Modeling, Structural & CFD Analysis and Optimization of UAV

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1 Modeling, Structural & CFD Analysis and Optimization of UAV Dr Lazaros Tsioraklidis Department of Unified Engineering InterFEA Engineering, Tantalou 7 Thessaloniki GREECE

2 Next Generation tools for UAV s The current paper present the usages of Hyperworks on the design of New ages Aerostructures as UAV's. 2

3 UAV marketplace a moving target UAVs are now in service in more than 50 countries. During 2007, these aircraft logged more than 500,000 flight hours, increase by logarithmic rate. Thousands of different aircraft in various stages of design, development or production. 70 active companies and nearly 200 unique platforms enter production or currently under development. Top 30 programs accounted for ~3,000 aircraft deliveries during 2008 and will deliver 3,350 more during 2009 about 93 percent of the delivery total. Over the next five years, the same programs will deliver about 13,000 aircraft. Over our forecast period, they will account for close to 65 percent of expected UAV deliveries. 3

4 UAV s Future Teal Group's 2010 market study estimates that UAV spending will more than double over the next decade from current worldwide UAV expenditures of $4.9 billion annually to $11.5 billion, totaling just over $80 billion in the next ten years. A new study reflects the rapid growth of interest in the UAV business by increasing the number of companies covered to almost 30 U.S., European and Israeli companies, and reflect the fundamental reshaping of the industrial environment 4

5 Types of UAV s Target drones UAVs that simulate enemy missiles or aircraft in the demonstration and testing of antiaircraft and antiship missiles systems. Radar decoys Unmanned decoy aircraft deployed from a larger manned aircraft and designed to subvert, confuse or fool enemy radar systems. Information, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) aircraft UAVs that perform a variety of surveillance, observation and data-relay missions. For combat troops on the ground, small UAVs, including micro-uavs (handheld/hand launched), provide over-the-hill scouting, to avoid ambushes and scare off insurgents. Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) Aircraft designed to provide unmanned weapons capabilities and support manned aircraft. Their capabilities include the use of bombs and missiles, electronic warfare equipment and directed-energy weapons. 5

6 Hyperworks A platform for Innovation Modern FE Modeling Ultimate post processing Robust CFD solver Explore, Study, Optimize Motion Dynamic Reduce weight PA speed up projects linear and non-linear simulations Altair Hyperworks is an engineering simulation environment which can use from engineers during all stages of the Design and Optimization of UAV's. From design stage when the engineer tests and validates new Shapes and mechanism and determine correct shapes for the engine inlet, determines optimum composite structure, reduce weight and provide more Payload. 6

7 CFD Analysis & Optimization on UAV From Design to the Reality of Flow Challenges Low Drag Cd First 3D Design High lift CL Less Noise Eliminate Turbulence Post Processing Coupling CFD + Optimization code Modeling for CFD Shapes for Optimization Determination of pressure distribution on the surface of the UAV that later on leads to calculations of aerodynamics characteristics of uav such as CL, CD and CM at various angle of attack Visualization of the airflow around the UAV using Post Processing to recognize some critical area with possible vortex reduction in the near future. The analytical of aerodynamics characteristics for various angles of attacks using CFD simulation will be conducted in this final stage 7

8 High Quality meshing for CFD By using Hypermesh the total cost on human hours from Geometry cleanup to tetra mesh reduced by 60%. Special tools as Layer meshing & Refinement box option provides fast and accurate mesh for CFD analysis. 8

9 CFD Optimization of the Wing shape The NACA 4412 Airfoil choose as an option for the UAV s wing, the NACA 4412 profile provides high CL on low speed for subsonic aircrafts. Several shapes (50) created for the optimization of the wing for reducing the CD and increase CL, in the same time several constrains have to be satisfied as volume and turbulence. 9

10 Cd Optimized wing The optimization of the wing create optimize performance as : Cd reduction = 35% CL increased =5% Turbulence reduction = 21% Optimized Cd /Iteration Iterations Initial Optimized 10

11 Optimized wing on several angles of attack Lift Coefficient Analysis For each wind tunnel airspeed, the value of CL increases as the angle of attack is increased until its maximum value at around α = 35º and decreases afterwards with lower slope. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results at Mach 0.6 and 0.8 also give the same trend with maximum CL located at α = 39º and α = 35º respectively. It is observed that the value of CLmax increases as the air velocity of the wind tunnel is increased. Hence, the CL max increases with the increase of Reynolds number. This explains the difference of values of CL max between the experiments and the CFD. Drag Coefficient Analysis The variation of drag coefficient (CD) versus angle of attack (α) taken at different air speeds and Mach numbers. It is observed that the variation of drag coefficient is very slow and almost constant at low angle of attacks (below 8º). In that range of α, CD is small, below 0.03 for both experiments and CFD. As explained in the previous section, at low angle of attack, the air flow is still attached to the body and the wing. Above 8º, CD grows at higher rate as α is increased. Within this range, the wing is already in stall condition. Around 35º, a slight deflection occurs on wind tunnel experiment curves. This is where the lift coefficient reaches its maximum value. This deflection is not clearly seen on the CFD curves. Beyond this angle of attack, the drag coefficient continues to increase with almost the same slope as between 8º and 34º, and it is getting slower when α approaches 90º. From the overall curves, it is observed that higher airspeeds (or higher Reynolds number) produce higher drag coefficients. 11

12 Nose Optimization The optimization of the Nose create optimize performance as : Cd reduction = 18% CL increased =2% Turbulence reduction = 10% Morph volume & Shapes Initial Optimized 12

13 Engine inlet Optimization The optimization of the Engine Inlet create optimize performance as : Cd reduction = 10% CL increased =2.89% Turbulence reduction = 12% Morph volume & Shapes Initial Optimized 13

14 Conclusions of the CFD & Structural Optimization CFD Optimization Conclusions CFD Analysis & Optimization Cd Reduction : 51 % CL Increased : 9.89 % Combat Radius Increased 34% Max take off load increased 10 % Stabilization Problems Solved CL = Optimized Flight Load Cd = Fuel Consumption Reduction Optimized Inlet for Better Engine Performance Optimized Turbulence flow 14

15 Structural Analysis and Optimization Load transfer from Acusolve to Hypermesh for Linear Analysis and Optimization Data from: Angles of Attack 0 0, 50, 15 0, 20 0 Aerodynamic loads on the wing from extra external fuel tanks External Devices as cameras etc Linear Interpolation Pressure on the UAV surface Structural model of the UAV 15

16 Structural Analysis of the UAV wing Analysis 25 Loadcases (strength, pressure) Elements 15 Material types 842 Plies 145 Laminates Aerodynamic Pressure on the wing surface Composite Structure 16

17 Structural Analysis of the UAV wing The UAV Wing is made by CFRP Material, several parts are assembled to create the wing. The deformation of the wing and the stresses have been calculated by using Radioss (Bulk). The traditional design of the CFRP wing provide us a heavy structure Deformation of the wing at angle of attack 0 0 Stresses on the wing at angle of attack

18 Optimization of the CFRP wing using Optistruct The optimization of the composite wing includes the optimization of each part composite - metal Loads : 25 loadcases (same as analysis) Model : elements (same as analysis) Skin Optimization Objective : Reduce Weight Safety Constrains : Strength, stability, strain Manufacturing Constrains : Thickness, Stacking etc Metal Parts Optimizaiton Optimal Structure Ribs Optimization Spars Optimization 18

19 Optimization of the CFRP wing using Optistruct Steps of the wing skin optimization using Optistruct Free-size optimization is used to identify the optimal ply shapes and locations of patches per ply orientation Size optimization is used to identify the optimal thicknesses of each ply bundle Shuffling optimization is used to obtain an optimal stacking sequence 19

20 Optimization of the CFRP wing using Optistruct Free size optimization of the skin 4 Plies with angles 0, 90, 45, -45 Thickness of each ply 4 mm Manufacturing Constrain : 0 0 & 90 0 min - 10%, max- 70% Weight Reduction 32% Thickness of the Ply of 0 0 Thickness of the Ply of 45 0 Thickness of the Ply of 90 0 Thickness of the Ply of

21 Optimization of the CFRP wing using Optistruct Size optimization Weight Reduction 32% In the second design phase, a size optimization is performed to fine tune the thicknesses of the optimized ply bundles from Phase 1. To ensure that the optimization design meets the design requirements, additional performance criteria on natural frequencies and composite strains are incorporated into the problem formulation. Design variables: Ply thicknesses, which have been defined in the size input deck from Phase 1 Objective: Minimize the total designable volume Constraints: Natural frequencies (1st ~ 5th) > 0.06 KHz Composite strains in the wing < 1800 micro-strain Ply Thicknesses available 0,1 0,2-0,3 0,4 mm Plies of 0 0 in several point Plies of 90 0 in several point Thickness 0.1 mm Thickness 0.25 mm Thickness 0.2 mm Thickness 0.3 mm Thickness 0.1 mm Thickness 0.25 mm Thickness 0.2 mm Thickness 0.3 mm 21

22 Optimization of the CFRP wing using Optistruct Shuffling optimization Weight Reduction 32% Shuffling optimization is used to obtain an optimal stacking sequence Design variables: Stacking seguence Objective: Optimize the stacking seguence Constraints: 1) The maximum successive number of plies of a particular orientation does not exceed 4 plies. 2) The + 45s and 45s are reversed paired 22

23 Optimization using Optistruct Optimization Conclusions Composite Parts Optimization Total Weight Reduction 38 % Stiffness Increased 12% Stresses Decreased 30 % Deformation Decreased 15% Optimized Initial 39 % Main fuseland 32 % Wing structure 25 % Fuse skin 22 % Sub structures 23

24 Optimization of other parts Overall Structure Optimization 198 Parts Optimized with Optistruct 124 Composite parts 23 Connections simulated and optimized New material and technologies as Nanotubes in composites tested Manufacturing constrains increase manufacturing time more than 30% Thermal loads from the engine was simulated 24 Different maneuvers loads tested Total time for Development reduce by 40% Topology Optimization used for Ribs Topology Optimization used for Internal structure Turbulence loads during take off and landing that would cause issue eliminated at the stages of development 24

25 Optimization using Acusolve & Optistruct Overall Conclusions Payload 450 Kg Payload 260 Kg Combat Radius Increased by 45% 25

26 Thank you InterFEA Engineering Innovative Engineering Solutions Tantalou 7 Thessaloniki GREECE 26

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