The introduction of Lead Crystal Battery

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1 The introduction of Lead Crystal Battery (1). Brief Introduction of Lead Crystal Battery Lead crystal battery is based on an in-depth study of both lead acid batteries and gel batteries features and defects, in order to create our own SiO 2 composite electrolyte to replace the conventional sulfuric acid solution, using unique advanced process technology to develop these new batteries. Our company applies our own patent technology, adopts advanced technology, develops a new composite electrolyte, completely replaced the traditional sulfuric acid solution, so the use performance and the safety performance of products have greatly improved. During charging, the composite electrolyte reacts with the plate and creates crystal electrolytic salt. This electrolytic salt can adsorb and contain the electrolyte. Due to this, the electrolyte is spaced regularly without delaminating, its upper and lower electrode don t appear concentration gradient phenomenon. The properties of lead crystal battery is balanced and consistent, it s reliable. Lead crystal battery overcomes the shortage of electricity plate curing, the falling of active material and easy water loss. Because of its good performance under low temperature and higher discharge rate, the period of use life is increased. (2). Main Application Fields -- Telecommunications, communications switching and transmission system; -- UPS uninterruptible power supply, program-controlled switches and microwave relay station; -- Radio and radio stations; -- Power plants and power transmission system; -- Emergency lighting system; -- Railway signal, navigation signal system; -- Solar energy, wind energy storage system; -- Hotel, auditorium and other fields (3).Form and Representative Significance 6 CN FJ hr rated capacity (Ah) valve regulated lead crystal stored energy the number of monomer battery series (4). Distinguishing Feature Lead crystal battery is a new product that based on the existing battery. It has both characteristics of conventional batteries, but at the same time, it makes a new breakthrough in the technology. It overcomes the shortage of lead acid battery and contains advantages like effectiveness, safety and long use life. 4.1 structural characteristics

2 4.1.1 especial electrolyte Lead crystal battery uses unique compound technology, makes the inorganic salts effects together with the contribution from organic, and optimizes the reaction between electrolyte and active materials. Avoids the falling of active material, and prolong the use life. The electrolyte in the battery is crystal state, no free electrolyte and no leakage. According to the requests, the battery can be installed with a variety of azimuth, it s easy to use Tank and cover It is made of ABS engineering plastics with high strength Grids Using high quality alloy, ensure the extraordinary service life of positive grid, leading to inhibition of hydrogen evolution Separator Using superfine glass fiber separator and absorption technique of cathode, the gas can be combined. The separator has good acid resistance and storage stability. When it absorbs and stores electrolyte, there are still enough porosity and keep the gas channel smooth, so that oxygen can transmit rapidly to the cathode, carry on the oxygen composite cycle, and achieve the sealing of battery Safety Valve Safety valve with high sensitivity can open or close according to the internal pressure of battery. The material of safety valve is fluorine rubber, it can remain the pressure uncharged after using a long time, so that the internal pressure of the battery is always kept in safety range Sealing performance: The tank and cover are sealed by the rubber ring and terminal plastic. It uses sealing material and ensures that the terminal position of the sealing is good Positive and negative plate Positive plate and negative plate are the most important part of a battery, is the core reaction region of electrochemistry. The active material of positive and negative is as follow: Positive plate: Pbo 2 Negative plate: Pb 4.2 Characteristics Long use life The use life of lead crystal battery is longer about one time than lead acid battery Easy for depth discharge Even three times discharge to zero, recharge can still to 100% capacity Safety and reliability 10C consistently 5 seconds, no damage to the battery Less self discharge. Storage for 12 months under 25, the power can keep 85% above Wide temperature range It can work normally under the temperature from -45 to + 60, especially suit low temperature.

3 4.2.6 Environment protection Non hazardous articles certificate by SSB. (5). Specification and Technology Parameters number type Size (±2mm) rated 10hr total voltage capacity(ah) length width height height weight(kg) 1 3-CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ CNFJ Technology Characteristics (1). Discharge Characteristics The discharge capacity of a battery is related to the discharge current. When discharge with large current, relatively the discharge capacity becomes small; when discharge with small current, the discharge capacity becomes large. Rated capacity is defined as that: under certain conditions, the minimum prescribed discharge capacity the battery should be given. That is to say, under 25, the battery discharge by l 10 (0.1C 10 ) A to 1.8V/piece, the discharge time should not lower than 10 hours. Picture 2 1 is the discharge characteristics curves of different discharge rate when lead crystal battery under 25.

4 Picture 2 1 (the discharge characteristics curves under 25 ) 1.1 final voltage of discharge Final voltage is the lowest voltage and can not continue to discharge when it discharges. There is close relationship between final voltage and charge power. Generally speaking, the final voltage of discharge is relatively low when the discharge power is large. However, operating over a long period under the continuous discharge in small current condition, the battery plate will create lead sulfate layer, it s easy to make the active material be out of shape, fall and the deformation of plate. So the final voltage should set high when the discharge power is small, in order to protect the battery. In practical application, discharge over the final voltage should be avoided. Form the discharge characteristics we can know, over discharge can only obtain little additional capacity, but it is likely to affect the use life of battery. Table 2 1 is the final voltage of CNFJ series under different discharge current Table 2 1 discharge current ( A ) final voltage ( V/piece ) <0.05C or gap discharge 1.9 about 0.05C 1.85 about 0.1C 1.8 about 0.2C C ~ 0.5C C ~ 1C 1.6 1C ~ 3C 1.5 >3C self discharge The capacity of battery can keep 85% above after one year storage under 25. Table 2 2 is about the self discharge characteristics of lead crystal battery Table months 95 Storage capacity ( 25 )/% 6 months 90 1 year 85

5 (2). Charging Characteristics Picture 2 2 is the characteristic curve of lead crystal battery after charging. The dashed line is the charge curve of discharge 50%C Picture 2 2 ( under 25 ) 3. Use and Maintenance (1). Environmental Conditions Applicable environment temperature of -40 ~ +60 (the best temperature of 15 ~ 25 ), maximum relative humidity was 95%; the highest elevation is 6000m. (2). Capacity and Discharge Rate 2.1 the capacity The release of electricity under certain discharge conditions is called the capacity of the battery, represented by the symbol "C". The common unit is Ampere-hour, referred to as Ah The capacity of the battery can be divided into the rated capacity, actual capacity and the different conditions of discharge capacity. The rated capacity is the minimum prescribed discharge capacity the battery should be given under certain conditions. The actual capacity means the product that discharge current (A) multiply by discharge time (H) when the battery is discharging under certain conditions, the unit is Ah. 2.2 the discharge Rate The discharge rate of battery always represent by hour rate and rate. While the discharge current increases, the discharge rate is higher, the discharge time is shorter and the discharge capacity is less. Hour rate discharge:c hour rate capacity ( Ah ) C hour rate capacity ( Ah ) Rate discharge: 1C ---- discharge by one time thanc 10 ( A ) 0.5C ---- discharge by 0.5 time thanc 10 ( A ) (3). Temperature

6 3.1 The relationship between capacity and temperature The discharge characteristic is closely related to the temperature. The discharge capacity will be reduced when the temperature is low. For example, if the temperature decrease from 25 to 0, the rate capacity will drop to around 80%. At the same time, the low temperature will cause the charge capacity of battery less than the actual capacity, will seriously affect the electrical performance of the battery and even lead to failure of the battery. The capacity will be increased in a certain range with the increase of environment temperature. For example, when the temperature rises from 25 to 40, the capacity will be increased to about 105%. But if the temperature continues to rise, the capacity will increase slowly, and finish increasing in the end. With the increase of temperature, it also will accelerate grid corrosion and water loss, thus reduce the sue life. Picture 3 1 a relationship curve between discharge capacity and temperature. When the battery is discharging, the environment temperature is not 25, the measured capacity should be changed to the actual capacity( Ce ) under 25. Ct ---- the measured capacity when the temperature is t t ---- the environment temperature when discharge K ---- coefficient of temperature ( the coefficient of 10 hr is ) Picture the relationship between floating voltage and temperature The equipment always connects with the external electric source, and in a state of charge. Only when the external electric source is stopped, it is powered by the battery. In this case, the floating charging mode should be chosen. At this point, should strictly controlled charging voltage and maintained constant precision. Floating voltage: 2.3V/ piece, and the floating electricity in ~ 0.01 C 10 A. Every 6 months should do a balanced charge and discharge after a long-term floating charge. Choosing the specific floating voltage can enable the battery run in the best condition. If the floating voltage is too high, the floating electricity will increase. It will increase the grid corrosion, even cause the thermal runway of the battery, and thus reduce the use life. If the

7 floating voltage is too low, the battery can not maintain sufficient power. It s easy to cause sulfation of the plate, and reduce the capacity of the battery, even reduce the use life. Under 25, the floating voltage of lead crystal battery is V/piece, temperature compensation coefficient is -3mV/ each. When the temperature is lower than 5, the floating voltage will directly use the 5 voltage setting without temperature correction. Also when the temperature is higher than 40, the floating voltage will directly use the 40 voltage setting. 3.3 the relationship between balanced charge voltage and temperature Connected to external power source, when the power is saturate, the power supply will change from the battery, in this case, should choose the balanced charging mode. Under 25, the balanced charging voltage of lead crystal battery is 2.4 ~ 2.45 V/piece, the beginning charging current is 0.1C 10 ~ 0.25C 10 A. Similarly, the balanced charging voltage should be adjusted with the charge of environmental temperature, temperature compensation coefficient is -4mV/ each. When the temperature is lower than 5, the balanced charging voltage will directly use the 5 voltage setting without temperature correction. Also when the temperature is higher than 40, the balanced charging voltage will directly use the 40 voltage setting. Table 3 1 is the relationship between charging voltage and temperature. Table 3 1 Environment Cycle (balanced) charging Floating voltage ( V/piece) temperature ( ) voltage ( V/piece) the relationship between life and temperature The optimum working temperature of lead crystal battery is 15 ~ 25, if use the batteries under higher or lower temperature, it will reduce the use life. Table 3 2 is the application range of working temperature of the battery. When the environment temperature is higher than 25, the temperature rise 10 each time, the use life will reduce 50% ~ 70%. For example, if the design life is 10 years under 25, when the battery is working under 30, the use life will be 5 7 years. The environment temperature of working should be controlled strictly, the battery room should has air-conditioner or be ventilated to change the temperature, the battery space should not less than 10mm, and change the voltage should according to the manual requirements also. Table 3 2 optimum operating operating mode operating temperature temperature

8 discharge -40 ~ ~ 25 charge -10 ~ ~ 25 storage -20 ~ ~ 25 (4). Charging Requirements 4.1 balanced charge When the battery is fully charge to run more than 3 months or the battery group has more than 2 batteries that the voltage is lower than 2.16V, the battery need balanced battery. The charging method is constant current limiting method: charge by 0.10C 10 A ~ 0.25C 10 A current, when the average voltage rises to charging voltage, the electric current gradually decrease, and until to the charge finish. The charge time is set to 24 hours. Picture 2 2 is the characteristic curve of lead crystal battery after charging 4.2 charge after discharging The charging method after discharge is constant current limiting method. Charging by 0.10C 10 A ~ 0.25C 10 A current, when the average voltage rises to charging voltage, the electric current gradually decrease, and until to the charge finish. The charging voltage can be floating charge, when the depth of discharge is large (generally more than 20%C 10 ), suggest using circulating charging voltage, from this the battery can charge fully. It can also according to the initial charge current to determine the charging voltage. When the current is more than 0.05C10A, the charging voltage change to balanced charging voltage. The charging time is generally 24 hours, and it can also be set by different depth of discharge and different charging current (table 3 3), can also be judged according to the charging current. Generally in constant voltage charge, when the current basically unchanged for continuous three hours that the charge is completed. If the battery need to be charged as quickly as possible, it may be appropriate to increase the charging current, but can t higher than 0.3C power supply for storage period The storage time of battery is beyond 6 months or the single open circuit voltage is lower than 2.10V/ monomer, it needs to add power, charging mode is same to balanced charging. Table 3 3 depth of discharge ( %C 10 ) balanced charging charging voltage time (h) voltage ( A ) ( V/piece) 0.10 C C C C C C C C (5). Storage The battery will discharge in the open circuit, lead to reduce the open circuit voltage and

9 decrease the capacity. The following points should be noticed during storage: a. The self discharge rate is related to the storage temperature. The low temperature, the low self discharge rate; the high temperature, the high self discharge rate. The storage temperature of lead crystal battery need -20 to 40, the place should be ventilated, dry and avoid direct sunlight. b. If the open circuit voltage is lower than 2.10V/piece, or the battery is stored for 6 months, it should be added power, in order to avoid the damage when the battery is self-discharging. c. All batteries which are for storage must be fully charged before storing, and write down the storage time, placed in the regular repair records and also write down the next time for power supply. d. All the certification and outer box of lead crystal battery should contain the last charging time, so it can be calculated according supplementary next time. (6). Installation 6.1 open and check -- Check: ensure the surface of battery without injury -- Inspection: the complete accessories -- Read: installation diagram, user manual 6.2 Installation notes a. The battery should be fixed and avoid vibration and shock; b. The battery will create a certain gas during charge and storage, so don t put the battery near the spark, like switch and fuse. c. Don t put the battery to the sealed container or the container with trapped gas structure. d. When put the battery into the device for using, in order to prevent the rising of temperature, the best way is to keep the battery at the bottom of the machine. In addition, the battery should be avoided contacting with the internal machine and contacting with each other. e. The battery should be installed away from the heat source(more than 1 meters) and place that may produce spark, such as transformer, power switch and fuse. 6.2 installation and connection a. Wrapped the metal mounting tool (such as a wrench) with insulation tape, dealing with insulation. b. Connected the batteries first, and then connected between the battery pack and charger or load. The bolt torque is 15 ~ 17N.m (1.5 ~ 1.7Kgf.m). c. When the batteries are in parallel, following the connection mode the series first and parallel next. In order to ensure better heat dissipation conditions, the distance between battery and battery need s to keep more than 10mm, and keep more than 35mm in each row. d. Coating the surface of the battery pole amount of rust inhibitor during connecting. e. When the battery is installed, make sure the total voltage of measurement system and the positive, negative pole connect properly. When the connection is correct, the electricity can be loaded. f. In order to obtain the expected service life, please use the automatic limit current stabilized voltage charging equipment with excellent performance, and with overvoltage, undervoltage, overcurrent protection device and the alarm device. Charging equipment precision should be up to ± 1%, ripple coefficient 1%, stabilizing accuracy 1%

10 (7). Maintenance In order to ensure the use life of the battery, it should deal with correctly inspection and maintenance. The following is the maintenance method of GFM series battery. 7.1 monthly maintenance -- Keep the battery room clean -- Measuring and recording the temperature of battery room -- Checking the battery about the cleanliness, terminal damage, heat trace, the damage or overheating of shell and cover one by one. -- Measuring and recording the total voltage and floating current of whole system. 7.2 quarterly maintenance -- Repeat the monthly inspection. -- Measure and record the floating voltage of online battery. If there are more than two batteries that voltage is lower than 2.18V/piece after temperature correction, the battery pack needs balanced charge. If the problem still existed, continue the battery annual inspection and even the inspection in three years. 7.3 annual maintenance -- Repeat all the quarterly inspection -- Check connection screw is loose and tighten the loose screw. -- Every year make a check discharge experiments for battery pack with the actual load, release the rated capacity of 30%C 10 ~40%C attentions for maintenance a. shortage of discharge If the floating voltage set number is too low or there is no temperature compensation, it will cause the battery group without charging for long term, sulfating of battery and capacity is insufficient. It will also cause the communication interrupted when power cut. b. over charging in addition, if we ignore the floating balanced charging conversion performance of the system, some charging conversion performance of the equipment is damaged or improperly adjusted, and not be repaired for long term. It is easy to cause the battery in charging state and thus serious water loss, shorten life or bulging problem. c. the temperature is too high or too low As previously mentioned, the low temperature will impact the capacity of battery. If the temperature is too high, the battery in this environment for long term, it is easy to cause the battery in charging state and thus serious water loss, shorten life or bulging problem. d. the low discharge voltage One of the important measures to protect the battery voltage is to stop voltage, in other words, the battery discharges to a certain voltage (such as 10 hr is 1.8V/piece) should stop discharge. If the discharging voltage is too low, it will cause the low efficient and different to charge again. In the end, it will reduce the battery life. e. without use after discharge for a long time When the battery discharges without charge in time or use for a long time, it will have effects on the capacity and lifetime. Because of this state, the cathode of the battery is easy to form the lead sulfate, but the lead sulfate is not easily transformed into active lead, thus it will affect the capacity and lifetime of the battery.

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