WESTERN INTERCONNECTION TRANSMISSION TECHNOLGOY FORUM

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2 The Latest in the MIT Future of Studies Recognizing the growing importance of energy issues and MIT s role as an honest broker, MIT faculty have undertaken a series of in-depth multidisciplinary studies. Previous studies have focused on energy supply technologies; our focus is on energy delivery the electric grid. Also, unlike other Future of studies, we do not focus on carbon constraints. 2

3 New Technologies Offer Great Opportunities Transmission and Substations: Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) New Sensor Technologies High Voltage DC Lines Superconducting Lines Fault Current Limiters Dynamic Line Rating Systems Energy Storage Distribution and Customers: Distribution Management Systems Outage Management Systems Volt/VAR Optimization Conservation Voltage Reduction Automated Fault Detection, Isolation, & Restoration Advanced Metering Systems Microgrids Control Centers: Improved System State Estimation Phase Angle Monitoring/Alarms Improved System Simulation Models Oscillation Detection New System Control Approaches 3

4 Outline Some system trends Transmission line technologies Solid state control technologies PMU and synchrophasor systems Balancing area topologies Renewable (wind) integration issues 4

5 T&D Losses (% of Total Generation) The U.S. Grid Performs Well Losses have fallen over time, are in line with other nations Reliability also seems in line with other developed countries Performance data are very weak U.S. Transmission and Distribution Losses % 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% Year 5

6 Transmission Investment in New England Source: ISO New England Transmission Project List, through October 2013v Update. 6

7 Payments to Maintain Reliability $400 $350 Regional Total Reliability Payments Dollars in millions $300 $250 $200 $150 $100 $50 $ Reliability Agreements NCPC Reliability Agreements ended in June 2010 Source: ISO New England Transmission Project List, through October 2013 Update. 7

8 Congestion Costs $ % $ % Dollars in millions $200 $150 $ % 1.0% $50 0.5% $ Congestion Costs Congestion as % of Energy Market Source: ISO New England Transmission Project List, through October 2013 Update. 0.0% 8

9 Peakier Load Duration Curves Raise Cost Air conditioning, shift away from industrial load have reduced capacity utilization. Electric vehicles charged in late pm could make this worse. Moving charging, other loads off peak could flatten curve and lower cost. But most current demand response programs focus on emergencies, not load leveling. Dynamic pricing would help smooth demand peakiness. 9

10 Three Constraints of Transmission Lines 10

11 Renewables Effect on System Inertia System inertia necessary to ride through transients Inertia provided by large rotating masses of conventional generators Solar provides no system inertia Wind provides inertia but no recovery 11

12 AC Lines Three conductor bundles (3 phases) Length limited by stability margin Compensating devices required to maintain voltage stability AC cables severely length limited Charging currents, resonance 12

13 High Temperature Superconducting Cable Liquid nitrogen: 65 K ( 208 o C) Demonstrated by LIPA in 2008: 138 kv ac, 574 MVA 600 m Increase capacity of existing cables Possible fault current limiter Allows increased line loading 13

14 Installation of the First Phase Conductor From Maguire et. al., Installation and Testing Results of Long Island Transmission Level HTS Cable, IEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity, vol. 10, no. 3, June

15 Solid State Transformer Concept 15

16 Examples of Static VAR Compensators Current injection orthogonal to line voltage Voltage injection orthogonal to line current 16

17 DC vs. AC Transmission DC lines not limited by stability considerations Cost and losses are issues Cost tradeoff a function of length Converter vs. line losses DC attractive for renewables located far from load centers 17

18 HVDC Requires complex and expensive converter terminals. Excellent for long distance transmission. Line costs/losses less than AC For 800 mile/6000 MW line: 765 kv ac twice as expensive as +/- 800 kv dc Ac losses twice those of dc Comparable cost and losses for 200 mile line 18

19 HVDC Converter Structures AC DC Current Source Converter Terminal (CSC) Voltage Source Converter Terminal (VSC) 19

20 Voltage Source Converter Greater control flexibility Aids stability, integration of remote renewables Permits use of solid dielectric cables Attractive for interconnects, not generator leads Higher losses than CSC Currently limited power rating 20

21 VSC HVDC (cont d) Doesn t require strong ac bus for commutation. Ideal for long cables Underground or under water 21

22 ABB HVDC Breaker 22

23 WHAT ABOUT RENEWABLES? 23

24 Renewables Require New Transmission But New Transmission For Renewables Will Not Necessarily: Reduce congestion or Increase reliability WESTERN INTERCONNECTION TRANSMISSION TECHNOLGOY FORUM 24

25 The Challenge of Ramping Wind Wind output more variable than load, imperfectly predictable. Work on better forecasting in progress. System operators studying, implementing other changes to facilitate more wind. Few incentives exist for flexibility today. BPA Total Wind Generation 12/3/ /10/

26 Another Ramping Example 26

27 Larger Balancing Areas Real Time Contingency Analysis (RTCA) should be expanded beyond boundaries of BAs. Need wide area system model. Standardization of models, e.g., nomenclature. Minimize ramping requirements for wind. 27

28 USING AMI + PRICING TO LEVEL LOAD Dynamic pricing + automated response can shift demand, but more research on consumer behavior is needed. Substantial ARRA-supported, state-mandated AMI investments provide a very important learning opportunity. 28

29 Introduction to Synchrophasors A network of phasor measurement units (PMUs) situated at strategic locations throughout the system. The data collected by the individual PMUs are synchronized using a GPS time stamp, making visible parameters such as phase relationships. 29

30 How Interconnected? The 2008 Florida Blackout 30

31 PMU Data Could Warn of Blackouts PMUs give frequent, GPS-synchronized measures of current, voltage, and phase angle at their locations. Ex-post analysis of 2003 blackout: 31

32 Benefits of a Synchrophasor Network System diagnostics and real-time analysis Increased transmission line capacity Operation closer to stability limits Determination of more accurate system model parameters Detection of anomalous system conditions E.g., low frequency oscillations Many others yet to be discovered 32

33 Synchrophasor Integration Issues Prior to SGIG few applications or standards, and interoperability difficult. Data quality Communication protocols Security concerns Post SGIG initiatives addressing these issues. NASPI Numerous IEEE standards Communication, calibration, hardware requirements, etc. 33

34 PMU Application Challenges Baselining what is normal operation? Turning data into actionable information Limited application software Communication latency in wide-area applications Cost/authority/maintenance Security and proprietary concerns Training Employing AI to determine/take actions 34

35 Recommendations from Chapter 2 R&D efforts should be undertaken to develop: 1) The analysis tools necessary to generate actionable information from data acquired from PMUs, and 2) The control schemes necessary to make use of this information by realizing the complementary potential of PMUs, FACTS, and other hardware devices. 35

36 Recommendations from Chapter 2 (cont d) NERC should continue to encourage relevant entities to participate in PMU data-sharing efforts necessary for the effective development and use of PMUs and wide-area measurement systems 36

37 NYT Headline Sunday Sept. 1, 2013 Power Outages Caused by Squirrels 37

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