# A STUDY ON VARIOUS TYPE OF ROTOR DISC BRAKE USING FAE ANALYSIS MOHD AFFENDI BIN IBRAHIM

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1 A STUDY ON VARIOUS TYPE OF ROTOR DISC BRAKE USING FAE ANALYSIS MOHD AFFENDI BIN IBRAHIM Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for award of the degree of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering with Automotive Engineering Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG JUNE 2013

2 vii ABSTRACT This thesis deals experiences on finding stress distribution on the various brake discs. The test is done in simulation. The disc brake is modeled using SOLIDWORK 2012 software and simulation analysis is done FAE analysis using ALGOR software. The result for distribution stress on various disc brakes is compared. In this thesis normal, drilled, grooved and combination disc brakes are used. The result of simulation for every type of disc brake is compared. The maximum stress von mises is simulated using ALGOR. The difference in the results between each type of disc brake is discussed. The final selected maximum stress von mises for simulation is based on mesh 100%. Force selected applied on brake pad in this simulation is 62.5 N, 125 N and N. Simulation result maximum stress for normal disc brake is kn/m 2 at 62.5 N, kn/m 2 at 125 N and kn/m 2 at N. Simulation result maximum stress for drilled disc brake is kn/m 2 at 62.5 N, kn/m 2 at 125 N and kn/m 2 at187.5 N. For simulation result maximum stress for grooved disc brake is kn/m 2 at 62.5 N, kn/m 2 at 125 N and kn/m 2 at kn/m 2. Simulation result maximum stress for combination disc brake is kn/m 2 at 62.5 N, kn/m 2 at 125 N and kn/m 2 at N. The different value of maximum stress at various type of disc brake are discussed and analyzed.

4 ix TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGES TITLE PAGE EXAMINER APPROVAL DOCUMENT SUPERVISOR DECLARATION STUDENT DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES i ii iii iv v vi vii vii ix xi xii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Project Background Problem Statement Project Objective Project Scope 4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Brake Systems Brake System Categories Disc Brake Normal Disc Brake Drilled Disc Brake 10

5 x Grooved Disc Brake Combination Disc Brake Disc Material Manufacturing of Disc Brake Introduction to Stress Von Mises Stress Yield Criterion Introduction SolidWorks Introduction to Algor 20 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction Model D Model Analysis Mesh size D analysis 30 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Simulation Result Result comparison 40 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Conclusion Recommendation 43 REFERENCES 44 APPENDICES 46

6 xi LIST OF TABLES Table No. Title Page 2.1 Classification and mechanical properties gray cast iron Dimension for disc brake Parameter of analysis Result for 62.5N force Result for 125N force Result for 187.5N force Percentage max stress distribution for 65N force 42

7 xii LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title Page 1.1 Project flow chart Modern automotive brake system Disc brakes Example normal disc brakes Example of drilled disc brakes Example of grooved disc brakes Example of combination disc brakes Flow chart for manufacturing brake Permanent aluminium mold Mold setting process Press process Core removed process The crucible and the fire mounths Computer guided robot arm Photographs process is taken using laser technology Methodology flow Normal disc brake Dimension drawing for normal disc brake Drilled disc brake Dimensions drawing for drilled disc brake Grooved disc brake Dimension drawing for grooved disc brake Combination disc brake Dimension drawing for combination disc brake Brake pad Brake pad drawing 27

8 xiii 3.12 Disc brake assembly Work flow % mesh size Apply force condition Normal disc brake at 62.5N force Drilled disc brake at 62.5N force Grooved disc brake at 62.5N force Combination disc brake at 62.5N force Graph max stress von mises stress vs force for normal disc brake Graph max stress von mises stress vs force for drilled brake Graph max stress von mises vs force for grooved disc brake Graph max stress von mises vs force for combination disc brake Comparison max stress von mises vs force graph between each disc 40 brake

9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1: INTRODUCTION Brakes are by far the most important mechanism on any vehicle because the safety and lives of those riding in the vehicle depend on proper operation of the braking system. It has been estimated that the brakes on the average vehicle are applied 50,000 times a year. Brakes are an energy-absorbing mechanism that convert vehicle movement into heat while stopping the rotation of the wheels. All braking systems are designed to reduce the speed and stop a moving vehicle and to keep it from if the vehicle is stationary. Typically, there are two types of brake that were implement in today s car, drum brakes and disc brakes. Drum brakes are used on the rear of many rear-wheel- drive, front-wheel-drive, and four-wheel-drive vehicles. Disc brakes are used on the front of the most vehicles built since the early 1970s and on the rear wheels of many vehicles. A disc brake operates by squeezing brake pads on both sides of rotor disc that is attached to the wheel.

10 2 1.2 PROJECT BACKGROUND Brakes are one the most important safety and performance components in automobiles. Appropriately, ever since the advent of the automobile, development of brakes has focused on increasing braking performance and readability. Brake deals with many design variables and components in a complex brake system. The design of the disc is important to determine the rate of stress and uniform wear of disc brake pad and thus affecting braking efficiency. This project will focus on the simulation or comparison analysis on various type disc brakes during operation when forces and is applied during the static. The stress distribution of disc from simulation can be analyzed. 1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENTS The disc brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of wheel of vehicles. To stop the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads is forced mechanically, hydraulically, pneumatic, or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc and cause the wheel to slow or stop. When brakes were used rapidly, the discs and brake pads will become stress. The brake cannot brake with better because disc brake become crack. Now, there are different types of disc brake design which is normal disc brake, drilled disc brake, grooved disc brake and combination drilled and grooved brake disc. Normally every different type of design disc brake produces different brake performance and stress. This happens because during the brake process the formation of gas between brake pads and rotors. The design of the disc is important to determine the rate of stress and uniform wear of disc and brake pad and thus affecting braking efficiency. This project will focus on the simulation analysis of various disc brake during operation when forces and moments generate from braking is applied during the static. The stress distribution of disc from simulation result can be analyzed.

11 3 1.4 PROJECT OBJECTIVES analysis. To investigate and analyze the stress distribution for various disc brakes using FEA 1.5 PROJECT SCOPES To achieve the mentioned objectives, a disc brake from Proton Wira 1.5L will be used as reference. The project scope includes: a) Selection of disc brake that will be used in this project b) Determination mechanical properties and dimension of the selected disc brake. c) Modeling the disc brake in Solid works 2012 software. d) Performing Finite Element Analysis using Algor software. e) Comparison stress analysis between each types of disc brake.

12 4 1.6 FLOW CHART Introduction: determine of objective, scope and problem identification Background study, research, journal and books No Understand project Yes Literature review Methodology FYP 1 presentation Model (solid work 2012) Algor software Run analysis Result and discussion Related to Conclusion FYP 2 presentation Figure 1.1: Project Flow Chart

13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 BRAKE SYSTEM The braking system provides the means to stop a car. The braking system is considered by many people to be the most important system involved in the operation of a vehicle. The ideal braking systems is one that will allow the driver to bring a vehicle to a stop in the shortest possible distance (Thomas W. Birch, 2004). The modern automotive brake system has been refined for over 100 years and has become extremely dependable and efficient. The typical brake system consists of disk brakes in front and either disk or drum brakes in the rear connected by a system of tubes and hoses that link the brake at each wheel to the master cylinder. Vehicle brake system operation begins with the driver and the application of the brake pedal. Brakes slow and stop a vehicle by transforming vehicle motion into heat energy. The amount of heat produced is proportional to the vehicle speed and driver foot pressure on the brake pedal. Fast vehicle speeds and quick stops produce more heat. The brake system is comprised of many sub-systems. Stopping a vehicle requires that all brake sub-systems work together. Other systems that are connected with the brake system include the parking brakes, power brake booster and the anti-lock system.

14 6 To stop a wheel, the driver exerts a force on brake pedal. The force on the brake pedal pressurizes brake fluid in a master cylinder. This hydraulic force is transferred through steel lines and flexible brake lines to a wheel cylinder caliper at each wheel. Hydraulic pressure to each wheel cylinder or caliper is used to force friction material against the brake drum or disc and causes the rotating part to slow and eventually stop. Figure 2.1: Modern automotive brake system Source: James D. Halderman, Brake System Categories Brake system components can be classified and placed into six subsystem categories depending on their function (James D. Halderman, 2010). i) Apply system. The driver starts the operation of the braking system by pressing on the brake pedal. The apply system includes all the levers, pedals or linkage needed to active a braking force.

15 7 ii) Boost system. The boost (power brake) system is used on most vehicles to reduce the force that the driver must exert on the brake pedal. iii) Hydraulic system. Force from pedal force transferred to the hydraulic system, where the force is directed through pipes and hoses to the wheel brakes. iv) Wheel brakes. Hydraulic pressure from the hydraulic system moves the piston, which uses friction to press material against a rotating drum or disc. The resulting friction slows the rotation of the wheels. v) Brake balance control system. Mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic components are used to ensure that brakes are applied quickly and with balanced pressure for safe operation. Components include metering and portioning valves, and antilock braking system components. vi) Braking warning lights. The red braking warning lamp (RBWL) lights whenever a hydraulic system failure occurs and the amber ABS warning lamp or dim red brake light indicates an ABS self-test a possible problem in the ABS system. 2.2 DISC BRAKE A disc brake system usually consists of break disc rotor, two brake pads and a caliper. The combination of these components allows the rotating wheel to experience severe braking in a short stopping distance. The centre part of the brake disc has a circular aperture, which is locates on the wheel hub. It is surrounded by a number of holes for the wheel bolts. The brake disc rotates along with the wheel. The normal load, produced when the brake is actuated result in the generation of an in-plane friction force at the disc-pad interface. This in turn produces a brake torque about the centre of rotation of the wheel. The reaction to the brake torque is seen in the brake force, between the tire and ground, which slow the vehicle.

16 8 Disc brakes work by applying pressure to two brake pads on opposite sides of a spinning rotor attached the hub of a wheel. Disc brake pad are mounted in a caliper that sits above the spinning disc. All friction components of disc brake are exposed to the air, which helps to cool the brake parts and braking effectiveness during repeated hard stops from higher speeds. A disc brake requires higher hydraulic pressure and greater force to achieve the same stopping power as a comparable drum brake (Jack ERjavec, 2004). Disc brakes are widely used for reducing velocity by the friction caused by pushing brake pad against a brake disc with a set of calipers. The brake disc normally made by cast iron, but may in some cases made by composites (C.H.Gao, 2012). The contacts conditions between the disk and pads correspond to heat flux which is function of the time and space variables. The thermal boundary conditions outside the contact region correspond to convection, radiation and the known temperature. The sliding speed and the frictional heat flux are time dependent and there are intensity related with pressure increasing model (Ali Belhocine, 2011). Figure 2.2: Disc brakes \ Currently, there are two types of disc brake rotor used in passenger car which is solid disc and ventilated disc. A solid rotor is simply a solid piece of metal with friction surface on each side and this of rotor is light, simple, cheap and easy to manufacture. A ventilated disc is a rotor with various opening profiles likes holes and grooves which provide better cooling performance. Therefore, it widely used compared to solid disc.

17 9 Solid disc brake are often used on smaller in width, lighter, and less expensive compare with vented disc brake more using in heavier brake. Solid disc also have various opening profile likes drilled, grooves and combination both of them. For this project, solid disc with opening various profile was selected which is normal disc brake, drilled disc brake, grooves disc brake and combination drilled and grooves disc brake Normal Disc Brake Normal disc brakes have more surface area touching the pads when the brakes are applied so initially have better braking power. But normal brake have some problem is that when brakes in progress get a buildup of gas between the pad and disc which causes brake fade and pad glazing. The extra heat cal also warp the discs if this brakes are poorly made or have been paired inappropriate pads (Evilution, 2012). Figure 2.3: Example normal disc brake Source: Evilution, 2012

18 Drilled Disc Brake The face for these disc brakes is drilled through all mainly to increase surface area which it can rid them of heat quicker. Function the holes on the surface this brake is the way to stopping the gas build up that cause brake fade. But, the problem with drilled discs is that the holes can have a tendency to start cracking and collect dust (Evilution, 2012). Figure 2.4: Example of drilled disc brake Source: Evilution, Grooved Disc Brake The faces of these discs have diagonal lines cut. The function of that line is to allow the venting of brake pad gasses thus eliminating brake fade. It also ejects brake pad dust to stop glazing of the pad. It keeps the pad face fresh allowing better braking. But, the problem this disc is tendency to be noise when the brakes are applied due to scrubbing of the pads (Evilution, 2012).

19 11 Figure 2.5: Example of grooved disc brake Source: Evilution, Combination Disc Brake A very common combination disc brake is drilled and grooves disc brake. This disc gives better performance during brakes process. This disc normally used for sport car or racing car (Evilution, 2012). Figure 2.6: Example of combination disc brake Source: Evilution, 2012

20 DISC MATERIAL The disc brake rotor is made from gray cast iron material which provides good wear resistance with high thermal conductivity and the production cost is low compared to other high performance disc brake rotor material such as carbon composities and ceramic based composities (H.Jang, 2003). Cast iron a material that has been commonly used to create components of varying complexity for a long time. This is because it is relatively inexpensive and easily formed into complex shapes. Normally, cast iron consists of two substances: graphite (carbon) flakes and matrix ferrous metal. Both of these constituents have a significant influence on the stress-strain response of the material. This is because of the weak bonding between the graphite flakes and metal matrix which causing gaps or voids to open in the material under tension. Measured the specific heat and thermal conductivity at room and elevated temperatures of various cast iron materials used in brake disc. That carbon had a large influence on these properties. In addition, the longer the graphite flakes, the greater the thermal diffusivity (Hecht, 1996). Classifications of cast irons are determined by the eutectic graphite/carbide form present in the iron microstructure. Classifications are controlled by alloying, solidification rates and heat treatment. White irons, malleable irons, gray irons, ductile irons and compacted graphite irons (Mark Ihm, 2009). Cast irons are indicated to produce brake disc because have excellent thermal conductivity besides the low costs of the production, which eases the dissipation of heat generated by the friction of the pads during a stop, and the capacity of damping vibrations (Omar Maluf, 1999). For this project material gray cast irons are selected. The gray cast iron classifications and mechanical properties like table below:

21 13 Table 2.1: Classifications and Mechanical Properties Gray Cast Iron Source: Mark Ihm, 2009 Casting Grade SAE J431 Class per ASTM A48M Typical Carbon Content (%) Theoretical Minimum Tensile Strength Typical Brinnel Hardness Range (BHN) (MPa) G G G G G G : MANUFACTURING OF DISC BRAKE Core molding raw material Sand molding raw material Melt raw material Core making process Core setting Sand mixing process Sand molding process Melt treatments Melting process Metal pouring process Casting cooling and shakeout Casting cleaning process Figure 2.7: Flow chart for manufacturing brake disc process Source: Mechanical engineering, 2000

22 14 i) To begin this process following ingredients, short carbon fibers, carbon powder and heat molded resin must be mixed together. ii) Then using an automated machine this mixture is poured into a permanent aluminum mold cavity which is in shape of a brake disc (disc ring), until it is half full. After permanent aluminum mold half full, the mold is removed and workers have to insert aluminum cores into a belt with gaps around the mold that allows the cores to be inserted into the mold. These cores will form a ventilation cavity in the disc ring (brake disc) to prevent the disc from overheating. Figure 2.8: Permanent aluminum mold Source: Mechanical Engineering, 2000 Figure 2.9: Mold setting process Source: Mechanical Engineering, 2000

23 15 iii) The mold again moves back into the automated machine to fill the other half of the mold cavity with the rest of the mixture that was poured into first half of the cavity. Once the cavity is full it is leveled using a roller and then using the cover or the other half of the permanent mold, it is covered and is pressed lightly to compact the contact inside. Figure 2.10: Press process Source: Mechanical engineering, 2000 iv) Then the fully covered mold is sent to a large press which applies 20 tons of pressure and heating to almost of 400 F. This heat and pressure compact the carbon fiber and resin into plastic and makes it stronger. v) Once the mold is cooled down to be handled, submerge it in cold water for 5-8 minutes which cools the disc ring completely, enabling them to pull out the cores that were inserted for the ventilation purposes. vi) Once all the cores have been removed, remove the cover of the mold and pull out the disc ring from the mold as shown in Fig Then using the computer guided machines smooth out all the rough edges on the disc ring and drill tiny ventilation holes. vii)then, put the disc ring into an oven and on over two days it gradually heats it to 1800 F.

24 16 Figure 2.11: Core removed process Source: Mechanical Engineering, 2000 viii) Then take a crucible which is a high heat resistant container and place five mounts inside so that it can hold the disc ring on them without having the disc ring to touch the base of the crucible. Once the disc is mounted on the crucible, place a funnel at the center of the disc ring and fill it with a fine silicon powder. Figure 2.12: The crucible and the five mounts Source: Mechanical Engineering, 2000 ix) Then loaded the crucible into a furnace for 24hours and allow it to gradually heat the disc ring to temperature of 3000oF until the silicon is melted

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