Technical Manual. E-trek DM Series SHANDONG SACREDSUN POWER SOURCES CO.,LTD

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1 Technical Manual E-trek DM Series Version:V3.0 SHANDONG SACREDSUN POWER SOURCES CO.,LTD

2 Security Instruction Please read these instructions carefully in order to make correct, safe, and effective operation. This manual will provide you important information and guideline for installation and operation, which will guarantee your equipment with optimal performance and longer service life. Only professionals are allowed to open and maintain the battery with insulated and appropriated tools. In order to maintain battery properly the operator need to be equipped with following equipment like: Voltmeter Protective glasses and gloves Insulated wrench to tight properly connectors and prevent short circuit Rag and baking soda for cleaning batteries in case, for cleaning do not use any organic solvent Any metal objects to be put on top of the battery is strictly prohibited. Used battery need to be recycled and follow relative regulations and law. Improper disposal of battery may be great harmful to the environment and health. For battery replacement choose the batteries of the same model connecting and assembling batteries in one system made by different manufacturers is strictly forbidden It is forbidden to smoke or set out fire near batteries. Notice Warning Electricity shock Protecting eyes No short circuit With adults Read instructions No flames and sparks Battery must be recycled Proper disposal UL certificate Chapter 1: Product Characteristics

3 1.Safety and sealing Reliable pillar with copper insert for reliable terminal sealing design, preventing acid leakage in the end lug and ensuring good connection of lines with inter cell connectors 2.Maintenance free The performance is mainly determined by Separator and Alloy. Acid proof, high porous and absorptive rate AGM separator and lead-calcium-tin Alloy ensure gas recombination on negative electrode effectively. 3.Security Each valve will be carried out in-coming inspection to ensure battery consistency. The opening pressure is 10-25Kpa and closing pressure is 6-20Kpa. 4.Consistency The equalizing process in plate producing ensures cell consistency; accurate electrolyte design and precise automated acid filling equipment guarantee the right volume of electrolyte per cell. 5.Low self-discharge rate

4 Made of novel lead-calcium alloy and ultra purity materials produced cleaner environment producing process limits impurity content in the battery. 6.Small cubic volume, large capacity, high specific energy Due to our Innovative construction design, these batteries deliver more capacity and more power for same volume and footprint compared to competition. 7.Long cyclic life The plates are made from lead base alloy without cadmium, which provides excellent corrosion resistance performance and extremely low hydrogen evolution, so the batteries are friendly for environment. Special paste ensures not only the capacity but also the cyclic performance during service life. High temperature and humidity plate curing technique makes the plate high oxidation extent and strong combination capability Specific electrolyte saturation Exceptional container formation technique, ensures better consistency performance and reliability compared to plate formation 8.Wide operating temperature The battery can be operated in the ambient temperature of -20 ~ +50. Chapter Ⅱ Main Applications Sightseeing tour cars Golf cars Electrical cruising cars and boats Municipal engineering cars Electrical traction material Handling vehicles Electrical Sweeping and scrubber machines Aerial Platform Real estate maintenance cars Electrical van and other electrical powered vehicles

5 1.Electrode Chapter Ⅲ Battery Construction Positive and negative plates are made from grid and paste. The grid is the carrier of paste and conductor. Positive paste is mainly composed by PbO 2 and negative by active lead through the electrochemical reaction. Capacity is provided during the discharge. 2.AGM Separator The separator is used to separate positive and negative plates and prevent short circuit caused by direct contact. High porous rate acid-proof AGM separator allows oxygen from positive plate going through separator to negative plate to recombine hydrogen into water while high absorptive rate absorbs quantitative electrolyte for reaction. Thus no additional water is needed during the service life. 3.Electrolyte High purity and low density electrolyte is evenly absorbed by the AGM separator to react active material of positive and negative plates. 4.Battery cover and container The container and cover are made of ABS material which is of explosive proof material, acid proof and anti-shock performance. Flame retardant material is optional. 5.Terminals Terminals are made of lead-tin alloy with copper insert, so as to conduct electricity safely and reliably. 6.Relief valve The pressure maintaining ability of relief valve can promote the inner gas recombination, meanwhile prevent foreign matters getting into the battery or contain bulge caused by overcharge. Once the battery inner pressure increases to the restricted value, the relief valve would open to release the excess gas; when the inner pressure returns to the normal set value, relief valve restores and seals automatically.

6 Chapter Ⅳ Working Principle The electrochemical reaction of batteries in charge and discharge process as follows: In charging process, lead dioxide generated in positive plate and spongy lead generated in negative plate. In the final stage of charging, there will be a little oxygen gas generated in positive plate, but quite little in negative plate because of the high hydrogen evolution potential of the alloy. Oxygen reaches the negative plate through separator pores and reacts with active materials and electrolyte of negative plate, resulting in negative plate in depolarized state, and inhibiting the generation of hydrogen. The working principle of electrochemical reaction to realize sealing as follows: 1. The reaction in the anode (generating oxygen): 1 2H 2 O O 2 + 4H + + 4e Move to the surface of cathode through the separator 2. The reaction in the cathode: 2 2Pb + O 2 2PbO (oxygen reacts with spongy lead) 3 2PbO + 2H 2 SO 4 2PbSO 4 + 2H 2 O (PbO reacts with electrolyte) 4 2PbSO 4 + 4H + + 4e 2Pb + 2H 2 SO 4 (PbSO 4 reduction) 3. The whole reaction in the cathode is:2+3+4: O 2 +4H + +4e=2H 2 O The final production returns to 1, and recycles like this. In general, the generated gas in charging process could quickly reach the cathode and recombine into water, no gas escape and water loss, realizing the sealing and free maintenance of the battery. Illustration

7 Cathode absorption reaction Chapter Ⅴ Specifications and Performance 1. Specifications Model Rated voltage (V) Rated capacity (AH) 5hr Dimension( mm )±1.5% Length Width Height Total height Weight kg Reference resistance mω 3-DM DM DM DM DM DM DM DM DM DMJ DMJ Discharge parameter The discharge capacity of battery is closely related to discharge current, end voltage and discharge temperature. The smaller discharge current, the lower end voltage; the higher temperature, the larger discharge capacity.

8 3-DM-185 Discharge performance DM-200 Discharge performance DM-220 Discharge performance (V/cell) DM-146 Discharge performance

9 DM-76 Discharge performance DM-260 Discharge performance DM-108 Discharge performance

10 DM-130 Discharge performance DM-155 Discharge performance DMJ-72 Discharge performance

11 DMJ-200 Discharge performance Self-discharge 2.30 Self-discharge Curve ( V/cell ) Time(d) 4. The impact of temperature on battery performance Temperature affects capacity of the battery: the higher temperature, the larger capacity discharged. The following figure is the available capacity curve related to ambient temperature. If the ambient temperature when discharging is not 25, calculate the capacity C 25 at 25 according to the following formula. Cr C 25 = 1+k ( T-25 ) In the formula: t stands for the ambient temperature in discharging

12 C T stands for the discharged capacity at temperature T k stands for temperature coefficient k=0.007/ when discharge in 5 hours rate k=0.008/ when discharge in 2 hours rate Discharge capacity Vs. Temperature 5. The corresponding relation of voltage and remaining capacity in discharge process 6. Discharge curves under various discharge rate

13 2.5 Voltage(V/cell) C 0.7C 0.4C 0.2C 0.06C Charging curve 7.1 General charge curve Current(A)Voltage(V) 0.20C (h) min Discharge time( ) 0.15C 0.10C 0.05C Low capacity batteries charge hour Generally speaking, for the battery have low capacity in battery pack, can maintenance it by charging it single, the charging voltage can get 2.55~2.60V/cell,and the charging current get 0.12~0.15CA, the charge time get more than 12 hours. The battery capacity can get higher step by step after discharge-charge-discharge-charge cycles. 8. The cycle time related to different depth of discharge

14 Capacity 100% 80% 60% 100%DOD 50%DOD 30%DOD 40% 20% 1. Operating condition Cycle Time Chapter Ⅵ Operation of Battery The battery can be operated in environment with - 20 ~ + 50 ambient temperature, and the optimal temperature range is 15~ Battery selection Model/specifications 3-DM DM DM DM DM-76 3-DM-260 Maximum power of motor/piece 500W 500W 600W 500W 500W 600W Recommended power configure/piece 120~400W 120~400W 150~500W 120~400W 120~400W 150~500W Model/specifications 6-DM DM DM DMJ-72 3-DMJ-200 Maximum power of motor/piece 500W 500W 600W 500W 500W Recommended power configure/piece 150~500W 150~500W 150~500W 120~400W 120~400W 24V 36V 48V 24V 36V 48V 3-DM DM DM DM DM-76 3-DM blocs in 4 blocs in series, 4 blocs in 3 blocs in 2 blocs in 4 blocs in series,1.6kw 1.6kW series,2.0kw series,1.2kw series,0.8kw series,2.5kw 6 blocs in 6 blocs in series, 6 blocs in / 3 blocs in 6 blocs in series,2.4kw 2.4kW series,3.0kw series,1.2kw series,3.2kw 8 blocs in 8 blocs in 8 blocs in 6 blocs in 4 blocs in 8 blocs in series,3.2kw series,3.2kw series,4.0kw series,2.4kw series,1.6kw series,4.2kw 6-DM DM DM DMJ-72 3-DMJ blocs in 2 blocs in series, 2 blocs in 2 blocs in 4 blocs in series,1.2kw 1.4kW series,1.8kw series,0.8kw series,2.0kw 3 blocs in 3 blocs in series, 3 blocs in 3 blocs in 6 blocs in series,1.8kw 2.0kW series,2.5kw series,1.2kw series,3.0kw 4 blocs in 4 blocs in 4 blocs in 4 blocs in 8 blocs in series,2.4kw series,3.0kw series,3.2kw series,1.6kw series,4.0kw Note : the table just show the non-parallel circuit, two-way parallel power is 2 times the singlepower 3. Installation 3.1 The red terminal with positive polarity, while the black (or blue) with negative polarity.

15 3.2 Flexible cable is recommended to connect, watch the correct of polarity in connection. 3.3 The battery should be placed upright, and upside down is forbidden. 3.4 The battery tank should be well ventilated, the interval of batteries 2mm. 3.5 Take attention against short-circuit during assembly process. Terminal type and torque values Model 3-DM DM DM DM DM-76 3-DM-260 Terminal type M6 16 M6 16 M8 16 M6 16 M6 16 M8 16 Maximum 8~10N m 8~10N m 10~12N m 8~10N m 8~10N m 10~12N m torque Model 6-DM DM DM DMJ-72 3-DMJ-200 Terminal type M8 16 M8 16 M8 16 M6 16 M8 16 Maximum torque 10~12N m 10~12N m 10~12N m 8~10N m 10~12N m Terminal layout 4. Charging 4.1 Initial charge The battery should be charged for 4-8 hours when first used. Charging method: constant voltage of 2.45V/cell, limited current of 0.15C 5 (A), C 5 referring to the rated capacity, the same in the following. 4.2 General charging method 1 Charge in constant current of 0.15C 5 (A)till the voltage up to 2.45V/cell, then charge in constant voltage of 2.45V/cell till the current decrease to 0.01C 5 (A), then continue to charge in constant voltage of 2.35V/cell for 3~4 hours. And the total charge time mustn t more than 12 hours. Notice: This method is preferably recommended. 4.3 General charging method 2 The initial charge current is 0.15C 5 (A). When the voltage reaches to 2.45V/cell, change the current to 0.05C 5 A to continual charging for 4-8hours (the voltage do not exceed

16 2.50V/cell in the whole charging process), the total charging capacity is times of the discharging capacity. Notice: This method is recommended for professionals to do the capacity test. 4.4 Quick charge method Charging in constant current of 0.4C 5 (A)until the voltage up to 2.45V/cell, and then charging in the current of 0.1C 5 (A)for 1 hour. Notice: the method is only used in the emergency, by which only about 90% of capacity is charged. It is not recommended in normal condition. 5. Discharging In the using process Maximum discharge current(start current) 1C 5 (A); Normal working current 0.4C 5 (A); Discharge protecting voltage is 1.75~1.83V/cell, we recommended 1.83V/cell Notice: Over discharging will result in the internal pressure increase, shedding off of active material, and non-reversible sulphate. Chapter Ⅶ Battery Maintenance 1. The battery is fully charged when dispatched, and it is recommended to charge for 4~8 hours before operation to make up the loss of capacity due to self discharge during storage and transportation. Self discharge is caused by internal and external factors including manufacturing, environment etc. 2. The battery must be installed by professionals. 3. Avoid using too much electrical power and overloading. 4. It is a normal phenomenon that the capacity drops with temperature decrease in winter, and the capacity at -10 is 70%~80% of nominal capacity at 25. The relationship between the discharge capacity and temperature Temperature( ) Discharge capacity Below -20 Less than 60% of the rated capacity

17 -20 ~0 60%~85% of the rated capacity 0 ~20 85%~100% of the rated capacity 20 ~50 100%~110% of the rated capacity 5 Users guidance Generally, if the battery is discharged more than 60% of its capacity, it can be defined as deep discharge. At this moment, the battery shall be charged immediately instead of recharging after a day or longer, which can cause internal dendrite short circuit. In practice the battery users can charge the battery after 3 or 4 days use if the power consumption per day is minimum 10% to 20%, but if the power consumption per day is much like 40%, please remember charge the battery immediately after 2 days use. The battery users often discharge the battery according to coulomb meter, so when the coulomb meter passes the half, the users should charge the battery as soon as possible. Even the power consumption value is low; the battery shall be stored after being charged if the vehicle is not used for a period. Moreover, the battery needs to be charged every 1 or 2 months Chapter Ⅷ Transport, Storage Disposal 1. Transport 1.1 The battery is fully charged with electrolyte when delivered,so short-circuit, shocks with hard objects and falling shall be avoided during transport, handling and storage 1.2 Do not touch terminals and safety valve during the transit of the battery. 当 1.3 When opening the carton, first examine the outside appearance of the battery to make sure no cracks, no dirt or liquid on the container surface. Replace or repair the invalid battery immediately if any crack and leaking. 1.4 Check all battery cables and connections. Please tight or replace the battery cables as soon as abnormity occurs. Clean battery surface when it is dirty. In case of any above problems inform us immediately to avoid extreme hazard and problems 2. Storage 2.1 Storage requirement

18 Store the battery in a dry, clean and preferable ventilated location at the ambient temperature of 0~40, preventing direct sunlight, and keeping away from heat sources. The relative protection as dust-proof, damp-proof and impact-proof are necessary for the battery. Store battery in sealing container is forbidden. 2.2 Supplementary charge in storage The battery has a certain self-discharge rate during storage, so supplementary charge every 1~2 month is recommended. Long time storage will reduce battery performance and shorten its service life. 3. Disposal of used batteries 3.1 The used battery still retains certain electricity, so short circuit and electrical flame should be prevented, or it will cause explosion. 3.2 Used battery should be taken back in registered place or reclaimed by authorized companies, and cannot be thrown casually.

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