INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (SKMM 4413)

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1 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (SKMM 4413) Dr. Mohd Farid bin Muhamad Said Room : Block P21, Level 1, Automotive Development Centre (ADC) Tel :

2 HISTORY OF ICE History of Engine Year Engine Development 1673 Engine concept developed(huygens,holland) 1766 Steam Engine discovered(watt,britain) cycle Otto cycle(otto,dutch) 1881 Discovering of 2 cycle engine(clerk,britain) 1886 Discovering of gasoline engine, actual use (Daimler,Dutch) 1895 Discover of diesel engine, actual use (R.Diesel,Britain) 1900 Passenger usage of gasoline and diesel engine (Britain,Dutch, America) 1903 Improvement of gasoline engine to fly first airplane (Wright,America) 1909 Mass production of vehicles engine(ford,america) 1914 Passenger use of airplane engine 1936 Discover of jet engine(f.whittle,britain)

3 HISTORY OF ICE Car History First mass product car( Ford type T 1908) First car made by HINO 1915 First car made by MITSUBISHI 1917 First car made by TOYOTA 1934 First car made by DATSUN 1932

4 HISTORY OF ICE Introduction of Engine The purpose of a gasoline car engine is to convert gasoline into motion so that your car can move. Currently the easiest way to create motion from gasoline is to burn the gasoline inside an engine. Therefore, a car engine is an internal combustion engine -- combustion takes place internally. There is such a thing as an external combustion engine. A steam engine in old-fashioned trains and steam boats is the best example of an external combustion engine. The fuel (coal, wood, oil, whatever) in a steam engine burns outside the engine to create steam, and the steam creates motion inside the engine. Internal combustion is a lot more efficient (takes less fuel per mile) than external combustion, plus an internal combustion engine is a lot smaller than an equivalent external combustion engine. This explains why we don't see any cars from many manufactures using steam engines.

5 HISTORY Type OF ICE of Engine

6 HISTORY OF ICE 1.7 million Automotive Passion Can buy 680 Nano SSC Ultimate Aero TT Veyron Saleen S Reventon Tata Nano McLaren F1

7 DEFINITION INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (ICE) Engine a device which transforms one form of energy into another form. Heat Engine - a device which transforms the chemical energy of fuel into thermal energy and utilizes this thermal energy to perform useful work (mechanical energy). Power range from 0.01 kw to 20,000 kw. Normal vehicle nowadays require power output to the order of 100 kw.

8 INTRODUCTION Classification of heat engines

9 INTRODUCTION External engine combustion takes place outside the engine. Internal engine combustion takes place within the engine. (e.g. steam engine or turbine, and gasoline or diesel engines). The most widely used engines are: The reciprocating internal combustion engines. (have been found suitable for the use in automobiles, motor-cycles and scooters, power boats, ships, slow speed aircraft, locomotives and power units of relatively small output.) The gas turbine The steam turbine

10 INTRODUCTION Advantages of reciprocating ICE compare to the steam engine are: Mechanical simplicity and improved efficiency due to the absence of heat exchangers in the passage of the working fluid (boilers and condensers in steam turbine plant). Higher thermal efficiency due to: All its components are worked at an average temperature which is much below the maximum temperature of the working fluid in the cycle. Moderate maximum working pressure of the fluid in the cycle produces less weight to power ratio. The possibility of developing a small power output reciprocating internal combustion engines.

11 INTRODUCTION The main disadvantages of reciprocating internal combustion engines are: The problem of vibration caused by the reciprocating components. Only liquid or gaseous fuels of given specification, which are relatively more expensive, can be efficiently used.

12 ENGINE CLASSIFICATION ICE can be built in many different classifications. For a given engine, using a four or two-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle, the classifications are characterized by: piston-cylinder geometry valve arrangement air Intake fuel delivery system cooling system

13 Piston-cylinder Geometry ENGINE CLASSIFICATION

14 Piston-cylinder Geometry ENGINE CLASSIFICATION The choice of a given arrangement depends on a number of factors and constraints, such as engine balancing and available volume. The in-line engine is the most popular as it is the simplest to manufacture and maintain. The V engine is formed from two in-line banks of cylinders set at an angle to each other, forming the letter V. A horizontally opposed or flat engine is a V engine with 180 offset piston banks.

15 Piston-cylinder Geometry ENGINE CLASSIFICATION A radial engine has all of the cylinders in one plane with equal spacing between cylinder axes. Radial engines are used in air-cooled aircraft applications since each cylinder can be cooled equally. Since the cylinders are in a plane, a master connecting rod is used for one cylinder, and articulated rods are attached to the master rod. The reciprocating motion of the connecting rod and piston creates inertial forces and moments that need to be considered in the choice of an engine configuration.

16 Valve Arrangement ENGINE CLASSIFICATION Gases are admitted and expelled from the cylinders by valves that open and close at the proper times, or by ports that are uncovered or covered by the piston. Poppet valve is the primary valve type used in internal combustion engines since they have excellent sealing characteristics. The poppet valves can be located either in the engine block or in the cylinder head, depending on manufacturing and cooling considerations. Older automobiles and small four-stroke engines have the valves located in the block, a configuration termed underhead or L-head. Currently, most engines use valves located in the cylinder head, an overhead or I-head configuration, as this configuration has good inlet and exhaust flow characteristics.

17 Valve Arrangement ENGINE CLASSIFICATION Poppet Valve nomenclature

18 Valve Arrangement ENGINE CLASSIFICATION L-head (Valve in Block) I-head (Valve in Head)

19 Valve Arrangement ENGINE CLASSIFICATION Overhead Camshaft

20 Valve Arrangement ENGINE CLASSIFICATION A camshaft rotates at half the engine speed for four-stroke engine controls the valve timing. Lobes on the camshaft along with lifters, pushrods, and rocker arms control the valve motion. The valve timing can be varied to increase volumetric efficiency through the use of advanced camshafts that have moveable lobes, or with electric valves. With a change in the load, the valve opening duration and timing can be adjusted.

21 Valve Arrangement ENGINE CLASSIFICATION

22 ENGINE CLASSIFICATION Air Intake Naturally Aspirated Most automobile used NA engine. Air or fuel-air mixtures are forced into the cylinders by vacuum caused by cylinder movement. NA engines generally gives less power than either turbo or supercharged engines of the same displacement and development level but tend to be cheaper to produce.

23 ENGINE CLASSIFICATION Air Intake Supercharging Supercharging is mechanical compression of the inlet air to a pressure higher than standard atmosphere by a compressor powered by the crankshaft. The compressor raises the density of the incoming charge so that more fuel and air can be delivered to the cylinder to increase the power.

24 Air Intake Turbocharging In turbo charging exhaust gas leaving an engine is further expanded through a turbine that drives a compressor. The benefits are: ENGINE CLASSIFICATION improves engine power output, realistically double the equivalent NA engine improves fuel consumption of the engine, thus more economical improves emissions, as it allows more complete and thorough combustion compensate for high altitude air density loss Almost 100% diesel engines are turbocharged, while its only 6% for gasoline engines.

25 Fuel Delivery System ENGINE CLASSIFICATION Some fuel systems use a carburetor. It sits on top of the engine intake manifold. The carburetor mixes the air and fuel into a combustible mixture. Instead of carburetor, most engines have electronic fuel injection (EFI) system. An electronic control module (ECM) or computer, controls one or more fuel injectors. When the engine needs fuel, a signal from the ECM opens the injector. There are 3 types of electronic fuel injection: Throttle-body injection (TBI) Multipoint Port Injection (MPI) Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)

26 ENGINE CLASSIFICATION Fuel Delivery System A throttle body injector is a fuel injector located at the intake manifold before the manifold branches to the individual cylinders. Due to its distance from the cylinders, it injects a continuous spray of fuel into the manifold.

27 Fuel Delivery System ENGINE CLASSIFICATION Port fuel injectors are located in the intake port of each cylinder just upstream of the intake valve, so there is an injector for each cylinder. The port injector does not need to maintain a continuous fuel spray, since the time lag for fuel delivery is much less than that of a throttle body injector. Direct injection are available on some spark ignition engines. With direct injection, the fuel is sprayed directly into the cylinder during the late stages of the compression stroke. Compared with port injection, direct injection engines can be operated at a higher compression ratio, and therefore will have a higher theoretical efficiency.

28 Fuel Delivery System ENGINE CLASSIFICATION GDI

29 ENGINE CLASSIFICATION Cooling System Some type of cooling system is required to remove the approximately 30% of the fuel energy rejected as waste heat. There are two main types of cooling systems: water and air cooling. The water cooling system is usually a single loop where a water pump sends coolant to the engine block, and then to the head. Warm coolant flows through the intake manifold to warm it and thereby assist in vaporizing the fuel. The coolant will then flow to a radiator or heat exchanger, reject the waste heat to the atmosphere, and flow back to the pump.

30 Cooling System When the engine is cold, a thermostat prevents coolant from returning to the radiator, resulting in a more rapid warm-up of the engine. Watercooled engines are quieter than air-cooled engines, but have leaking, boiling, and freezing problems. Engines with relatively low power output, less than 20 kw, primarily use air-cooling. ENGINE CLASSIFICATION Air cooling systems use fins to lower the air side surface temperature

31 Cooling System Water Air Piston Cylinder Geometry In-line Horizontally Opposed Vertically Opposed V engine Radial Valve Arrangement ENGINE CLASSIFICATIONS Fuel Delivery System Carburetor TBI MPI GDI L-Head I-Head Air Intake NA Supercharged Turbocharged

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