# CHAPTER 1 MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

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1 CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 1 MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT CONTENTS PAGE Basic Principals 02 The Crankshaft 06 Piston Attachment 08 Major Assemblies 10 Valve Gear 12 Cam Drive 18

2 Mechanical Arrangement - Basic Principals The piston engine is basically similar to a bicycle pump in that it has a cylinder, inside which is a sliding plunger or piston. Connect a bicycle pump to an inner tube of a tyre and force the plunger up the cylinder of the pump will push the air into the tyre. The air inside the pump is compressed (and as a result of the compression its temperature rises) by the force applied by the muscles in your arms. If the plunger is released before the air has entered tube, the energy in the hot compressed air will cause the plunger to spring back; just imagine how much force there would be if the trapped and compressed air was quickly heated to a very high temperature. In action, the piston inside the cylinder of an engine works like the plunger of a bicycle pump. First it compresses the charge of fuel and air inside the cylinder. Next, the fuel is burned inside the cylinder, and the heat energy released does work by moving the piston. 2

3 Mechanical Arrangement - Basics 3

4 Mechanical Arrangement - Basic Principals When the charge burns rapidly, it expands, forcing the piston to move down the cylinder. This movement is the driving force of the engine but the piston s movement is linear (i.e. in a straight line), and we want to use it to make something rotate (e.g. a propeller), so what can we do? Two simple cases of a linear force producing a rotary movement can be seen in everyday use, see below:- The spanner When a force is applied in the direction of arrow A (below), the spanner makes the nut revolve around the bolt a linear force has brought about rotation. The bicycle pedal and crank Similarly a downward pressure upon the pedal in the direction arrow B (right) of a bicycle makes the gear wheel rotate. 4

5 A Leg force in direction B gives rotational force on pedal/crank propels bicycle along B Hand force in direction A gives rotational force on nut Mechanical Arrangement - Basics 5

6 Mechanical Arrangement - The Crankshaft In a piston engine there is a crankshaft which works exactly the same way as the bicycle pedals and crank. The force on the bicycle pedal from leg muscles is the equivalent to the force supplied by burning fuel and air. The piston is connected to the crankshaft by a connecting rod (known as the conrod ). The piston is attached to the conrod small end by a Gudgeon pin. The conrod is then attached to the crankshaft by the Big-end bearing. The piston movement now causes the crankshaft to rotate, so we can use the crankshaft rotation to drive a propeller, or the wheels of a car. The rotating crankshaft also provides a means of returning the piston to its starting point, so the piston can now produce its linear thrusting movement time after time. 6

7 Gudgeon Pin Cylinder Piston Main Bearings Connecting Rod Big-end Crank Shaft Counter Balance Weight Offset Bearing Mechanical Arrangement - Basics 7

8 Mechanical Arrangement - Piston Attachment The illustration below shows how the crankshaft is mounted in the engine (in a typical 4 cylinder engine), via the main bearings; on the rotational centre of the crankshaft.. The piston big ends are then attached to the crankshaft on the offsets ( cranked hence the name crankshaft). The offsets are the equivalent to the pedals on a bicycle. At the rear of the crankshaft, there is a mounting flange for a flywheel. The flywheel is a rotating mass that helps to keep the engine rotating in between power pulses, and helps to make the engine smoother running. The rear face of the flywheel is where a vehicle clutch mechanism is mounted. In an aircraft the propeller is mounted directly on the front of the crankshaft, there is no clutch mechanism in aero engines. The timing gear and ancillaries such as the water pump and the alternator are driven from the front end of the crankshaft. 8

9 Pistons Timing Belt and Water Pump driving pulley location Flywheel attachment flange Rear Front Main Bearings Crankshaft Mechanical Arrangement - Basics 9

10 Mechanical Arrangement Engine Major Assemblies Most engines are made up from the following assemblies:- Cylinder Head This assembly houses most of the complex valve gear mechanism and the top of the cylinders, there is a gas seal a gasket fitted between the head and the block. The spark plugs, and inlet and exhaust manifolds are bolted to the head. Cylinder Block The block has the cylinders, with the pistons inside, and at the bottom end the is the main bearings in which the crankshaft rotates. Also mounted on the block are internally the oil pump and filter, and externally the water pump, and the alternator, and on some engines a mechanical fuel pump; modern cars usually have an electrically driven fuel pump mounted on the car. Rocker box cover Basically it has a simple job of covering all the valve mechanism and contain the lubricating oil. Manufacturers tend to fit elaborate covers on top of the engine purely for esthetic reasons, unfortunately this makes access to the various service replaceable parts more difficult. The Sump Like the rocker box, the sump simply covers the bottom end of the engine keeping the oil in. it also doubles on most engines as the oil tank. 10

11 Exploded View of the Engine Cylinder Head Assembly Timing Shaft Rocker Box Cover Valve Gear Cylinder Block Flywheel Crankshaft and Pistons Sump (Oil Tank) Mechanical Arrangement Main Parts 11

12 Mechanical Arrangement Valve Gear In order to compress the fuel air mixture in each cylinder, first it has to be able to get in, then once it is in, it has to be sealed in or compression cannot take place. This is done through the operation of inlet and exhaust valves. They are opened by a mechanical linkage driven by the rotating crankshaft and therefore can be timed to open and close at exactly the correct moment. The closing force is supplied by a spring, one for each valve. In addition the spring force, the energy in the combustion process also assists in forcing the valves closed. The seal is provided by a metal to metal conical seal face. 12

13 Valve Operation Inlet Valve Exhaust Valve The Inlet Valve needs to be open to allow fuel/air mixture in The Exhaust Valve needs to be open to allow burnt gases out Mechanical Arrangement Valve Gear 13

14 Mechanical Arrangement Valve Gear The opening motion comes from a rotating cam shaft. A cam has a raised portion that lifts the cam follower or push rod, which either operates a rocking lever or the cam bears directly on the top end of the valve stem, to open the valve. When the valve is forced open, the return spring is compressed, so the when the cam rotates to a none raised section, the spring can push the valve closed. Note: - 1. The inlet and exhaust valve work in exactly the same manner. 2. In a four stroke engine each inlet and exhaust valve opens once for every two turns of the crankshaft, therefore the gearing to the valve camshafts is 2:1. 14

15 Inlet Valve Closed Inlet Valve Open Rocker Rocker Shaft Closing spring Valve Seat Push Rod Push Rod Mechanism Cam Shaft Valve Lift Mechanical Arrangement Valve Gear 15

16 Mechanical Arrangement Valve Gear Below are illustrated different valve operating mechanisms; the push rod mechanism is included for comparison. The other two are overhead cam mechanisms, one with a rocker, one without. Note: the less parts there are in a mechanism, the more accurately it should work with the opening and closing times, and therefore the more efficient the engine. Some engines feature a hydraulic system for opening valves (closing is still via a return spring), but driven by a cam Some manufacturers are now fitting VARIABLE valve timing; this is to ensure that the valves operate at the optimum point at all rpm values to gain the maximum efficiency out of a piston engine. 16

17 Overhead Cam - No Rocker Overhead Cam and Rocker Push Rod Mechanism Mechanical Arrangement Valve Gear 17

18 Mechanical Arrangement Cam Drive Moving the cam shaft to the cylinder head section of the engine, took away the need for push rods etc. However, driving the overhead camshafts required a different method to a direct gear connection possible with the push rod system. Initially, chains, usually multiple width link (the illustration below shows a single link) were used and some manufacturers continue to use them. Other manufacturers use a toothed rubber belt. Toothed rubber belts are quieter and need to be changed at the prescribed interval (designated miles or hours) as over time they stretch, this can cause in-efficiency in the engine and loss of power at best, and at worst severe engine damage. With all types, there are belt tensioners to take out the backlash (play or looseness) inherent in mechanical systems. 18

19 Twin Cam System Modern Engines use a toothed rubber belt to drive the cam shafts Chain Tensioners Cam Drive Mechanism Crankshaft and Pistons Mechanical Arrangement Valve Gear 19

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