to a differential pressure flowmeter via a three-valve manifold. This sequence details how to install and set the zero of the transmitter while the process is running. Table 4-1. Using a three-valve manifold to connect a differential-pressure transmitter to a process. 1 Make sure the valves of the three-valve manifold are closed. Connect the differential-pressure transmitter in parallel with the equalizing valve as shown in the figure on the right. 2 Open the equalizing valve to allow pressure to equalize on both sides of the transmitter. At this point, the differential pressure read by the transmitter is zero. Set the zero of the differential transmitter. 3 Slowly open the high-pressure block valve of the three-valve manifold. Since the manifold applies the same pressure on both sides of the transmitter, there is no risk of overranging the sensing cell. Make sure there are no leaks in the connections to the transmitter. Festo Didactic

8 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Discussion 4 Close the equalizing valve to isolate the two sides of the transmitter. 5 Open the low-pressure block valve of the manifold. The transmitter now reads the pressure differential between the high and low pressure ports of the flowmeter. Bleeding the differentialpressure transmitter may modify the zero. To make sure that the zero is set correctly, you may have to follow the steps in Table 4-2 to isolate the transmitter from the process and repeat the steps in Table 4-1 to set the zero again. Once the transmitter is connected to the differential pressure flowmeter, you still have to bleed the transmitter and configure it for flow measurement as the Familiarization with the Training System manual specifies. How to disconnect a differential-pressure transmitter from a flowmeter To safely disconnect a differential-pressure transmitter for maintenance, without stopping the process, follow the steps in Table 4-2 au-dessous. Table 4-2. Using a three-valve manifold to disconnect a differential-pressure transmitter from a process. 1 Close the low-pressure block valve of the manifold. The equalizing valve should already be closed since the transmitter was in service. 2 Open the equalizing valve to apply the same pressure on both sides of the transmitter. 3 Close the high-pressure block valve to isolate the transmitter from the process. Be careful, the lines and the transmitter are still pressurized. Carefully loosen one of the vent valves of the transmitter to release pressure before removing the transmitter. The two sequences above are not the only possible sequences for connecting and disconnecting a differential-pressure transmitter from a process. The operational sequences may vary from one application to another. On an industrial site, the setup shown in Figure 4-13 can also include drain valves, shutoff valves, or separators. Sometimes the manufacturer of the differential-pressure transmitter details how to safely connect and disconnect the device. 72 Festo Didactic

9 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Procedure Outline PROCEDURE OUTLINE The Procedure is divided into the following sections: Setup and connections Permanent pressure loss across the Venturi tube Pressure differential between the high and low pressure taps of the Venturi tube Measuring flow rates using a Venturi tube PROCEDURE Setup and connections 1. Connect the equipment as the piping and instrumentation diagram of Figure 4-14 shows and use Figure 4-15 to position the equipment correctly on the frame of the training system. Use the basic setup presented in the Familiarization with the Training System manual 1. Table 4-3 lists the equipment you must add to the basic setup in order to set up your system for this exercise. Table 4-3. Devices required for this exercise. Name Model Identification Differential-pressure transmitter (high-pressure range) PDI 2 Differential-pressure transmitter (low-pressure range) PDI 1/FI 1 Solenoid valve S Electrical unit Pneumatic unit Venturi tube FE 1 Accessories Three-valve manifold Calibrator This exercise does not require the column. Festo Didactic

10 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Procedure Calibrator (4-20 ma) 24 V from the Electrical Unit Figure P&ID. 74 Festo Didactic

11 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Procedure Figure Setup. 2. In this exercise, you will control the flow rate in the system using a hand valve instead of the control valve. Therefore, there is no need to connect the control valve to the pneumatic unit since it is a fail-open valve. However, if you want to control the flow rate using the control valve, connect your control valve as required and connect the pneumatic unit to a dry-air source with an output pressure of at least 700 kpa (100 psi). 3. Wire the emergency push-button so that you can cut power in case of an emergency. 4. Do not power up the instrumentation workstation before your instructor has validated your setup. 5. Connect the solenoid valve so that a voltage of 24 V dc actuates the solenoid when you turn the power on. Festo Didactic

12 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Procedure 6. Be sure to install both differential-pressure transmitters under the Venturi tube. 7. Before proceeding further, complete the following checklist to make sure you have set up the system properly. The points on this checklist are crucial elements for the proper completion of this exercise. This checklist is not exhaustive, be sure to follow the instructions in the Familiarization with the Training System manual as well. f The solenoid valve is wired so that the valve opens when the system is turned on. The hand valves are in the positions shown in the P&ID. The control valve is fully open. The current to pressure converter is properly configured. The pneumatic connections are correct. The differential-pressure transmitters are installed correctly. 8. Ask your instructor to check and approve your setup. 9. Power up the electrical unit. 10. Test your system for leaks. Use the drive to make the pump run at low speed in order to produce a small flow rate. Gradually increase the flow rate, up to 50% of the maximum flow rate the pumping unit can deliver. Repair all leaks. 11. Fill the pipes completely with water and bleed both differential-pressure transmitters. 12. Configure the differential-pressure transmitters so that they give pressure readings in the desired units. 13. Adjust the zero of both transmitters to read a pressure of 0 kpa (0 psi) when there is no flow. You do not have to use the three-valve manifold now. You will have time to familiarize yourself with the three-valve manifold in the second part of this exercise. Permanent pressure loss across the Venturi tube 14. Set the pump to its maximum speed and use the ball valve HV2 under the rotameter to adjust the flow rate to 16 L/min (5 gal/min). Record the pressure differential between the inlet and outlet of the Venturi tube ( ) and the 76 Festo Didactic

13 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Procedure pressure differential between the high pressure and low pressure ports of the Venturi tube ( ) in Table 4-4. Table 4-4. Pressure loss caused by the Venturi tube for different flow rates. Flow rate L/min (gal/min) PIO kpa (psi) PHL kpa (psi) Loss % 16 (5) 15. Use the ball valve HV2 to increase the flow rate by steps of 4 L/min (or 1 gal/min) until you reach 60 L/min (15 gal/min). For each flow rate, record the differential pressure read by both transmitters in Table Compare the permanent pressure loss across the Venturi tube ( ) to the permanent pressure loss across the control valve (see Table 3-6). Which of these produces the higher pressure loss? 17. For each flow rate, calculate the percentage of permanent pressure loss caused by the Venturi tube and record it in Table Plot a graph of the percentage of permanent pressure loss across the Venturi tube as a function of the flow rate. 19. Fully open the ball valve (HV2). Festo Didactic

14 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Procedure Pressure differential between the high and low pressure taps of the Venturi tube 20. Equation (4-10) shows that the flow rate,, is proportional to the square root of pressure drop across the pressure taps of the Venturi tube,. This exercise shows you how to configure the differential-pressure transmitter to measure a flow rate using a Venturi tube. However, before measuring a flow rate using the Venturi tube, you will measure the pressure drop across the Venturi tube for different flow rates in order to check the relationship given in Equation (4-10). 21. Make sure the pump is still running and use the ball valve HV2 to adjust the flow rate to 20 L/min (5 gal/min). 22. Use the three-valve manifold to set the zero of the differential-pressure transmitter. Refer to the Three-Valve Manifold section of the Familiarization with the Training System manual if required. 23. Figure 4-16 and Figure 4-17 show how you should connect your system to measure a flow using the Venturi tube. Calibrator (4-20 ma) 24 V from the Electrical Unit Figure P&ID. 78 Festo Didactic

15 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Procedure Figure Setup. 24. Use the ball valve HV2 to adjust the flow rate to 4 L/min (1 gal/min). Festo Didactic

16 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Procedure 25. On the differential-pressure transmitter, read the pressure differential across the Venturi tube taps for this flow. Make sure the flow rate and the pressure are stable before recording the pressure drop value in Table 4-5. Table 4-5. Pressure differential across the Venturi tube taps for different flow rates. Flow rate L/min (gal/min) 4 (1) P kpa (psi) ( P)½ kpa½ (psi½) 26. Use the ball valve HV2 to increase the flow rate by steps of 2 L/min (or 1 gal/min) until you reach 40 L/min (19 gal/min). For each flow rate, record the pressure drop across the pressure taps of the Venturi tube in Table Plot a graph of the pressure drop across the control valve as a function of the flow rate using the data in Table Calculate the square root of the pressure drop for each flow rate and fill in the appropriate column of Table 4-5 with the results. 29. Plot a graph of the square root of the pressure drop as a function of the flow rate using the data in Table Festo Didactic

17 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Procedure 30. Referring to this graph, does the relationship between the flow rate and the square root of the pressure drop look linear? Measuring flow rates using a Venturi tube 31. Configure the differential-pressure transmitter for flow rate measurement. Refer to the Familiarization with the Training System manual for details. 32. Use the ball valve HV2 to adjust the flow rate so that the rotameter reading is 4 L/min (1 gal/min). 33. In Table 4-6, record the flow rate reading of the differential-pressure transmitter. Table 4-6. Differential-pressure transmitter and rotameter flow rate reading. Flow rate (Rotameter) L/min (gal/min) 4 (1) Flow rate (Venturi tube) L/min (gal/min) 34. Use the ball valve HV2 to increase the flow rate (as read on the rotameter) by steps of 4 L/min (or 1 gal/min) until you reach 40 L/min (10 gal/min). For Festo Didactic

18 Ex. 4-1 Flowmeters Conclusion each flow rate, record the flow rate reading of the differential-pressure transmitter in Table Compare the flow rate reading of the differential-transmitter to the flow rate reading of the rotameter. 36. Use the main switch to cut the power to the Instrumentation and Process Control Training System. CONCLUSION In this exercise, you measured the percentage of permanent pressure loss caused by a Venturi tube. You compared the pressure loss caused by the Venturi tube to the pressure loss caused by a control valve. You have confirmed that the flow rate is proportional to the square root of the pressure drop between the high and low pressure port of a Venturi tube. You also learned how to properly connect a differential-pressure transmitter to a system while the process is running and how to use this same transmitter to measure the flow rate directly using a Venturi tube. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Why must you install rotameters vertically? 2. Which characteristics of a fluid have an influence on the design of a rotameter? 3. To which class of flowmeters do the Venturi tubes belong? 4. Name three advantages of Venturi tubes. 5. Name one function of a three-valve manifold. 82 Festo Didactic

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Centrifugal pumps in series Centrifugal pumps in parallel. Centrifugal pumps in series

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Centrifugal pumps in series Centrifugal pumps in parallel. Centrifugal pumps in series Exercise 2-4 Centrifugal Pumps in Series and in Parallel (Optional Exercise) EXERCISE OBJECTIVE In this exercise, you will observe the effects that connecting two centrifugal pumps in series or parallel

More information

Basic Thermal Energy Transfer with a Heat Exchanger

Basic Thermal Energy Transfer with a Heat Exchanger Exercise 4-1 Basic Thermal Energy Transfer with a Heat Exchanger EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be familiar with the basic principles of operation of a typical heat

More information

Experiment (4): Flow measurement

Experiment (4): Flow measurement Introduction: The flow measuring apparatus is used to familiarize the students with typical methods of flow measurement of an incompressible fluid and, at the same time demonstrate applications of the

More information

Fundamentals of the Ultrasonic Flowmeter

Fundamentals of the Ultrasonic Flowmeter Exercise 1 Fundamentals of the Ultrasonic Flowmeter EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Learn the working principle of ultrasonic flowmeters, familiarize yourself with the ultrasonic flow transmitter of the Instrumentation

More information

FLUID FLOW. Introduction

FLUID FLOW. Introduction FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

More information

Experiment No.3: Flow through orifice meter. Background and Theory

Experiment No.3: Flow through orifice meter. Background and Theory Experiment No.3: Flow through orifice meter Background and Theory Flow meters are used in the industry to measure the volumetric flow rate of fluids. Differential pressure type flow meters (Head flow meters)

More information

ECH 4224L Unit Operations Lab I Fluid Flow FLUID FLOW. Introduction. General Description

ECH 4224L Unit Operations Lab I Fluid Flow FLUID FLOW. Introduction. General Description FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

More information

Transmitters. Differential Pressure Transmitters Pneumatic Design FOXBORO 13A D/P Cell

Transmitters. Differential Pressure Transmitters Pneumatic Design FOXBORO 13A D/P Cell Transmitters Differential Pressure Transmitters Pneumatic Design FOXBORO 13A D/P Cell Oldest design, developed during WW 2. Can be used for flow, level, and pressure, vent low side. Several ranges 0 to

More information

Fundamentals of Natural Gas Measurement

Fundamentals of Natural Gas Measurement Fundamentals of Natural Gas Measurement Why Measure Natural Gas? Production Gathering Processing Purchase Sales Transportation Exchange Distribution Check Measurement System Physical Balance System Control

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description

FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

More information

BYPASS ROTAMETERS FOR MEASURING RATE OF FLOW IN LARGE PIPELINES

BYPASS ROTAMETERS FOR MEASURING RATE OF FLOW IN LARGE PIPELINES BULLETIN 20-5100-68 BYPASS FOR MEASURING RATE OF FLOW IN LARGE PIPELINES BYPASS ROTOMETERS SK bypass Rotameter systems are designed for the accurate measurement of fluid rate of flow in pipelines 11/2

More information

Exercise 2. Discharge Characteristics EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Cutoff voltage versus discharge rate

Exercise 2. Discharge Characteristics EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Cutoff voltage versus discharge rate Exercise 2 Discharge Characteristics EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be familiar with the discharge characteristics of lead-acid batteries. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion

More information

Module 6. Actuators. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1

Module 6. Actuators. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1 Module 6 Actuators Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1 Lesson 25 Control Valves Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2 Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: Explain the basic

More information

MONOVAR is the energy dissipating valve.

MONOVAR is the energy dissipating valve. MONOVAR is the energy dissipating valve. Features Extremely simple design (patented) Excellent cavitation characteristics Very accurate flow or pressure control Manual or automatic control Suitable for

More information

Exercise 3-1. Basic Hydraulic Circuit EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Complete hydraulic circuit

Exercise 3-1. Basic Hydraulic Circuit EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Complete hydraulic circuit Exercise 3-1 Basic Hydraulic Circuit EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be familiar with the hydraulic schematic and components of the nacelle trainer. You will identify

More information

Exercise 3-1. Basic Hydraulic Circuit EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Complete hydraulic circuit

Exercise 3-1. Basic Hydraulic Circuit EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Complete hydraulic circuit Exercise 3-1 Basic Hydraulic Circuit EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be familiar with the hydraulic schematic and components of the nacelle trainer. You will identify

More information

FEASIBILITY STYDY OF CHAIN DRIVE IN WATER HYDRAULIC ROTARY JOINT

FEASIBILITY STYDY OF CHAIN DRIVE IN WATER HYDRAULIC ROTARY JOINT FEASIBILITY STYDY OF CHAIN DRIVE IN WATER HYDRAULIC ROTARY JOINT Antti MAKELA, Jouni MATTILA, Mikko SIUKO, Matti VILENIUS Institute of Hydraulics and Automation, Tampere University of Technology P.O.Box

More information

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Exercise 3-2 Hydraulic Brakes EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be familiar with the hydraulic circuits of the yaw and the rotor brakes. You will control brakes by changing

More information

White paper: Originally published in ISA InTech Magazine Page 1

White paper: Originally published in ISA InTech Magazine Page 1 Page 1 Improving Differential Pressure Diaphragm Seal System Performance and Installed Cost Tuned-Systems ; Deliver the Best Practice Diaphragm Seal Installation To Compensate Errors Caused by Temperature

More information

VALVES & ACTUATORS. 20th TECHNOLOGY REPORT. SOLUTIONS for FLUID MOVEMENT, MEASUREMENT & CONTAINMENT. HOW MUCH PRESSURE Can a 150 lb. Flange Withstand?

VALVES & ACTUATORS. 20th TECHNOLOGY REPORT. SOLUTIONS for FLUID MOVEMENT, MEASUREMENT & CONTAINMENT. HOW MUCH PRESSURE Can a 150 lb. Flange Withstand? TOP REASONS to Manage Corrosion PROS & CONS of Volumetric Flowmeters HOW MUCH PRESSURE Can a 150 lb. Flange Withstand? 20th 19 9 5-2 015 SOLUTIONS for FLUID MOVEMENT, MEASUREMENT & CONTAINMENT special

More information

Components of Hydronic Systems

Components of Hydronic Systems Valve and Actuator Manual 977 Hydronic System Basics Section Engineering Bulletin H111 Issue Date 0789 Components of Hydronic Systems The performance of a hydronic system depends upon many factors. Because

More information

HYDRAULICS. H89.8D - Hydraulic Bench

HYDRAULICS. H89.8D - Hydraulic Bench HYDRAULICS H89.8D - Hydraulic Bench 1. General The H89.8D and ancillary equipment have been developed to provide a comprehensive range of experiments in fluid mechanics. The bench is of robust construction

More information

Air Brakes From Real Trains

Air Brakes From Real Trains Air Brakes From Real Trains Real Trains has been producing air brake systems for our 1 1/2 scale trucks for more than seventeen years. In this time over 100 pairs of trucks equipped with air brakes have

More information

Fundamental Training. Flow Con t

Fundamental Training. Flow Con t Fundamental Training Flow Con t 1 Contents Topics: Slide No: Velocity flow meters 3-11 Mass flow meters 12-17 Displacement meters 18 Exercise 19-20 2 Velocity Meter Magnetic Flowmeter Faraday s Law of

More information

Flow Measurement SITRANS F S Clamp-on

Flow Measurement SITRANS F S Clamp-on Function Operating Principle The SITRANS F S system is a transit-time ultrasonic meter that provides exceptional performance using a non-intrusive clampon approach. Ultrasonic sensors transmit and receive

More information

Exercise 2-1. The Separately-Excited DC Motor N S EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Simplified equivalent circuit of a dc motor

Exercise 2-1. The Separately-Excited DC Motor N S EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Simplified equivalent circuit of a dc motor Exercise 2-1 The Separately-Excited DC Motor EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to demonstrate the main operating characteristics of a separately-excited dc motor

More information

VERIS VERABAR VELOCITY AVERAGING FLOW SENSORS TRUE PERFORMANCE IN FLOW MEASUREMENT

VERIS VERABAR VELOCITY AVERAGING FLOW SENSORS TRUE PERFORMANCE IN FLOW MEASUREMENT VERIS VERABAR VELOCITY AVERAGING FLOW SENSORS TRUE PERFORMANCE IN FLOW MEASUREMENT The Most Accurate and Reliable Technology for Measuring Gas, Liquid and Steam Developed from aerospace technology, the

More information

KOBOLD VKA FLOWMETER/SWITCH. User Instructions. Manual-VKA_03-04

KOBOLD VKA FLOWMETER/SWITCH. User Instructions. Manual-VKA_03-04 KOBOLD VKA FLOWMETER/SWITCH User Instructions Manual-VKA_03-04 VKA Table of Contents 1.0 General............................................. 1 Specifications..........................................

More information

METAL VAREA-METER STRAIGHT THROUGH TYPE ROTAMETER

METAL VAREA-METER STRAIGHT THROUGH TYPE ROTAMETER TECHNICAL INFORMATION METAL VAREA-METER STRAIGHT THROUGH TYPE ROTAMETER Electronic Transmitter INTRODUCING THE METAL TUBE VAREA-METER U.S. Filter/Wallace & Tiernan Products straight through metal tube

More information

The Multivariable Air Flow Meter

The Multivariable Air Flow Meter No. SS2-MVC200-0100 OVERVIEW The Multivariable Mass Flow Meter AIRcube, a compact has all function necessary to measure nitrogen (N 2 ) gas, carbon dioxcide (CO 2 ) gas and air. The model MVC10A/MVC10F

More information

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS IN A CLUTCH PISTON CHAMBER

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS IN A CLUTCH PISTON CHAMBER COMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS IN A CLUTCH PISTON CHAMBER Masaru SHIMADA*, Hideharu YAMAMOTO* * Hardware System Development Department, R&D Division JATCO Ltd 7-1, Imaizumi, Fuji City, Shizuoka, 417-8585 Japan

More information

Armature Reaction and Saturation Effect

Armature Reaction and Saturation Effect Exercise 3-1 Armature Reaction and Saturation Effect EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to demonstrate some of the effects of armature reaction and saturation in

More information

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Exercise 1 Battery Fundamentals EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be familiar with various types of lead-acid batteries and their features. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion

More information

Fisher 4194HS Differential Pressure Indicating Controllers

Fisher 4194HS Differential Pressure Indicating Controllers Instruction Manual Fisher 4194HS Differential Pressure Indicating Controllers Contents Introduction... 2 Scope of Manual... 2 Description... 2 Specifications... 5 Educational Services... 5 Installation,

More information

Hydraulic energy control, conductive part

Hydraulic energy control, conductive part Chapter 2 2 Hydraulic energy control, conductive part Chapter 2 Hydraulic energy control, conductive part To get the hydraulic energy generated by the hydraulic pump to the actuator, cylinder or hydraulic

More information

Inline Pressure Control Or Shutoff Valves (Non-digital) And Bypass Pressure Control Or Shutoff Valves (Non-digital)

Inline Pressure Control Or Shutoff Valves (Non-digital) And Bypass Pressure Control Or Shutoff Valves (Non-digital) IN64124 August 15, 1997 Aerospace Group Conveyance Systems Divison Carter Brand Ground Fueling Equipment Applicable additional manuals: Installation Instructions Inline Pressure Control Or Shutoff Valves

More information

The RCS-6V kit. Page of Contents. 1. This Book 1.1. Warning & safety What can I do with the RCS-kit? Tips 3

The RCS-6V kit. Page of Contents. 1. This Book 1.1. Warning & safety What can I do with the RCS-kit? Tips 3 The RCS-6V kit Page of Contents Page 1. This Book 1.1. Warning & safety 3 1.2. What can I do with the RCS-kit? 3 1.3. Tips 3 2. The principle of the system 2.1. How the load measurement system works 5

More information

2506 Series Multi-Trol Receiver/Controllers (Types 2506, 2516, 2516F)

2506 Series Multi-Trol Receiver/Controllers (Types 2506, 2516, 2516F) Instruction Manual 2506, 2516, 2516F Receiver/Controllers 2506 Series Multi-Trol Receiver/Controllers (Types 2506, 2516, 2516F) Contents Introduction............................... 2 Scope of Manual.........................

More information

Control System Instrumentation

Control System Instrumentation Control System Instrumentation Feedback control of composition for a stirred-tank blending system. Four components: sensors, controllers, actuators, transmission lines 1 Figure 9.3 A typical process transducer.

More information

AN EXPLANATION OF CIRCUITS CARTER YH HORIZONTAL CLIMATIC CONTROL CARBURETER

AN EXPLANATION OF CIRCUITS CARTER YH HORIZONTAL CLIMATIC CONTROL CARBURETER AN EXPLANATION OF CIRCUITS CARTER YH HORIZONTAL CLIMATIC CONTROL CARBURETER The Carter Model YH carbureter may be compared with a Carter YF downdraft carbureter with the circuits rearranged to operate

More information

E-training. Positioners (Pneumatic, Electro pneumatic, I to P converters) Pneumatically actuated valves can be positioned in a number of ways.

E-training. Positioners (Pneumatic, Electro pneumatic, I to P converters) Pneumatically actuated valves can be positioned in a number of ways. Welcome to the K Controls e-training course designed to deliver useful Pneumatic Valve Actuation application information in small instalments. To unsubscribe or to register a colleague to receive these

More information

Control System Instrumentation

Control System Instrumentation Control System Instrumentation Chapter 9 Figure 9.3 A typical process transducer. Transducers and Transmitters Figure 9.3 illustrates the general configuration of a measurement transducer; it typically

More information

CP400 Series Commercial/Industrial Pressure Loaded Pressure Reducing Regulators

CP400 Series Commercial/Industrial Pressure Loaded Pressure Reducing Regulators CP400 Series Commercial/Industrial Pressure Loaded Pressure Reducing Regulators September 2014 P1182 typical type cp400 regulator P1522 P1410 Typical type CP403 Regulator WITH INTEGRAL TRUE-MONITOR PROTECTION

More information

Tension Control Inverter

Tension Control Inverter Tension Control Inverter MD330 User Manual V0.0 Contents Chapter 1 Overview...1 Chapter 2 Tension Control Principles...2 2.1 Schematic diagram for typical curling tension control...2 2.2 Tension control

More information

Chapter 3. Power Measurement Methods. Power Measurement Methods. Engine and Vehicle Testing

Chapter 3. Power Measurement Methods. Power Measurement Methods. Engine and Vehicle Testing Chapter 3 Engine and Vehicle Testing Power Measurement Methods Power the rate of doing work. A unit of power is a newton meter per second (watt). Brake power the power output of the engine crankshaft.

More information

Table of Contents. Proportional & Precision Regulator Instrumentation

Table of Contents. Proportional & Precision Regulator Instrumentation Table of Contents Proportional & Precision Regulator Instrumentation...3-27 Features and Benefits... 3 Electropneumatic Transducer...4-5 Economy Miniature Electropneumatic Transducer...6-7 Miniature Electropneumatic

More information

Control Valves Positioner

Control Valves Positioner Control Valves Positioner HiFlo Valve Positioner Easy calibration Corrosion-resistant cover and base Withstands 150 psi at all parts Two -sided cam for easy field reversibility Optional / NPT for piped

More information

PVP Field Calibration and Accuracy of Torque Wrenches. Proceedings of ASME PVP ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference PVP2011-

PVP Field Calibration and Accuracy of Torque Wrenches. Proceedings of ASME PVP ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference PVP2011- Proceedings of ASME PVP2011 2011 ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Pressure Vessels July 17-21, & Piping 2011, Division Baltimore, Conference Maryland PVP2011 July

More information

SmartCone Differential Pressure Flow Meter User Manual

SmartCone Differential Pressure Flow Meter User Manual SmartCone Differential Pressure Flow Meter User Manual Page 1 Table of Contents Section 1 - SmartCone Introduction... 4 1.1 Introduction... 4 1.2 SmartCone - Meter Components... 4 1.3 Principles of Operation...

More information

SECTION METERS AND GAGES FOR PLUMBING PIPING

SECTION METERS AND GAGES FOR PLUMBING PIPING PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES A. Positive displacement meters. B. Flow meters. SECTION 22 0519 METERS AND GAGES FOR C. Pressure gages and pressure gage taps. D. Thermometers and thermometer wells.

More information

Hydraulic Proportional and Closed Loop System Design

Hydraulic Proportional and Closed Loop System Design Hydraulic Proportional and Closed Loop System Design Neal Hanson Product Manager Industrial Valves and Electrohydraulics 1 Electrohydraulics Contents 1. Electrohydraulic Principles 2. Proportional Valve

More information

A system of lubricant dispensing devices (oil or grease) connected by piping to a central pumping unit that is operated automatically or manually.

A system of lubricant dispensing devices (oil or grease) connected by piping to a central pumping unit that is operated automatically or manually. Air/Oil Systems: A lubrication system in which small measured quantities of oil are introduced into an air/oil mixing device which is connected to a lube line that terminates at a bearing, or other lubrication

More information

SD Bendix E-12 & E-15 Dual Brake Valve DESCRIPTION

SD Bendix E-12 & E-15 Dual Brake Valve DESCRIPTION SD-03-6 Bendix E- & E-15 Dual Brake Valve TREADLE UPPER BODY ASSEMBLY PRIMARY DELIVERY ( ) 1 SECONDARY DELIVERY ( ) LOWER BODY ASSEMBLY MOUNTING PLATE PRIMARY SUPPLY ( SUP-1) PRIMARY SUPPLY ( SUP-) PRIMARY

More information

STREAMLINE LAMINAR FLOW UNIFORM (AXISYMMETRIC) R = 3160 x Q x G t

STREAMLINE LAMINAR FLOW UNIFORM (AXISYMMETRIC) R = 3160 x Q x G t LIQUID METERS An overview of types and capabilities, plus guidelines on selection, installation, and maintenance INTRODUCTION Measuring the flow of liquids is a critical need in many industrial plants.

More information

Contents. Pressure measurement technology Pressure calibrators 18 Exercises 19-20

Contents. Pressure measurement technology Pressure calibrators 18 Exercises 19-20 1 Pressure Contents Topics: Slide No: Pressure measurement technology 03-17 Pressure calibrators 18 Exercises 19-20 2 Pressure Gauges Barometer Used to measure Barometric Pressure Reference is 0 psia,

More information

NT HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONIC FLOWMETER, MODEL 4401

NT HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONIC FLOWMETER, MODEL 4401 P/N 1400 (Rev. A 08/12) NT HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONIC FLOWMETER, MODEL 4401 User Guide Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Dimensions... 3 Installation... 5 Provided Equipment... 5 Operating Environment...

More information

Fisher 4194S Differential Pressure Controllers

Fisher 4194S Differential Pressure Controllers Instruction Manual 4194S Controllers Fisher 4194S Differential Pressure Controllers Contents 1. Introduction... 2 Scope of Manual... 2 Description... 2 Specifications... 5 Educational Services... 5 2.

More information

Pressure balance Differential pressure version Model CPB5600DP

Pressure balance Differential pressure version Model CPB5600DP Calibration technology Pressure balance Differential version Model CPB5600DP WIKA data sheet CT 31.56 for further approvals see page 7 Applications Primary standard for the calibration of differential

More information

Pressure Transmitter

Pressure Transmitter FCO318 Differential Pressure Transmitter Accuracy 0.25% of reading Ultra low pressure measurement Wide span adjustment 2-wire ma, 3-wire or 4-wire voltage output Two configurable relays and bi-colour LED

More information

Fisher 2506 and 2516 Receiver Controllers

Fisher 2506 and 2516 Receiver Controllers 2506/2516 Receiver Controllers Product Bulletin Fisher 2506 and 2516 Receiver Controllers The 2506 receiver controller takes the input from a pneumatic transmitter, matches it against the adjustable set

More information

Fisher 2506 and 2516 Receiver/Controllers

Fisher 2506 and 2516 Receiver/Controllers Instruction Manual Fisher 2506 and 2516 Receiver/Controllers Contents Introduction... 2 Scope of Manual... 2 Description... 2 Specifications... 2 Educational Services... 4 Installation... 5 Mounting the

More information

Laboratory structure FME00 FME00/B. 3 ICAI. Interactive Computer Aided Instruction Software System. Instructor Software + Student Software

Laboratory structure FME00 FME00/B. 3 ICAI. Interactive Computer Aided Instruction Software System. Instructor Software + Student Software Basic Fluid Mechanics Integrated Laboratory LIFLUBA Laboratory structure Engineering and Technical Teaching Equipment 1 Base Service Units FME00 FME00/B or Teaching Technique used 3 ICAI. Interactive Computer

More information

KOBOLD KSK FLOWMETER. User Instructions

KOBOLD KSK FLOWMETER. User Instructions KOBOLD KSK FLOWMETER User Instructions USA 1801 Parkway View Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15205 PH 412-788-2830 Canada 9A Aviation Point Claire, QC H9R 4Z2 PH 514-428-8090 www.koboldusa.com KSK_manual_rev. 2/10

More information

SD Bendix E-10PR Retarder Control Brake Valve DESCRIPTION. OPERATION - Refer to Figure 2

SD Bendix E-10PR Retarder Control Brake Valve DESCRIPTION. OPERATION - Refer to Figure 2 SD-03-832 Bendix E-10PR Retarder Control Brake Valve MOUNTING PLATE SUPPLY 4 PORTS ELECTRICAL AUXILIARY DESCRIPTION TREADLE RETARDER CONTROL SECTION EXHAUST DELIVERY 4 PORTS FIGURE 1 - E-10PR RETARDER

More information

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Operating as a Generator

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Operating as a Generator Exercise 2 Permanent Magnet DC Motor Operating as a Generator EXERCIE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be familiar with the construction of permanent magnet dc motors as well as

More information

Valves in Irrigation Systems 1

Valves in Irrigation Systems 1 CIR824 1 Dorota Z. Haman and Fedro S. Zazueta 2 The term valve applies to a variety of devices for controlling the flow of liquid. Various valves allow for on-off control, modulation of the flow rate through

More information

CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL SHOCK TESTS ON DIP-PCB ASSEMBLY

CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL SHOCK TESTS ON DIP-PCB ASSEMBLY 135 CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL SHOCK TESTS ON DIP-PCB ASSEMBLY 6.1 INTRODUCTION Shock is often defined as a rapid transfer of energy to a mechanical system, which results in a significant increase in the stress,

More information

Model 1100 Turbine Flow Meter

Model 1100 Turbine Flow Meter Model 1100 Turbine Flow Meter INSTALLATION & INSTRUCTION MANUAL 8635 Washington Avenue Racine, Wisconsin 53406 Tel: 800-433-5263 or 262-639-6770 Fax: 800-245-3569 or 262-639-2267 www.hedland.com TABLE

More information

Moniteur INSTALLATION & OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS. SERIES 40 Positioners. Installation and Operating Instructions Series 40 Positioners.

Moniteur INSTALLATION & OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS. SERIES 40 Positioners. Installation and Operating Instructions Series 40 Positioners. INSTALLATION & OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS SERIES 40 Positioners Form IO2-0406 Description of Device Moniteur's Series 40 pneumatic (3-15psi) and electropneumatic (4-20mA) positioners are advanced control devices

More information

Daniel. Liquid Control Valves Technical Guide. Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-TG-44-rev0813. DAN-LIQ-TG-44-rev0208. February 2008.

Daniel. Liquid Control Valves Technical Guide. Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-TG-44-rev0813. DAN-LIQ-TG-44-rev0208. February 2008. DAN-LIQ-TG-44-rev0208 February 2008 Daniel Liquid Control Valves Technical Guide www.daniel.com Daniel Measurement and Control Theory, Principle of Operation and Applications This brochure has been prepared

More information

Operator s Manual. Fairbanks FH Series by Fairbanks Scales, Inc. All rights reserved. . Revision 1 06/2017

Operator s Manual. Fairbanks FH Series by Fairbanks Scales, Inc. All rights reserved. . Revision 1 06/2017 Operator s Manual Fairbanks FH Series 2017 by Fairbanks Scales, Inc. All rights reserved 51393. Revision 1 06/2017 Amendment Record Fairbanks FH Series Operator s Manual Operator s Manual Document 51393

More information

White Paper Piston spool valves and poppet valves A technical comparison of available solenoid valves

White Paper Piston spool valves and poppet valves A technical comparison of available solenoid valves White Paper Piston spool valves and poppet valves A technical comparison of available solenoid valves Why should you choose your valves carefully? The increasing demands placed on valve technology in recent

More information

Exercise 7. Thyristor Three-Phase Rectifier/Inverter EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Thyristor three-phase rectifier/inverter

Exercise 7. Thyristor Three-Phase Rectifier/Inverter EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Thyristor three-phase rectifier/inverter Exercise 7 Thyristor Three-Phase Rectifier/Inverter EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will know what a thyristor threephase rectifier/limiter (thyristor three-phase bridge)

More information

LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATION DESIGN Class No

LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATION DESIGN Class No LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATION DESIGN Class No. 2230.1 Michael Frey Systems Sales Manager Daniel Measurement & Control, Inc. 5650 Brittmoore Rd. Houston, Texas 77041 INTRODUCTION The industry continues to

More information

Control Valves. Topic Highlights. By James Reed. Valve Types Standards and Codes Valve Selection Operation Actuators and Accessories. 4.

Control Valves. Topic Highlights. By James Reed. Valve Types Standards and Codes Valve Selection Operation Actuators and Accessories. 4. Control Valves By James Reed Topic Highlights Valve Types Standards and Codes Valve Selection Operation Actuators and Accessories 4.1 Introduction A control valve is a power-actuated device that modifies

More information

Good Winding Starts the First 5 Seconds Part 2 Drives Clarence Klassen, P.Eng.

Good Winding Starts the First 5 Seconds Part 2 Drives Clarence Klassen, P.Eng. Good Winding Starts the First 5 Seconds Part 2 Drives Clarence Klassen, P.Eng. Abstract: This is the second part of the "Good Winding Starts" presentation. Here we discuss the drive system and its requirements

More information

Pre-assembled distribution manifolds for radiant panel systems

Pre-assembled distribution manifolds for radiant panel systems Pre-assembled distribution manifolds for radiant panel systems Function Distribution manifolds for radiant panel systems are used to optimally distribute the heating fluid in floor heating system circuits

More information

Healthcare Solutions Room Pressure Monitors and Controls

Healthcare Solutions Room Pressure Monitors and Controls Healthcare Solutions Room Pressure Monitors and Controls TOUCHSCREEN ROOM PRESSURE MONITOR The Touchscreen Room Pressure Monitor (PMT) provides precise room pressure monitoring for critical spaces such

More information

Y690A Series Pressure Reducing Regulators

Y690A Series Pressure Reducing Regulators Instruction Manual Form 5463 Y690A Series February 2009 Y690A Series Pressure Reducing Regulators! Warning Fisher regulators must be installed, operated, and maintained in accordance with federal, state,

More information

Variable Area Flowmeters Ori-Flowrator TM Meters

Variable Area Flowmeters Ori-Flowrator TM Meters Data Sheet (US) Variable Area Flowmeters Ori-Flowrator TM Meters 10B4000 Low installation cost Linear indication over 12-1/2 to 1 flow range Inexpensive method of measuring large flow rates in direct flow

More information

Exercise 6. Three-Phase AC Power Control EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Introduction to three-phase ac power control

Exercise 6. Three-Phase AC Power Control EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Introduction to three-phase ac power control Exercise 6 Three-Phase AC Power Control EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will know how to perform ac power control in three-phase ac circuits, using thyristors. You will know

More information

Engineered for control from tap to transmitter

Engineered for control from tap to transmitter Engineered for control from tap to transmitter When it comes to Process Instrumentation, one company stands behind you to minimize risks and maximize productivity CONTINUE Going from tap to transmitter

More information

1 Final Control Elements

1 Final Control Elements 2013 Lecture 13 1 Final Control Elements Operation of the closed-loop control system depends on the performance of each loop component, including the final control element, whether it be damper, variable

More information

Integrated Flow Controller, Model NT6500

Integrated Flow Controller, Model NT6500 P/N 1223 REV. H 02/17 Integrated Flow Controller, Model NT6500 User Guide Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Identifying Non-standard Product Configurations... 2 Principle of Operation... 2 System Block

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia CIRP 33 (2015 )

Available online at  ScienceDirect. Procedia CIRP 33 (2015 ) Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia CIRP 33 (2015 ) 581 586 9th CIRP Conference on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering - CIRP ICME '14 Magnetic fluid seal

More information

Figure 1.1. From left to right: PVC, GRP and AISI 316L. Filter type Filter body material Max pressure Max temperature BSP PVC 150 psig 104 F, 40 C

Figure 1.1. From left to right: PVC, GRP and AISI 316L. Filter type Filter body material Max pressure Max temperature BSP PVC 150 psig 104 F, 40 C 1. The filter body The filter bodies come in three different materials: PVC (PolyVinyl Chloride), AISI 316L (stainless steel) and GRP (Glass-fiber Reinforced Polyester). Filter bodies in PVC and GRP have

More information

Definitions of Technical Terms

Definitions of Technical Terms Definitions of Technical Terms ABSOLUTE A measure having as it s zero point of base the complete absence of the entity being measured. ABSOLUTE PRESSURE A pressure scale with zero point at a perfect vacuum.

More information

IMPACT REGISTER, INC. PRECISION BUILT RECORDERS SINCE 1914

IMPACT REGISTER, INC. PRECISION BUILT RECORDERS SINCE 1914 IMPACT REGISTER, INC. PRECISION BUILT RECORDERS SINCE 1914 RM-3WE (THREE WAY) ACCELEROMETER GENERAL The RM-3WE accelerometer measures and permanently records, for periods of 30, 60, and 90 days, the magnitude,

More information

KDG/KDF - Flow Meter and Flow Switch

KDG/KDF - Flow Meter and Flow Switch Integral Flow Control Valve Easy to Read Scale Brass, SS, or PVDF Process Connections Direct Reading Scales for Water and Air Compact Economical Design Optional Panel Mounting Kit Optional Flow Switch

More information

Flow limiter SP/SMB13 for line installation in circulating-oil lubrication systems.

Flow limiter SP/SMB13 for line installation in circulating-oil lubrication systems. 1-3004-EN Flow limiter SP/SMB13 for line installation in circulating-oil lubrication systems. Flow limiters are used in circulating-oil lubrication systems. The task of a flow limiter is to divide up the

More information

Type 644 and 645 Differential Pressure Pump Governors

Type 644 and 645 Differential Pressure Pump Governors Instruction Manual 644 and 645 Pump Governors Type 644 and 645 Differential Pressure Pump Governors Introduction Scope of Manual This instruction manual provides information on installation, adjustment,

More information

Hand & Gauge Isolation Valves Needle Valves Gauge Valves Block & Bleed Valves. Manifolds

Hand & Gauge Isolation Valves Needle Valves Gauge Valves Block & Bleed Valves. Manifolds Hand & Gauge Isolation Valves Needle Valves Gauge Valves Block & Bleed Valves Manifolds Two, Three & Five Valve Manifolds for Gauge and Differential Pressure Applications Accessories Built Hex tough for

More information

Welker Sampler. Installation, Operation, & Maintenance Manual. Model GSS-4HP

Welker Sampler. Installation, Operation, & Maintenance Manual. Model GSS-4HP Installation, Operation, & Maintenance Manual Welker Sampler Model GSS-4HP The information in this manual has been carefully checked for accuracy and is intended to be used as a guide to operations. Correct

More information

INSTRUCTION MANUAL. Model 220, 221 and 222 FLOW METERS

INSTRUCTION MANUAL. Model 220, 221 and 222 FLOW METERS INSTRUCTION MANUAL Model 220, 221 and 222 FLOW METERS TABLE OF CONTENTS Do s and Don ts...............................pg. 2 General Description............................Pg. 2 Applications.................................Pg.

More information

Table of Contents. Choke Principle...4

Table of Contents. Choke Principle...4 Table of Contents Choke Principle...4 Positive and Adjustable Choke Features and Benefits of Positive and Adjustable Choke...5 Avialable Sizes and Pressure Ratings... Positive Choke...6 Adjustable Choke...7

More information

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF UNDERTRAY DIFFUSER FOR A FORMULA STYLE RACECAR

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF UNDERTRAY DIFFUSER FOR A FORMULA STYLE RACECAR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF UNDERTRAY DIFFUSER FOR A FORMULA STYLE RACECAR Ali Asgar S. Khokhar 1, Suhas S. Shirolkar 2 1 Graduate in Mechanical Engineering, KJ Somaiya College of Engineering, Mumbai, India.

More information

What does pressure refer to in relation to hydrostatics and what is it dependent on?

What does pressure refer to in relation to hydrostatics and what is it dependent on? Question 1 [3 Marks] What does pressure refer to in relation to hydrostatics and what is it dependent on? Question 2 [14 Marks] Make a circuit diagram of a regular hydraulic plant that is used to control

More information

Chapter 13: Application of Proportional Flow Control

Chapter 13: Application of Proportional Flow Control Chapter 13: Application of Proportional Flow Control Objectives The objectives for this chapter are as follows: Review the benefits of compensation. Learn about the cost to add compensation to a hydraulic

More information

ProFlow TO BE REALLY SURE. Vane Meters. Experience in flow measurement. Introduction

ProFlow TO BE REALLY SURE. Vane Meters. Experience in flow measurement. Introduction ProFlow N142 P R O D U C T B U L L E T I N Vane Meters Special versions This brochure comprises only VAF Instruments standard delivery program. Special flowmeter variants can be offered as tailor-made

More information