ELEN E9501: Seminar in Electrical Power Networks. Javad Lavaei

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1 ELEN E9501: Seminar in Electrical Power Networks Javad Lavaei Electrical Engineering Columbia University

2 What s the course about? The course is about energy: Power Grid Transportation Systems

3 What s the course about? Fossil fuel energy: Sustainable energy

4 What s important about energy? Many years ago, we learned how to generate power: We happily designed electric devices: How to provide power to loads: Assign a (or a few) generator to every group of loads.

5 What s important about energy? There were several issues: A single fault would lead to blackout. Every area needs a dedicated source of energy. Dedicated generators make energy more expensive. Remedy: Have a group of generators Have a group of loads Connect them to each other via a physical network (transmission lines) Power Network Generators Loads

6 What s important about energy? This seems really cool! Reliability: A fault may not cause blackout Efficiency: Shared generators reduce costs Less capital cost (infrastructure) This is not the end of the story! Reliability: A fault may propagate (from a state to another) Efficiency: There are an infinite number of operation strategies. Bad coordination between areas breaks the network down

7 What s important about energy? Emerging challenges: We are running out of gray energy. Traditional power generation leads to global warming. We can t tolerate power outages given our needs. Generation can t keep up with ever-growing demand. Possible solution: Replace fossil fuel energy with renewable energy Optimize reliability Optimize efficiency The modernized grid is called Smart grid.

8 What s the course about? Researchers from EE, CE, CS, ME, OR, Econ, Law, Phy, work on Smart Grid all together. If you re interested in energy, this course is right for you. Topics to be covered: Modeling of power systems (transmission lines, transformers, etc.) Architecture of power networks Operation of power systems (study of both steady state and transient behavior) Control of power networks Optimization for power networks Electricity market Smart Grid Theories to be covered: Circuit Control Optimization

9 What s the course about? References: "Power Systems Analysis" by Arthur R. Bergen and Vijay Vittal "Fundamentals of Power System Economics" by Daniel S. Kirschen and Goran Strbac "Applied Optimization: Formulation and Algorithms for Engineering Systems" by Ross Baldick "Convex Optimization" by Stephen Boyd and Lieven Vandenberghe Research papers What do I expect from you? Active participation Do a few homework sets Do a serious project Present your project What s the payoff? You will understand how power is delivered to your doorstep You will learn about top research problems in this area You will learn several mathematical tools (useful for your research)

10 Outline Modeling of power systems (transmission lines, transformers, etc.) Architecture of power networks Operation of power systems (study of both steady state and transient behavior) Control of power networks Optimization for power networks Electricity market Smart Grid

11 Modeling of Power Systems Transmission line Generator Capacitor bank FACTS Transformer Circuit, multi-phase modeling,.. Load

12 Outline Modeling of power systems (transmission lines, transformers, etc.) Architecture of power networks Operation of power systems (study of both steady state and transient behavior) Control of power networks Optimization for power networks Electricity market Smart Grid

13 Architecture of Power Networks Transmission and distribution networks (and their features)

14 Outline Modeling of power systems (transmission lines, transformers, etc.) Architecture of power networks Operation of power systems (study of both steady state and transient behavior) Control of power networks Optimization for power networks Electricity market Smart Grid

15 Operation of Power Systems (Steady State) Forecast loads How to find an operating point (PF)?

16 Operation of Power Systems (Transient) We have dynamics. How to study the real-time behavior of the network? Need tools from control theory.

17 Outline Modeling of power systems (transmission lines, transformers, etc.) Architecture of power networks Operation of power systems (study of both steady state and transient behavior) Control of power networks Optimization for power networks Electricity market Smart Grid

18 Control of Power Systems Various signals (e.g., frequency, voltage, ) must be kept at very narrow bands. Given a small disturbance in the system, the error must attenuate to zero. Design stabilizing controller (we ll talk about centralized versus decentralized).

19 Outline Modeling of power systems (transmission lines, transformers, etc.) Architecture of power networks Operation of power systems (study of both steady state and transient behavior) Control of power networks Optimization for power networks Electricity market Smart Grid

20 Optimization for Power Systems We want to optimize efficiency, minimize cost, maximize robustness, Interesting problems: OPF, SCOPF, UC, transmission planning, Tools from optimization (e.g., convex optimization) will be taught.

21 Outline Modeling of power systems (transmission lines, transformers, etc.) Architecture of power networks Operation of power systems (study of both steady state and transient behavior) Control of power networks Optimization for power networks Electricity market Smart Grid

22 Electricity Market Government is not in charge of generation. Consumers buy energy. Producers sell energy. We need a market for this (PJM). We will discuss the following: Various pricing signals Pool-based market Decentralized market Equilibrium

23 Outline Modeling of power systems (transmission lines, transformers, etc.) Architecture of power networks Operation of power systems (study of both steady state and transient behavior) Control of power networks Optimization for power networks Electricity market Smart Grid

24 Smart Grid Replace bulk generators with distributed generating units Integrate renewable energy, e.g. solar and wind Integrate electric vehicles Introduce a demand response strategy Enhance efficiency and reliability

25 Questions?

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