# Fourth Grade. Slide 1 / 146. Slide 2 / 146. Slide 3 / 146. Multiplication and Division Relationship. Table of Contents. Multiplication Review

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1 Slide 1 / 146 Slide 2 / 146 Fourth Grade Multiplication and Division Relationship Table of Contents Slide 3 / 146 Click on a topic to go to that section. Multiplication Review Properties of Multiplication Factors Prime and Composite Numbers Multiples Inverse Operations

2 Links to PARCC sample questions Slide 4 / 146 End of Year Non-Calculator #23 Non-Calculator #28 Non-Calculator #32 Slide 5 / 146 Multiplication Review Return to Table of Contents Multiplication is a fast way of adding a series of repeated numbers Using repeated addition or skip counting: Slide 6 / X 3 means X 3 = 15 4 X 8 means X 8 = 32 Or you can use a picture model: 5 x 2 = 10 s Write an example of a multiplication sentence related to addition and solve it.

3 Place Value and Multiplying Remember how each place value is 10 x's larger than the next? Slide 7 / 146 If we take any of the place value units, the next unit on the left is ten times as many. 1 ten = 10 x 1 one (1 ten is 10 times as much as 1 one) 1 hundred = 10 x 1 ten 1 thousand = 10 x 1 hundred Place Value and Multiplying Slide 8 / 146 We can apply this knowledge with larger numbers whose digits are in the tens, hundreds, or even thousands! 10 x 3 = x 3 = 300 1,000 x 3 = 3,000 We know these are true because our place value is increasing by 10x's with each equation. Place Value and Multiplying We know that if a number is increasing in place value, we need to add the additional place value to our answer. Slide 9 / 146 Let's look at some examples: 4 x 4 = 16 4 x 40 = x 40 = 1,600 5 x 4 = x 4 = x 40 = 2,000 Can you see how the place value is getting larger with each equation? Do you notice a pattern? It is important to understand how place value works, but there is a TRICK when multiplying numbers that end in zeros!

4 What is the Trick? Slide 10 / 146 What is 6 x 7 =? What if we multiplied 60 x 7 =? First, we know the place value increases. You can also use the zero trick by covering up the zero, multiplying 6 x 7, which equals 42, then add the zero back onto your answer. 60 x 7 = 42 Add zero to end to show 60 x 7 = 420 What is 50 x 2 then? What about 70 x 80 =? Be careful, in this problem you have to cover 2 zeros, which means you have to add 2 zeros at the end! Use the Trick Slide 11 / 146 What is 50 x 2 then? What about 70 x 80 =? (Be careful, in this problem you have to cover up 2 zeros, which means you have to add 2 zeros at the end!) Use the Trick Slide 12 / 146 Try these: 400 x 3 = 20 x 50 = 8 x 900 = 10 x 100 = 70 x 40 = 300 x 90 =

5 1 What would the multiplication number sentence look like for the repeated addition problem, ? Slide 13 / 146 A B 7 x 7 C 7 x 4 D 4 x 4 Slide 14 / What would the addition sentence look like for 3 X 4? A B C D What is the answer to 90 x 80 =? Slide 15 / 146 A 72 B 720 C 7,200 D 72,000

6 4 Select the statement that explains how the numbers 55 and 550 are different. Slide 16 / 146 A 550 is 1000 times larger than 55. B 550 is 100 times larger than 55. C 550 is 10 times larger than 55. D 550 is 1 times larger than What is 40 x 600 =? Slide 17 / 146 A 2,400 B 24,000 C 240 D 24 The numbers in a multiplication sentence are represented by factors and the product. - Factors - numbers you multiply together to get another number - Product - the answer when 2 or more numbers are multiplied together Slide 18 / 146 Here are 2 ways to write a multiplication sentence. 2 X 5 = 10 factor product factor 2(5) = 10 factor factor product

7 6 Using the multiplication sentence, 6 x 8 = 48 Which number is the product? Slide 19 / Using the multiplication number sentence, 9 x 5 = 45 Which numbers are factors? Slide 20 / 146 A 9 B 5 C 45 D 0 8 What is the product for 6 x 6? Slide 21 / 146

8 9 What is the product for 7(9)? Slide 22 / 146 Arrays Multiplication sentences can also be represented using picture models called arrays. Slide 23 / 146 For example: 2 X 5 means X 5 = 10 4 X 6 means X 6 = means 3 X 4 3 X 4 = 12 Arrays Array sentences are written with the number of rows first and the number of columns second. Slide 24 / 146 columns rows columns rows 4 x 2 2 x 4 Create a multiplication sentence, draw a picture to represent your values.

9 Arrays Slide 25 / 146 Drag arrows into each rectangle to make the arrays. How are they the same? Different? 5 x 2 2 x 5 Arrays 1.On a dot paper, draw several arrays 2.Trade your paper with a partner and label your partners arrays with the appropriate multiplication sentence inside or next to the drawing. Slide 26 / 146 Example: 8 X 3 = 24 Slide 27 / 146

10 10 Which array is a model for 3 x 4? Slide 28 / 146 A C B D none of the above 11 This array shows: Slide 29 / 146 A 1 x 3 B 3 x 1 C 3 x 0 D 0 x 3 12 Which array is circled? Slide 30 / 146 A 5 x 8 B 2 x 4 x 5 C 8 x 5 D 10 x 7

11 Slide 31 / 146 Properties of Multiplication Return to Table of Contents Multiplication Properties They make solving multiplication easier! Slide 32 / Zero Property 2. Identity Property 3. Commutative Property 4. Associative Property 5. Distributive Property 3 X 0 = 0 4 X 1 = 4 5 X 6 = 6 X 5 2 X (3 X 4) = (2 X 3) X 4 9(20-3) = (9 X 20) - (9 X 3) These properties are directly related to the addition properties you learned previously! Multiplication Properties Discuss with an elbow partner, what do all of these equations have in common? Slide 33 / X 0 = 0 m X 0 = 0 0 X 32 = 0 0 X R = 0 0 X 564 = 0 7,895 X 0 = 0 Based on these examples, what do you think 5,280 X 0 =?

12 Zero Property Slide 34 / 146 Any number multiplied by 0 is always zero 0 X 3 = = 0 6 X 0 = 0 You can also use variables to represent any value 0 X m = 0 Try this: If Jackie has 5 hats and zero marbles in each hat. How many marbles does she have in all? Identity Property Slide 35 / 146 Any number multiplied by ONE is always the original number 5 x 1 = 5 1 X 2,345,407 = 2,345,407 Try this: Solve for p in the following: 234 X p = 234 What tools did you use to find your answer? Tell a partner. Multiplication Properties Slide 36 / 146 Solve the following equations. Write what multiplication property is represented in all 3 equations, then discuss how you determined the value of the variable in each one. Property: X 1 = z 2.q X 2,567 = 2, ,765 X d = 98,765

13 13 Is 7 X 0 = 0 an example of the Zero Property? Slide 37 / 146 Yes No 14 Which equation is representing the Identity Property? Slide 38 / 146 A 8 X 8 = 64 B 90 X 1 = 1 C 36 X 2 = 36 X 2 D 4 X 1 = 4 Commutative Property Slide 39 / 146 The commutative property of multiplication means the order of the numbers does not change the result (answer) of the problem 3 X 5 is the same as 5 X 3 (They both equal 15) To remember this property, think of communicating (talking) with your friends! Here are some more examples: a x b = b x a 3 x 8 = 8 x 3 Try This: How can you finish the equation using the Commutative Property? 7 X 4 =? X?

14 Associative Property Slide 40 / X (2 X 4) = (3 X 2) X 4 (8 X 3) X 9 = 8 X (3 X 9) 4 X (7 X 6) = (4 X 7) X 6 Talk it out: Looking at the examples to the left, how would you define the Associative Property in your own words? Click inside the box for definition. Associative Property Slide 41 / 146 Is this Associative? 6 X (5 X 2) = (2 X 5) X 6 Watch out! No, because the order of the numbers changed, Click here for the answer... not the parenthesis. Commutative and Associative Properties Move the definitions and examples below to the appropriate column. Slide 42 / 146 Commutative Associative Keeps the same numerical order, but parenthesis move 3 X 5 = 5 X 3 Can reorder numbers in the expression 5 X (7 X 2) = (5 X 7) X 2

15 Distributive Property Slide 43 / 146 In the Distributive Property, you distribute, pass, or hand out multiplication to numbers within parenethsis using addition or subtraction. There are 2 common ways to use this property Distributive Property Slide 44 / 146 #1: You can use it to find math facts that can be difficult to remember... Lets solve 6 X 12 = A by distributing 6 into parts of 12 Step 1: Break 12 into easier numbers you can multiply. We know = 12, right? So... Step 2:...if we distribute (pass out) 6 to both digits, we will have (6 X 10) + (6 X 2) Step 3: Solve the equation starting with multiplication. 6 X 10 = X 2 = = 68 What is another way you could distribute 12 to solve? Let's Practice! Slide 45 / 146 How can you solve 8 x 13 by using the Distributive Property? First, let's think of an easy way to break apart the larger number... What are possible numbers that add up to equal 13? Does it make more sense to use = 13 or = 13? Why? Let's use , so applying the Distributive Property to solve would look like this... 8 x 13 = (8 x 10) + (8 x 3) = = 104 Derived from

16 Let's Practice! Slide 46 / 146 How can you solve 8 x 13 by using the Distributive Property? Can you solve 8 x 13, by distributing 13 using the numbers 8 and 5? What is your answer? Derived from Your Turn Slide 47 / 146 With your elbow partners solve the following using the distributive property. Remember to first decide what 2 numbers make the larger number easier to solve with. For example, in #1, does it make more sense to break 12 into or ? Show your work! 6 x 12 = 34 x 8 = 42 x 4 = Distributive Property #2 You can solve an equation with parenthesis by distributing the number on the outside to digits on the inside. Slide 48 / 146 Remember a number next to parenthesis means to multiply! 6(9 + 5) = (6 X 9) + (6 X 5) = 75 You use addition after you find the products because that is the function inside the parenthesis. Try this using the distributive property: 9(8 + 6) =

17 Distributive Property Slide 49 / 146 You can also use it with subtraction. Instead of adding the products together, you will subtract them. Notice subtraction being carried throughout since it is function within the parenthesis 8(7-3) = (8 X 7) - (8 X 3) = 32 Try this using the distributive property: 3(6-4) = Let's Practice! Slide 50 / 146 Click on the picture below to check your understanding of multiplication properties. You can take turns shooting hoops and answering questions! 15 Which number sentence demonstrates the Distributive Property? Slide 51 / 146 A 6(4 X 2) = 6(2 X 4) B 3 X (2 X 1) = (3 X 2) X 1 C 5 x 32 = (5 X 30) + (5 X 2) D None of them

18 16 A candy company has orders for chocolate bars from 5 different stores. Each order contains 45 chocolate bars. Choose the equation you should use to figure out how many chocolate bars the candy company needs to make. Solve. Slide 52 / 146 A 4 x 50 = chocolate bars B (45 x 5) - (45 x 5) = chocolate bars C (30 x 5) + (5 x 5 ) = chocolate bars D (5 x 40) + ( 5 x 5) = chocolate bars 17 Is 8 X (9 X 3) = 9 X (8 X 3) an example of the Associative Property? Explain your answer. Slide 53 / 146 True False 18 Which set of equations show the Associative Property? *remember the numbers are socializing! Slide 54 / 146 A 9 X 5 X 4 = 5 X 4 X 9 B 3 X (54 X 6) = (3 X 54) X 6 C 2 X 0 = 0 D 2(5-4) = (2 X 5) - (2 X 4) Answer

19 19 In the Commutative Property, you can switch the numbers around and still get the same answer. Slide 55 / 146 Yes No 20 Which two equations represent the statement "48 is 6 times as many as 8?" Select the two correct answers. Slide 56 / 146 A 48 = B 48 = 6 x 8 C 48 = 6 x 6 D 48 = E 48 = 8 x 6 From PARCC sample test 21 Rewrite the expression 8(4 + 3) using the Distributive Property of Multiplication. Then simplify your answer. Slide 57 / 146

20 22 What property is being represented by 8 X 3 = 24; 3 X 8 = 24? Slide 58 / 146 A Identity Property B Commutative Property C Associative Property D Zero Property Answer Slide 59 / Which property is being demonstrated in 7 x 16 = (7 X 10) + (7 x 6) A Distributive Property B Associative Property C Idenity Property D Commutative Property 24 Which property is shown? 5 x 4 = 20 4 x 5 = 20 Slide 60 / 146 A B C D Identity Commutative Zero Same Answer

21 25 Which set of number sentences show the commutative property? Slide 61 / 146 A 7 x 3 = = 21 B 4 x 1 = 4 0 x 4 = 0 C 8 x 2 = 16 2 x 8 = 16 D = = 6 Slide 62 / 146 Factors Return to Table of Contents What is a Factor? Slide 63 / 146 What is the multiplication sentences represented by these arrays? click to reveal 1 X 8 = 8 2 X 4 = 8 Both arrays equal the product of 8. Remember, factors are 2 numbers multiplied to get a given product. Factors, 1 X 8, and 2 X 4 both multiply to equal the product 8. So we know the factors of 8 are: 1, 2, 4, 8 Derived from

22 What is a Factor? Slide 64 / X 8 = 8 2 X 4 = 8 You can represent given factors by using a factor rainbow. Derived from Factor Rainbows Factor Rainbows help organize the numbers and allow you to check your work to make sure you find ALL factors. Slide 65 / 146 Lets factor 12: Look at the following arrays. What multiplication sentence are they showing? 1 X 12 =12 2 X 6 =12 Circle the factors. Write these factors in numerical order using the factor rainbow. Derived from Factor Rainbows Slide 66 / 146 Draw another array to represent another pair of factors for 12. Now rewrite all the factors found for 12 using a factor rainbow. click to reveal 3 X 4 = Derived from

23 Helpful Hints 1.Always start factoring with the number and 1. 2.Even numbers always have 2 as a factor. You will need to find the number that multiplies with 2 that equals the given number to know the factor pair! 3.Numbers with 5 as a factor have a 0 or 5 in the ones place value. 4.If you make a factor rainbow, and cannot connect a number to another factor it could be... - You forgot to find the other factor and should do so. - The other factor is the same number. Slide 67 / 146 Helpful Hints Slide 68 / 146 For example: Take the number 9. The factors are 1, 3, 9 Discuss with your partner why 3 does not have a factor pair, but this factor rainbow is correct. click to reveal The number 3, does not have a factor to connect to because 3 x 3 = 9. This number only needs to be written once! 26 Is there a factor missing from this factor rainbow for the number 16? Slide 69 / 146 Yes No

24 How do you know you've found ALL the factors? Lets factor 18: 1. We always start with 1 and the number, in this case Then you continue to think of numbers and/or draw arrays that multiply to represent 18. Work up numerically, going to 2, then 3, and so on. If it doesn't multiply by another factor to equal 18, you know it's not a factor. 3. You will be able to make the factor rainbow, connecting each factor pair when you have found all of the factors! Slide 70 / 146 Think through it! Factor pairs of Check your factor pairs, make sure you didn't forget one or more! Partner Up and Try This Factor the following numbers using the strategies you've just learned. 30: 1, click 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 Slide 71 / : 1, click 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 45: 1, 3, 5, 9, 15, 45 click How can we check our work to make sure we have all the factors?...by using a factor rainbow click Lets check our work! Division with Factors Division can help to find factors of larger numbers Slide 72 / 146 Lets look at the number 54. How can we determine if 3 is a factor of 54? Use division to determine if 3 is a factor or not: 54 3 =? Because there is no remainder, you know that 3 is a factor of and 18 are a factor pair of 54 Use division when unsure of numbers that could be factors!

25 Division with Factors How can you find all the factors of 54? Slide 73 / 146 Let's find out together... 1.Begin with 1 and the given number, 54 2.Because 54 is even, we know 2 is a factor and 27 are factors Could you skip count to 1 4 find the missing factor as well? Previously we found 3 and 18 are factors. 4. Then 4 and so on, until you each 12. Is it necessary to divide to find if 5 is a factor of 54? Factors Using the strategies we just covered, multiplication facts and division, let's find the factor pairs of 60. Factor 60: 1. We know 1 and 60 are the beginning factors 2. Now we think about the number 2, is 60 an even or add number? It's even so 2 is a factor - now we need to find how many 2s 3. What about 3? Let's use division to find out Now we need to look at 4. Use division again. Factor Pairs Now keep working through the digits until you find the rest of the factors. What are all of the factors? Slide 74 / 146 Analyzing the Numbers Is 6 a factor of 54? If we know 6 is a factor can we say that 2 and 3 are also factors of 54? Is the following multiplication sentence true? 54 = 6 x 9 = (2 x 3) x 9 Slide 75 / 146 If we rewrite it vertically we can see how 6 relates to 2 and 3 54 = 6 x 9 = (2 x 3) x 9 Remember the Associative Property? Lets use it to socialize 3 with 9 to check if 2 and 3 are really factors. 54 = 2 x (3 x 9) 54 = 2 x = 54 This proves 2 and 27 are a factor pair of 54 Derived from Associative Property can help us find factors!!!

26 Let's Practice using Associative Property Slide 76 / 146 Is 6 a factor of 42? How do you know... We know 6 is factor because click 6 x 7 = 42 Let's use the Associative Property to determine if 2 and 3 are also factors of = 6 x 7 42 = (2 x 3) x 7 42 = 2 (3 x 7) 42 = 2 x = 42 Associative property at work! We can see that 2 is a factor of 42 because 2 and 21 are a factor pair that multply to equal 42! Derived from Factors Slide 77 / 146 Get with an elbow partner and answer the following. What is 6 x 12? Work with your partner to prove 6 is a factor of 72, so 2 and 3 must also be factors using the associative property.. Now find all of the factors of 72. Show your work. 27 Is 5 a factor of 75? Show how you know on paper and be prepared to explain your answer. Slide 78 / 146 Yes No

27 28 Select all of the factors for the number 27. hint: Make sure you think through each possible factor and make a factor rainbow before choosing an answer! Slide 79 / 146 A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 F 8 G 9 H 12 I 14 J If 8 is a factor of 56, can we also say that 4 and 2 are factors? Show your work and be ready to explain. Slide 80 / 146 Yes No 30 Select the three choices that are factor pairs for the number 28. Slide 81 / 146 A 1 and 28 B 2 and 14 C 3 and 9 D 4 and 7 E 6 and 5 F 8 and 3 From PARCC sample test

28 31 Which correctly lists all of the factors for 40? Slide 82 / 146 A 1, 40 B 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 20, 40 C 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 20, 40 D 1, 2, 20, Which correctly lists all of the factors for 31? Slide 83 / 146 A 1, 31 B 1, 3, 31 C 1, 3, 9, 31 D 1, 3, 7, 9, Which number is a factor of 22? Slide 84 / 146 A 44 B 6 C 8 D 2

29 34 Which number is a factor for 63? Slide 85 / 146 A 6 B 10 C 3 D 2 35 What factors can you use in the following equation to make a product that is an odd number between 30 and 60? Mark the answer with all possible solutions. X 5 = Slide 86 / 146 A 6, 7 and 8 B 7, 9 and 11 C 7, 9, 11 and 13 D 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 Using Factors with Area Imagine Suzie and her friend trying to build a sand castle. They want the castle to be 24 square feet when they are done. What are possible side lengths their castle could have? Slide 87 / 146 Using our knowledge of factors and area, we can create different lengths of the sides. Remember the area formula is length x width A = L x W 2 2 x 12 = We know 2 and 12 are a factor pair of 24 so we can make a castle area using these as dimensions. 3 3 x 8 =24 8 Suzie could also build her castle 3 by 8 feet.

30 Using Factors with Area Slide 88 / 146 Dillion needed to build a parking lot for the new high school. They needed it to be 100 square yards total in size. What are 3 possible dimensions Dillion could use to make his parking lot? 36 Craig's family decided that wanted to build a local neighborhood park. The city gave them 45 square yards to design their park in. What are possible dimensions that could have used to create it? (Select all that apply.) Slide 89 / 146 A 1 yard by 45 yards B 2 yards by 25 yards C 4 yards by 9 yards D 5 yards by 9 yards E 7 yards by 7 yards Slide 90 / 146 Prime and Composite Return to Table of Contents

31 Determining Prime/Composite Numbers Slide 91 / 146 Let's Think: When determining if a number is Prime or Composite, you have to think about the factors. What do you currently know about factors? How do you solve for factors? What do you use to check your work? Prime Numbers Let's look: 1 X 7 = 7 What are the factors of this equation? 1 and 7 are the only factors. click How do you know? Slide 92 / 146 Think about 1 X 5 = 5 What are the factors of this equation? 1 and 5 are the only factors. click Derived from Prime Numbers Slide 93 / 146 Numbers like 5 and 7 that only have 2 factors, 1 and itself, are called prime numbers.

32 Prime Numbers Practice Slide 94 / 146 Try this: Create a list of at least 2 other prime numbers with a partner. Remember, a prime number only has 1 and itself as factors. Composite Numbers Numbers with multiple factors are called composite numbers. Slide 95 / 146 Lets look at the number 8: Factors Pairs of We can see 8 is a composite number because it has more than 1 and itself as factors. There are 4 factors of 8. The factor pair 2 and 4 make it a composite number. Composite Numbers Slide 96 / 146 Try this: Is the number 45 a prime or composite number? Work with a partner creating a visual representation of why or why not. (Remember we have used arrays, factor tees, or factor rainbows to show our work.)

33 Prime Sort the Numbers Composite Slide 97 / 146 Slide 98 / 146 In the case of 24, you can find the prime factorization by taking and dividing it by the smallest prime number that goes into 24: 24 2 = 12. Now divide out the smallest number that goes 12: 12 2 = 6. Now divide out the smallest number that goes in 6: 6 2 = 3. Since 3 is prime, you're done factoring, and the p factorization is 2 x 2 x 2 x 3. Exceptions Slide 99 / 146 There are 2 numbers that do not qualify as prime or composite. 0 and 1 0 is not classified by these terms because no matter what number you multiply it by, it is always zero. Therefore, 0 is neither prime or composite. 1 is not classified by these terms because mathematicians have agreed it is easier to define the structure of our number system without it classified. Therefore, 1 is neither prime nor composite. Derived from

34 Click for Game Slide 100 / 146 Slide 101 / Sasha says that every number in the twenties is a composite number because 2 is even. Amanda says there are two prime numbers in the twenties. Who is correct? How do you know? A Sasha Answer B Amanda 38 Which of the following numbers are prime? (Select more than one answer.) Slide 102 / 146 A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 F 6

35 39 Which of the following numbers are composite? (Select more than one answer.) Slide 103 / 146 A 9 B 10 C 11 D 12 E 13 F Which of the following sets of numbers has all prime numbers? Slide 104 / 146 A 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 B 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 C 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 D 2, 3, 5, 7, If you complete the following equation. Is the answer a prime or composite number? Slide 105 / A Prime B Composite Answer

36 Slide 106 / Teacher Notes Circle the prime numbers to help the space shuttle to take off from Earth Slide 107 / 146 Multiples Return to Table of Contents What is a Multiple? Turn to a partner and skip count by 4s until your teacher says to stop! Ready? GO! Slide 108 / 146 Talk it out: What number did you land on? What are some things you noticed about the numbers while you were counting? Continue to skip count with your partner, starting where you left off until your teacher tells you to stop again. See if you notice any patterns this time. Derived from Talk it out: What did you notice this time?

37 What is a Multiple? When you skip count by any number, the numbers you say are called multiples. Slide 109 / 146 Let's keep talking: (small group or partners) Talk it out: How is a multiple different than a factor? How do we know that 20 is a multiple of 4? Is 20 a multiple of 5? How do you know? What about 6? Is 20 a multiple of 6? How do you know? Derived from What are multiples of 8? Multiples Slide 110 / 146 click 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88, 96, etc. Challenge question: We know that 2 X 4 = 8, right? We can reason that 8 is a multiple of 2 and 4 because if we skip count by 2, we get to 8, or if we skip count by 4, we also get to 8. If 8 is a multiple of 2 and 4, are multiples of 8 also multiples of 2 and 4? Let's find out by looking at 40, a multiple of 8: 40 = (5 X 4) X 2 40 = 20 X 2 Yes, 40 is a multiple of 2. Counting 2 twenty times, gets 40. Derived from 40 = 5 X 8 40 = 5 X (4 X 2) 40 = (5 X 2) X 4 40 = 10 X 4 Yes, 40 is a multiple of 4. Counting 4 ten times, gets 40. Finding Multiples between Slide 111 / 146 Take the number 84. Is 84 a multiple of the number 4? Think about ways you could solve this problem. When determining if a number is a multiple of another number you use skip counting, or you can also use division. This is very helpful with larger numbers is a multiple of 4 because when you divide it out, there are no remainders. factor 4 X 21 = 81 factor multiple

38 Slide 112 / 146 Click for interactive game practice. Slide 113 / List 3 multiples of 4. Slide 114 / 146

39 43 Select all of the multiples of 6. Slide 115 / 146 A 54 B 15 C 42 D 1 E 35 F 56 Answer 44 If you are trying to find multiples of 6, are you also finding multiples of 2 and 3? Slide 116 / 146 True False 45 If you know that 60 is a multiple of 6 ten times, is 60 also a multiple of 2? Slide 117 / 146 Yes No

40 46 How many times do you count 2 in order to reach 60? Slide 118 / 146 A 15 B 20 C 25 D Select each number that is a multiple of 8. Slide 119 / 146 A 1 B 2 C 4 D 8 E 20 F 24 G 36 H 58 I 64 J 80 From PARCC sample test 48 Select all of the multiples of 4. Slide 120 / 146 A 4 B 32 C 25 D 36 E 22 F 28

41 49 Megan s father won first place in a bicycle race. The race was divided into equal sections, each measuring exactly 7 miles in length. Which number could be the total number of miles of the race? Use your knowledge of multiples to solve. Slide 121 / 146 A 28 B 45 C 62 D 15 Hundreds Chart Activity Slide 122 / 146 By crossing out multiples of numbers, all of the prime numbers will be identified. Use red to cross out all the even numbers (2, 4, 6, etc.) Use green to cross out all the multiples of 3 (3, 6, 9, etc.) that remain. Use purple to cross out the multiples of 5 that remain. Use yellow to cross out the multiples of 7 that remain. Make a list of the remaining numbers. What kind of numbers are they? Slide 123 / 146

42 Slide 124 / 146 Click for answer Slide 125 / 146 Inverse Operations Return to Table of Contents Connecting our Learning Get with a partner and discuss: Slide 126 / 146 What are 2 math functions you have been repeatedly working with throughout this unit? click Multiplication and division Think about it 4 X K = 12 8 X 2 = Q B X 5 = 40 How do those functions work together when finding factors, multiples, and solving equations? How do you know the answer to each equation? What math function do you use to solve them?

43 Connecting our Learning When solving a given equation or expression, you can use inverse operations, to find the solution. Inverse operations are the opposite operations that undo each other. Slide 127 / 146 Now look at the examples from the previous page. Would you change your answer on what operation you use to solve it? What is different about how you solve the first example to the second one? 4 X K = 12 8 X 2 = Q B X 5 = 40 Multiplication and division are inverse operations. You can use each of them to undo the other in order to solve various equations. Click below to watch a video Slide 128 / 146 Slide 129 / 146 Helpful Hints with Inverse Operations Inverse operations are used to solve unknowns in an equation. An unknown can be represented using a,?, or a letter to stand for the missing number. A letter that stands for a missing number in an equation is called a variable. Multiplication and division are inverse operations. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations.

44 Inverse Operations Take the algebraic expression: 2m = 14 (Remember 2m means to multiply, 2 times the amount of "m".) Slide 130 / 146 Let's rewrite it so we see the multiplication sign: 2 x m = 14 Now, we need to "move" the 2 to the right side of the equation by dividing, which is the inverse operation of multiplication. 2 x m = m = 14 2 The last step is to solve. m = 7, because 14 divided by 2 equals 7. Fact Families Use Inverse Operations Fact Families are an easy way to use inverse operations. Take the numbers, 4, 7, and 28. These numbers create a fact family using multiplication and division. Slide 131 / x 4 = 28 4 X 7 = = = 7 is the division that undoes the multiplication of 7 x 4 Try this: 72 8 = 9 What inverse operation can you use to undo this equation? Write the new equation. Is there more than one way to write it? Inverse Operations Move equations to match each with its inverse. Slide 132 / = = = 6 6 x 10 = = 8 7 x 5 = 35 4 x 6 = 24 8 x 3 = 24

46 Inverse Operations Word Problems Slide 136 / 146 Try this: With a partner read the following, write an equation, and solve using inverse operations. A new video game you want is \$42. How much money do you need to save per week if you want to buy it in 7 weeks. Inverse Operations Word Problems Slide 137 / 146 Try this: With a partner read the following, write an equation, and solve using inverse operations. Stan was playing a game with this friend. His friend was trying to guess the number he was thinking of. Stan told him if he multiplied his number by 2 and added 9 the answer would be 21. Write an equation. Then use inverse operations to solve. 50 Division and multiplication are inverse operations. Slide 138 / 146 True False

47 51 Which equation shows the inverse operation for the equation 63 9 = 7? Slide 139 / 146 A 3 x 7 = 63 B 7 x 9 = 63 C 21 3 = 7 D 63-9 = 54 Answer 52 Which equation shows the inverse operation for the equation 5 x 4 = 20? Slide 140 / 146 A 20 4 = 5 B 20 1 = 20 C 20 2 = 10 D 10 x 2 = Use inverse operations to solve for the unknown in the equation. Slide 141 / 146 y x 6 = 54

48 54 Use inverse operations to solve for the unknown in the equation. Slide 142 / ? = 9 55 Use inverse operations to solve for the unknown in the equation. Slide 143 / 146 x 8 = Sammy's friend was trying to guess what number he was thinking of. Sammy told him if you multiply by 2 the answer is 24. What is Sammy's number? Write the equation showing the unknown value and solve using inverse operations. Slide 144 / 146 A 10 B 48 C 24 D 12

49 57 Your teacher thinks of a number, divides it by 5 and then adds 19. The answer is 28. What number did your teacher think of? Slide 145 / 146 A 45 B 5 C 28 D Scott is reading a book that is 50 pages long. Melanie is reading a book with 3 times as many pages. How many pages does Melanie's book have? Select the equation to represent this problem. Slide 146 / 146 A 50 3 = B 50 x 3 = m C 3 x m = 50 Answer D m 50 = 3

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