Fuel Economy, ACEA 2016 and other challenges for European Passenger Car Oils Richard van den Bulk

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1 Fuel Economy, ACEA 2016 and other challenges for European Passenger Car Oils Richard van den Bulk Presented at UNITI, Stuttgart, April 5 th, Chevron Oronite.

2 Agenda Key drivers for European Specs ACEA and European OEM Specifications What makes ACEA and European OEM Specs so special? Background on complexity What does it mean for Engine Oil Development? ACEA and European OEM Specifications What s next? Future of European OEM specifications 2

3 Key Drivers of ACEA and European specifications Fuel Economy Emissions Legislation

4 Improved fuel economy and reduced GHG A global phenomenon Source: International Council on Clean Transportation, June 2016 Update: 4

5 CO2 Regulations in European Union Enforced with severe financial penalties OEM Fleet Sales Average CO2 gram /km Targets Manufacturers exceeding the CO2 targets will have to pay fines 130 g/km Fines g/km st 2nd 3rd 4th g/km CO2 From 2019: 95 euro for each gram exceeding the target. Example: Assuming BMW had stayed at 2008 level of avg. 156 g/km CO2 in 2016: Cost would be ( ) = 26 gr/km excess = 2230 (~$2360) premium per car. They sold cars in Europe in 2016 = total of Million extra costs! BMW achieved an average CO2 level of 124 g/km in 2016, well below the limit. Source CO2 emission data: BMW annual reports 5

6 Additional Tax Incentives per Country Based on Energy Label of Cars Fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of passenger cars Brand Model Volume (L) Fuel Gear box X Y 1,4 Gasoline Manual Fuel consumption (according to official test cycle) 6,2 Liter/100km CO2 emission (according to official test cycle) CO2 is the main green house gas responsible for global warming 148 g/km Fuel consumption & CO2 emissions compared to average of all models of gasoline engine cars (average of 7,4 L/100km and 175 g/km CO2) A B C D E F G 4,2 5,5 6,7 8 9,3 10, 5 Applying year 2001 g/km CO2 1/100 km Many European countries have installed tax legislation to promote fuel efficient cars based on efficiency class* and/or CO2 production 6 * Efficiency Class is a ranking system. Cars in same segment (SUV, small compact etc.) are ranked relatively to each other. The CO2 production per km Efficiency Class: indicated by letters from A (most efficient) to G (least efficient) Official fuel consumption as measured by manufacturer in liters per 100 km

7 European emissions timeline Year Emission Standard Sulfur Level (ppm) Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5a Euro 5b Euro 6 Intro Euro 6 Diesel Gasoline After-treatment Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (HC + CO) DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) (Soot) SCR/NOx Cat (NOx) Gasoline 3-way Catalyst (HC + CO + NOx) GPF (Gasoline Particulate Filter) (PN) Year ACEA Main impact related to aftertreatment system 2004 Introduction of C1, 2 & 3 categories (Mid & Low SAPS oils) Combination of A & B categories (gasoline & diesel specs) 2007 Introduction of C4 category 2010 Minimum ash and TBN levels for A3/B3 and A3/B4 (to avoid misuse of low- and mid-saps oils) Mid-SAPS oils introduction together with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel 7

8 ACEA and European OEM specifications What makes them so special? Background on complexity 8

9 ACEA and European OEM specifications Need to match latest Engine Technology Which is developing at unprecedented speed 9

10 Gasoline engine step-change for CO 2 reduction: Downsized, turbo-charged, direct injected High specific power and high stress on oil: an example Ford Focus Ecoboost (MY 2016) 1.0 liter / 3 cylinder 92 kw / 125 hp 92 kw / 125 hp per liter 1 turbo km/h: 11.0 sec Max speed: 195 km/h / 121 mph 21 km/l or 52 MPG, 108 g/km CO2 Porsche 911 Turbo (MY 2016) 3.8 liter / 6 cylinder 383 kw / 520 hp 101 kw / 136 hp per liter 1 turbo km/h : 3.4 sec Max speed: 315 km/h / 197 mph 10.3 km/l or 25.1 MPG, 227 g/km CO 2 High loaded engines nowadays are found in common cars, not only high performance sports-cars. All need high quality, OEM approved oils 10

11 ACEA and European OEM specifications Need to match latest Engine Technology Which is developing at unprecedented speed Aimed at highly loaded and hot running engines Demand higher amounts of anti-oxidants and other additives to Control oxidation, Cleanliness and Viscosity Increase over the life-time of the drain intervals 11

12 European OEM concerns and demands Result in OEM specific engine oil specifications Fuel Economy 1 Lubricants: Fuel Economy optimized lower viscosity oils: SAE 5W-30 -> 0W-30 -> 0W-20 -> 0W-16->? Biofuel, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Liquefied Natural Gas, Low Fuel Quality High sulfur, aromatics, gums, etc. Increased oxidation Corrosion (organic acids) Nitration Sulfuric acid neutralization (TBN) & sludge Fuel Economy 2 New Engine Technology Gasoline Direct Injection (Multiple) Turbo Chargers Down-sizing & increased power Variable Valve Train s & Cylinder de-activation Down-speeding: Higher Torque at low RPM / LSPI Variable Oil pump, EGR, DLC & plasma coatings, start/stop, new bearing materials, etc. Emission Legislation Particulate filter for gasoline: Mid-ash chemical box ACEA only (nor API / ILSAC) based oils do not cover (all) above OEM concerns OEM s develop and mandate extra OEM tests on top of ACEA! 12

13 ACEA and European OEM specifications Need to match latest Engine Technology Which is developing at unprecedented speed Aimed at highly loaded and hot running engines Demand higher amounts of anti-oxidants and other additives to Control oxidation, Cleanliness and Viscosity Increase over the life-time of the drain intervals And OEM mandate additional testing on top of ACEA for approvals Need for Long-Drain capability Address requirements of new engine technology and fuels Wide variety of tests between different OEM s adding a.o. extra costs and complexity 13

14 Proliferation of OEM oil tests Overview: Courtesy of ISP 14

15 OEM specifications above ACEA building block More than 50 OEM specs in Europe today CONVENTIONAL SAPS LOW & MID SAPS PSA B PSA B GM dexos GM dexos GM dexos BMW LL 01 BMW LL 01FE BMW LL14FE+ * BMW LL 12FE BMW Longlife 04 BMW LL 17FE+ RN 0710 RN 0700 (or A5/B5) RN 0700 (or A3/B4) GM dexos GM dexos VW / VW VW / Fiat G2 Fiat H2, N2 Fiat M2, Z2 Fiat N1 Fiat S1, Fiat GS1, DS1, DS2 Porsche C30 Porsche C40 Porsche C20 VW / VW VW / VW / Ford-M2C 913 C Ford-M2C 913 D Ford-M2C 950-A Fiat S2, S3 Fiat T2, GH2 Ford-M2C 948-B* MB MB MB MB Ford-M2C 934B STJLR MB MB MB MB Porsche A40 (or A3/B4) Porsche A40 (or A3/B3) STJLR STJLR * STJLR * STJLR PSA B (or C3) PSA B (or C3) PSA B (or C3) PSA B (or C3) PSA B (or C2) PSA B (or C2) PSA B (or C2) PSA B (or C2) RN 0720 Volvo RBS 0-2AE** A3/B3-16 A3/B4-16 A5/B5-16 C1-16 C2-16 C3-16 C4-16 C5-16 HTHS & TBN Sulph. Ash 0.9 & & * = HTHS 2.6 instead of 2.9 ** = HTHS 2.75 instead of 2.6 Note: BMW LL 17 FE+ and GM dexos are not yet published. 15

16 What does it mean for Engine Oil Development? An OEM test example 16

17 Gasoline Engine Step-Change for CO 2 Reduction: Downsized, Turbo-charged, Direct Injected High specific power and high stress on oil: an OEM test example BMW N52 Durability Test 3.0 liter / 6 cylinder 190 kw / 250 hp 63 kw/ 83hp per liter Natural Aspired Port Injected Fresh Oil Load: 5500 gram (~ 6,1 liter) BMW N20 Durability Test 2.0 liter / 4 cylinder 180 kw / 241 hp 90 kw/120hp per liter Turbo Charged Direct injected Fresh Oil Load: 5200 gram (~5,8 liter) New BMW N20 test matches new engine technology Increased Specific Power: ~ 45% Mandatory for all new BMW LongLife Oils. 17

18 Increased requirements for among others Anti-Oxidation and Cleanliness BMW N52 Durability Test 63 kw/83 hp per liter BMW N20 Durability Test 90 kw/120 hp per liter New BMW N20 test matches new engine technology Drives to higher Anti-Oxidation and Cleanliness Performance. 18

19 ACEA and European OEM specifications What s next? Future of European OEM specifications 19

20 Key Industry Developments Fuel Economy Today s FE testing will move from NEDC to WLTP Cycle. Test appetite slightly different between the 2 cycles. New, Lower Viscosity capable engines will be introduced for testing. Probably enables lower Factory Fill viscosities (0W-16 and lower) Legislation More severe real world emissions and loop hole closure legislation expected. OEMs will pro-active make 0W-20 Factory Fill oils available for Service Fill. Wider viscosity portfolio for Service Fill LSPI OEMs have or will be introducing LSPI requirements/tests between 2014 and 2018 ACEA 2018 Interest for tests addressing at least Turbo Charger Deposits, LSPI, Corrosion Control, Acid Control. 20

21 Future of European OEM specifications Global Fuel Economy legislations drives to lower viscosities: From SAE 5W-40 to 5W-30 and further towards SAE 0W-20. Plus Mid SAPS platforms for diesel AND gasoline At the same time OEM requirements drive to high quality oils on among other: Fuel Economy Durability: Wear, Oxidation stability, Viscosity control and Cleanliness Biofuel compatibility Plus new requirements are added, among others: LSPI (Low Speed Pre-Ignition) Oronite continues to invest to meet the current and future needs of high quality ACEA and OEM approved oils. 21

22 Thank You! 22

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