# Chapter 14 Small Gas Engines

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1 Chapter 14 Small Gas Engines Use the Textbook Pages to help answer the questions

2

3 Why You Learn So Well in Tech & Engineering Classes

4 1. Internal combustion make heat by burning a fuel & air mixture inside of their cylinder. Pg. 321 Motors Engines Cars

5 2. The engine s is a precisely machined hole through which the piston moves. Pg. 321 Cylinder Crankshaft Piston

6 3. The 2 main types of small gas engines are the stroke cycle & the stroke cycle. Pg. 323 Four & Two Six & Eight Rotary & Orbital

7 4. The is the component that converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into more useful rotary motion for output. Pg. 323 Camshaft Crankshaft Balance Shaft

8 5. The slides back & forth in the cylinder and is fastened to the crankshaft by the connecting rod. Pg. 323 Cylinder Block Piston

9 6. A is one movement of the piston, from either TDC to BDC or from BDC to TDC. Pg. 324 Stroke Bore Displacement

10 7. Fuel burns better when it is : broken into little particles & mixed with air. Pg. 324 Atomized Mixture Atomized Pulverized Mesmerized

11 8. TDC stands for: (at the top of it s travel in the cylinder) Pg. 324 & 325 Top Dead Center Out of Center Bottom Dead Center

12 9. BDC stands for: (at the bottom of its travel in the cylinder) Pg. 324 & 325 Top Dead Center Out of Center Bottom Dead Center

13 10. The combustion is the area in the engine where the air & fuel burns. Pg. 324 & 326 Chamber Crankcase Dungeon

14 11. The engine compression is mathematically determined by dividing BDC volume by TDC volume. Pg. 325 Pressure Ratio Expansion

15 A top notch automotive student knows everything about the 4 stroke cycle!

16 12. During the stroke, The piston moves: [ ] upward BDC to TDC [ ] downward TDC to BDC The intake valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The exhaust valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The fresh air & fuel mixture is: [ ] drawn in by engine vacuum [ ] compressed The crankshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º The camshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º [ ] ignited by heat Pg. 324

17 13. During the stroke, The piston moves: [ ] upward BDC to TDC [ ] downward TDC to BDC The intake valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The exhaust valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The air & fuel mixture is: [ ] drawn in by engine vacuum [ ] compressed [ ] exhausted The crankshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º The camshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º Pg. 324

18 14. During the stroke, The piston moves: [ ] upward BDC to TDC [ ] downward TDC to BDC The intake valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The exhaust valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The burning air & fuel mixture: [ ] pushes the piston down [ ] compressed [ ] exhausted The crankshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º The camshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º Pg. 324

19 15. During the stroke, The piston moves: [ ] upward BDC to TDC [ ] downward TDC to BDC The intake valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The exhaust valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The spent air & fuel mixture is: [ ] lit on fire [ ] compressed [ ] exhausted The crankshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º The camshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º Pg. 324

20 16. Engines have systems to keep them running at peak performance: The system uses either air or liquid to maintain proper operating temperature The system either splashes or pumps oil throughout to reduce friction The system converts the force of expanding fuel & air into motion The system generates the high voltage spark to ignite the air & fuel The system keeps the engine running at desired RPM regardless of load The system uses either a carburetor or an injection system to control the air & fuel mix Word Bank: Lubrication Cooling Mechanical Electrical/Ignition Fuel Governor Pgs

21 17. Engines can be said to work off of a very basic model known as the. *

22 18. If an engine is not starting or is not performing up to specifications, 2 basic tests should be done: Test & Test Fuel & Air Pressure Rotation & Power Spark & Compression Pg. 341 & 342

23 19.Small engines are Big polluters! It is estimated that mowing lawn or blowing snow for ½ hour will produce as many harmful exhaust emissions as driving a car for miles! That s 7,000,000 tons of air pollution yearly just in the United States. 1,000,000 Miles 172 Miles 10 or 15 Miles Pg. 342 Note: Ground level ozone is known as smog.

24 Important Concepts, Definitions & Terms to Know TOP CRISS Main Ideas 2 Column Notes Supporting Details Class Notes & Priority Items to Know for Tests

25 Important Concepts, Definitions & Terms to Know TOP CRISS Highlight Your Study Guides Before Tests Class Notes & Priority Items to Know for Tests

26 Important Concepts, Definitions & Terms to Know TOP CRISS Read 3 Times Class Notes & Priority Items to Know for Tests

27 Important Concepts, Definitions & Terms to Know TOP CRISS Ask Yourself These Questions Class Notes & Priority Items to Know for Tests

28 Engines produce heat by burning a fuel Internal Combustion Engines burn the fuel inside of them External Combustion Engines burn the fuel outside Impulse Turbine Reaction turbine

29 Engines vs. Motors Motors can be Electric

30 Engines vs. Motors Motors can be Hydraulic

31 Engines vs. Motors Motors can be Pneumatic

32 Engines vs. Motors Motors can be Vacuum

33 Cylinder: Precisely Machined Hole for Piston Crankshaft: Main Shaft Changes Reciprocating Motion to Rotary Motion Piston: Slides Up & Down in the Cylinder

34 Camshaft: Operates the Poppet Valves Poppet Valves: Open & Close the Intake & Exhaust Ports Lifters or Tappets or Cam Followers: Fit Between Valve Stems & Cam

35 Bore: Cylinder Diameter Stroke: Length of Piston Travel Distance from TDC to BDC One Piston Movement Up or Down Displacement: Total Cylinder Volume

36 TDC: Top Dead Center BDC: Bottom Dead Center Combustion Chamber: Space Where Fuel & Air Is Burned Located Above the Piston & Below the Head

37 Atomization: Breaking Fuel into Small Particles & Mixing it with Air Fuel & Air in a Mist Form Vaporization: Fuel & Air in a Cloud Form

38 During the stroke (1 st ) Self Quiz The piston moves: [ ] upward BDC to TDC [ ] downward TDC to BDC The intake valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The exhaust valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The fresh air & fuel mixture is: [ ] drawn in by engine vacuum [ ] compressed [ ] ignited by heat The crankshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º The camshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º

39 During the stroke (2 nd ) Self Quiz The piston moves: [ ] upward BDC to TDC [ ] downward TDC to BDC The intake valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The exhaust valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The air & fuel mixture is: [ ] drawn in by engine vacuum [ ] compressed to raise its temperature [ ] ignited by heat The crankshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º The camshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º

40 During the stroke (3 rd ) The piston moves: [ ] upward BDC to TDC Self Quiz [ ] downward TDC to BDC The intake valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The exhaust valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The compressed air & fuel mixture is: [ ] being exhausted [ ] compressed [ ] ignited by heat of spark The crankshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º The camshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º

41 During the stroke (4 th ) The piston moves: [ ] upward BDC to TDC Self Quiz [ ] downward TDC to BDC The intake valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The exhaust valve is: [ ] open [ ] closed The spent air & fuel mixture is: [ ] being compressed [ ] compressed [ ] forced out of the cylinder The crankshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º The camshaft revolves: [ ] 180º [ ] 90º

42 Systems of the engine include: (MI FLEECE) or (ME FEEL ICE) Mechanical Ignition = Spark Fuel Lubrication Exhaust Electrical = Charging & Starting Cooling Emission Control Electronic Engine Controls

43 Mechanical System

44 Ignition System

45 Fuel System Energy, Power & Transportation Technology

46 Lubrication System

47 Exhaust System

48 Electric Charging System

49 Electric Starting System 110 Volt 12 Volt

50 Cooling System Air Cooled Liquid Cooled

51 Emission Control System Exhaust Induction Crankcase Evaporative

52 Self Quiz

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54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62 Air Fuel Fire Triangle Heat 1) Compression 2) Spark

63 2 Stroke Cycle 1 power stroke every crank revolution

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65

66

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68 D. Self Quiz B. C. A.

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70 2 Stroke Cycle Reed Valve Induction

71 2 Stroke Cycle Piston Port Induction

72 Loop Scavenged 2 Stroke Cycle

73

74 Expansion chamber to control scavenging

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