# FEASIBILITY STYDY OF CHAIN DRIVE IN WATER HYDRAULIC ROTARY JOINT

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1 FEASIBILITY STYDY OF CHAIN DRIVE IN WATER HYDRAULIC ROTARY JOINT Antti MAKELA, Jouni MATTILA, Mikko SIUKO, Matti VILENIUS Institute of Hydraulics and Automation, Tampere University of Technology P.O.Box 589 FIN- Tampere, Finland ( ABSTRACT In hydraulic manipulator applications effective joints movement range of above 8 is often needed. Vane actuator has maximum movement range about 7. However, water hydraulic vane actuators are quite expensive to manufacture. Thus we investigate a possibility to use so called chain drive instead of vane actuator. Chain drive consists of two cylinders which are connected in series with a chain. Reduced model for chain-drive equals to symmetric cylinder and can be compared with a vane actuator of same size. Concerns with chain drive are the smoothness of sprocket turning around, stiffness of the chain and minimum required back-pressure level for keeping chain tension. In this paper a chain drive is designed, built and tested. We also compare chain drive's and vane actuator's properties mathematically from control point of view. We can conclude that chain drive's characteristics almost equal with vane actuator and it is much more cost effective. KEY WORDS Chain drive, vane actuator, dynamic properties NOMENCLATURE K H :hydraulic stiffness B :bulk modulus A :cylinder s piston rod side area V :pressurized volume R :sprocket s radius ω N :natural frequency d N :damping factor J :load s inertia D :radian volume of vane actuator

3 function of load mass and actuator hydraulic stiffness. Since the load of the both actuators is the same, the stiffness of the actuator will define the natural frequency of the actuators. Equation for hydraulic torsional stiffness of the vane actuator at its minimum value is []: B D K H _ VANE _ = () V For cylinder driven chain actuator, the minimum hydraulic torsional stiffness is obtained: B A R K H _ CHAIN _ = () V Vane actuator s and chain drive s natural frequency: Figure Schematic of chain drive Prototype chain drive actuator design was based on following design parameters, which allow comparison with the vane actuator of approximately the same torque output. - Maximum torque output of 55 Nm when maximum available supply pressure of bar and back-pressure is 5 bar - Maximum velocity of 8 deg/s with QN=6.8 l/min - Maximum joint motion range of 75 deg. Based on above specification, the following design was made. - Two water hydraulic cylinder / Triple chain wheel s with 4 teeth - Distances between teeth are 5.875mm - Sprocket radius of 6 mm. With above design parameters following specification for chain drive actuator were achieved. - Maximum torque 55Nm - Maximum velocity of 95 deg/s - Maximum joint motion range of 98 deg. ACTUATORS PROPERTIES The dynamic performance of the any hydraulic actuator is limited by its hydraulic natural frequency that is a K H ω N = () J A prototype vane actuator was build with following spefication. Following design was made: - Ø 57mm axis - Ø 8mm chamber - 55 mm width Following properties were achieved. - Maximum torque is 55Nm 5 m - D =.5. rad deg - Maximum velocity v = 4 s For vane actuators it is convenient to integrate servovalve directly to vane actuator housing. Water flow paths are inside the chamber with diameter of 4mm and maximum length of mm. When vane actuator is at its middle position, its total pressurized volume is 5 V = 8. m. For testbed load mass was kg at end of one meter long rod making its inertia about J = kg m. Water bulk modulus is about 5MPa. These values result minimum natural frequency of ω N = 4. 5Hz for vane actuator. Chain drive characteristics are given above. Servovalve is connected to cylinders with Ø4mm mm pipe

4 making total pressurized volume equal to 5 V = 8. m. These values result minimum natural frequency ofωn = 4. 9Hz for chain drive. Natural frequency [Hz] Vane actuator Chain drive Movement [%] Open loop gain rules the static accuracy of the actuators. Maximum gain for hydraulic drive: K max = d n ωn (4) According to Fig. natural frequency is little bit higher for chain drive. Damping factors are difficult to estimate, but they are about. for both actuators. Then maximum gain for vane actuator is =. and chain drive K max Kmax =.. In theory both actuators static accuracies are almost same. MEASURED RESULTS Measurements were carried out with a chain drive testbed shown in figure. The testbed specifications were given above. Required nominal torque output of 55 Nm can be obtained with back pressure value of 5. MPa and therefore it was used in the experiments. It seems to be enough for this kind solution. Figure Natural frequencies of two actuators Natural frequencies of two actuators as a function of actuator movement are plotted in Figure. From Figure it can be seen that natural frequencies of the both actuators are about the same. The dampening of the hydraulic actuator is usually in the range of.5 -. and its value is hard to predict by theoretical analysis like given for example in []. However, the effective dampening ratio of the chain drive is expected to be lower than it is with vane actuator due to the relatively high cross seal leakage of the vane actuator []. Of course the dampening of the chain drive can be increased with leakage orifice across valve ports. However, leakage orifice will then destroy load holding functions that are required in robotic applications. According to leakage measurements made with previous vane actuator prototype with nominal torque output of Nm, the measured leakage factor across vane 7 m was =.7 MPa in 5 C temperature s and bar pressure difference. If we assume that leakage coefficient is directly proportional to achieved torque, then it will reduce 5% from above value. However, for chain drive there is hardly any leakage. Once available, measurements with lock valves will be performed to verify the load holding functionality of both actuators. C LEAK Figure Chain drive testbed Open loop natural frequency of vane actuator was measured by hammer test when load arm was in

5 horizontal position. From Figure 4, it can be seen that approximate natural frequency is about 5Hz making above natural frequency theory presented valid. Angle [deg] Natural frequency [Hz] Figure 4 Natural frequency of chain drive actuator Sprocket turning smoothness measurement test was done. Cylinder position was measured with linear encoder. Sprocket position was measured pulse encoder with 5 pulse per round and it was interpolated to 5 fold. As we can see there are some speed variations. Cylinder positions 4mm and 8.5mm and something over 5mm there are higher peaks. This is approximately same as teeth gap. Anyway greatest peak is about.6% above mean value. Simple proportional position controller was also tuned and measured in order to verify chain drive actuator dynamic performance under control. Step signal was used as reference. Controller gain was half of the maximum value given by stability criteria. First measurements were done so that arm was driven to downwards. In next figures 6 and 7 position responses of the chain drive are shown. Static accuracy is.5 in first response and -.5 in second response. So accuracies are relatively good to both directions Figure 6 Step response and tracking error from to.8 Pos cyl./pos sprocket Pos cyl [mm] Figure 5 Sprocket turning smoothness Figure 7 Step response and tracking error from - to

6 In figures 8 9 are shown next measurements. They were done so that arm was driven to horizontal position. Static accuracies are not as good as in previous measurement due to load force caused by gravity. In first response it is.5 and second response it is.. Valve inner leakage can affect worse accuracies. It can be noticed that gravity force causes some oscillation when arm is driven from deg to 9 deg. When arm is driven to other direction oscillation is much less Figure 8 Step response and tracking error from 6 to 9 Based on measured results it can be assumed that designed chain stiffness seems to be adequate because it is invisible in position control measurements. CONCLUSIONS In this study new water hydraulic chain drive actuator was designed and tested. Chain actuator design was compared with vane actuator design of very similar design characteristics. Chain drive is a relatively inexpensive to build and zero-leakage actuator with satisfactory motion range of above 7. Zeroleakage characteristics are very important for load holding functionality point of view. The down side of the chain drive design is that its size is much bigger than vane actuator with similar maximum torque output and motion range. However, in many cases relatively big size of the actuator is not a problem. For example, sometimes chain drive actuator can be fitted e.g. into manipulator arm link. However, water hydraulic chain drive actuator is proved to very useful new actuator type when rotary motion range above is required at low cost and with zero-leakage characteristics. This study was our first one concerning water hydraulic chain drive. Our future plan is to test different sprocket and cylinder radius combinations so that natural frequency is always same. Also some different hydraulic connections will be tested REFERENCES. Merrit, H Hydraulic Control Systems, John Wileys & Sons inc.. Raneda, A., Siuko, M. and Virvalo, T., Torque control of a Water Hydraulic Vane Actuator Using Pressure Feedback, Prc. of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition,, New Orleans, USA Figure 9 Step response and tracking error from to 9

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