# For IS: (Part 4): 1987 General requirements for rims for Automotive Vehicles - Part 4 - Scooters and scooter derivative rims

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1 AMENDMENT NO. 1 TO AIS 073 (Part 2) Automotive Vehicles Wheel Rims for Two and Three Wheeled Vehicles Sheet Metal Wheel Rims Method of Test and Requirements 1.0 Page No. III, Introduction: Substitute AIS 037 : Procedure for Type Approval and Establishing Conformity of Production for Safety Critical Components For IS: (Part 4): 1987 General requirements for rims for Automotive Vehicles - Part 4 - Scooters and scooter derivative rims 2.0 Page No. 1/9, cl. 2.2 : Substitute AIS : Procedure for Type Approval and Establishing Conformity of Production for Safety Critical Components for IS:10694 (Pt- 4):1983- General Requirements for Rims for Automotive Vehicles- Scooters and Scooter Derivatives Rims 3.0 Page No. 1/9, cl. 4.0 : Substitute following text for existing text of entire clause MARKING 4.1 Marking shall be as per AIS-037 as and when AIS-037 is mandated for this standard. 4.0 Page No. 3/9, cl , Bending Moment Determination : Substitute following text for the existing text: Bending moment determination - The bending moment M (force x moment arm) in newton metres, is determined from the formula: Vehicle Type Three wheeled vehicle Two wheeled vehicle Bending Moment M = (R. µ + d) F x S M = Sm x µ x F x R Where R = Maximum Static loaded radius in metres for which wheel rim is designed; µ = Assumed coefficient of friction developed between tyre and road. Sm = Coefficient equal to 0.7 d = Inset or Outset of the wheel rim in metres; F = Maximum design load of wheel rim in Newtons (N); S = Accelerated test factor Note - For values of µ and S, see Appendix A. 1/2

2 5.0 Page No. 3/9, cl , Failure Criteria : Substitute following text for the existing text: Failure Criteria For Three Wheeled Vehicles: a) Inability of the wheel rim to sustain load b) A fatigue crack penetrating through a section of the wheel rim c) The wheel rim shall withstand a minimum of load cycles without failure For Two Wheeled Vehicles: After being subjected to 10 5 cycles according to the rotation bending fatigue test specified above, there shall be no evidence of harmful cracks, significant deformation or any abnormal looseness at joints. PRINTED BY THE AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION OF INDIA P.B. NO. 832, PUNE ON BEHALF OF AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY STANDARDS COMMITTEE UNDER CENTRAL MOTOR VEHICLE RULES - TECHNICAL STANDING COMMITTEE SET-UP BY MINISTRY OF SHIPPING, ROAD TRANSPORT & HIGHWAYS ( DEPARTMENT OF ROAD TRANSPORT & HIGHWAYS ) GOVERNMENT OF INDIA April /2

3 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY STANDARD Automotive Vehicles Wheel Rims for Two and Three Wheeled Vehicles Sheet Metal Wheel Rims Method of Test and Requirements PRINTED BY THE AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION OF INDIA P.B. NO. 832, PUNE ON BEHALF OF AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY STANDARDS COMMITTEE UNDER CENTRAL MOTOR VEHICLE RULES - TECHNICAL STANDING COMMITTEE SET-UP BY MINISTRY OF SHIPPING, ROAD TRANSPORT & HIGHWAYS (DEPARTMENT OF ROAD TRANSPORT & HIGHWAYS) GOVERNMENT OF INDIA December 2005 I

4 Status Chart of the Standard to be used by the purchaser for updating the record Sr. No. Corrigenda Amendment Revision Date Remark Misc. General Remarks: II

5 INTRODUCTION The Government of India felt the need for a permanent agency to expedite the publication of standards and development of test facilities in parallel when the work on the preparation of the standards is going on, as the development of improved safety critical parts can be undertaken only after the publication of the standard and commissioning of test facilities. To this end, Ministry of Surface Transport (MOST) has constituted a permanent Automotive Industry Standard Committee (AISC) vide order No. RT-11028/11/97-MVL dated September 15, The standards prepared by AISC will be approved by the permanent CMVR Technical Standing Committee (CTSC). After approval, the Automotive Research Association of India, (ARAI), Pune, being the secretariat of the AIS Committee, has published this standard. For better dissemination of this information ARAI may publish this document on their web site. Sheet metal wheel rims are being widely used for scooters and scooter derivatives. Considering the importance of the wheel as a critical part influencing the driving safety, this standard has been prepared. Considerable assistance has been taken from following National and International standards. IS: (Part 1): 1993 IS: (Part 4): 1987 IS: 9436: 1980 Automotive Vehicles - Rims - General requirements Part 1 - Nomenclature, designation, marking and measurement. General requirements for rims for Automotive Vehicles - Part 4 - Scooters and scooter derivative rims. Performance requirements and method of tests for wheels for passenger cars. The Automotive Industry Standards Committee responsible for preparation of this standard is given in Annex - C III

6 Automotive Vehicles Wheel Rims for Two and Three Wheeled Vehicles Sheet Metal Wheel Rims Method of Test and Requirements 1.0 SCOPE 1.1 This standard prescribes the general and performance requirements of sheet metal wheel rims intended for use on two and three wheeled motor vehicles with or without side car. 2.0 REFERENCES 2.1 IS:10694 (Pt-1):1993- Automotive Vehicles- Rims-General Requirements- Nomenclature, Designation, Marking and Measurement. 2.2 IS:10694 (Pt-4):1983- General Requirements for Rims for Automotive Vehicles- Scooters and Scooter Derivatives Rims 3.0 DEFINITION AND NOMENCLATURE 3.1 Definition and nomenclature of wheel rim shall be in accordance with IS (Pt-1): MARKING 4.1 The wheel rim shall be marked with the following a) Size designation shall be as per IS (Pt-4)-1983 b) Name or trade mark of the rim manufacturer c) The letter HD for rims designed for three wheeled goods carriages. 4.2 The marking shall be recessed and without sharp edges and letters shall not be smaller than 3 mm and impressed/engraved to a depth or embossed in a legible manner. 4.3 The marking shall be marked on outside surface so that marking shall be visible after the tyre is mounted and inflated. 5.0 TYPE APPROVAL 5.1 The manufacturer shall submit the details as specified in Annex B 5.2 Number of wheel rims to be provided shall be minimum 2 numbers ( one with tyre and tube assembly) or at the discretion of test agency 5.3 The type of the wheel rim submitted for approval in pursuance of this standard, if meets the requirements of this standard, approval for that type of wheel rim shall be granted. 1/9

7 6.0 REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO WHEEL RIMS 6.1 General requirements The wheel rim shall have a smooth contour free from sharp edges on the tyre side The valve hole edges on the wheel rims shall be free from burrs. 6.2 Performance strength requirements Only fully processed new wheels rims, which are representative of wheel rims intended for the vehicle, shall be used for the tests. No wheels rim shall be used for more than one test Tests- Following two tests shall be carried out on wheel rims a) Dynamic cornering fatigue test, and b) Dynamic radial fatigue test Dynamic Cornering Fatigue Test (CFT) Equipment- The test machine shall have a driven rotatable device whereby either the wheel rim rotates under the influence of a stationary bending moment or the wheel rim is stationary and is subjected to a rotating bending moment (see Fig 1) Procedure (a) Preparation- The rim flange of the wheel rim shall be clamped securely to the test fixture. The face by which the wheel centre is supported on the testing machine shall have the same fixation characteristics as the face of the hub used on the vehicle. If a tyre and wheel assembly is used as a combination for the test, the tyre pressure shall be higher for clamping purposes. The load arm and adapter assembly shall be attached to the mounting surface of the wheel using non-lubricated studs and nuts (or bolts), in good condition, representative of those used on the vehicle. These wheel nuts (or bolts) shall be tightened at the beginning of the test to the vehicle/wheel manufacturer s specified torque values. Wheel bolts or nuts may be retorqued once during the test. Tightening torque shall not fall below 50 percent of its initial value when the minimum load cycle number has been attained. The bending moment shall be maintained within ± 2.5 percent. In the final clamped position, the wheel shall be concentric to the rotating device within 0.25 mm Max (TIR) at the point of loading in the unloaded condition. (b) Bending moment- To impart a bending moment to the wheel rim, a force may be applied either perpendicular or parallel to the plane of the mounting surface of the wheel at a specified distance (moment arm). 2/9

8 Bending moment determination- The bending moment M (force x moment arm) in newton metres, is determined from the formula: M = (R.µ + d) F x S Where R = Maximum static loaded radius in metres for which wheel rim is designed; µ = Assumed coefficient of friction developed between tyre and road; d = Inset or Outset of the wheel rim in metres; F = Maximum design load of wheel rim in Newtons (N); S = Accelerated test factor Note - For values of µ and S, see Annex A Failure criteria a) Inability of the wheel rim to sustain load b) A fatigue crack penetrating through a section of the wheel rim c) The wheel rim shall withstand a minimum of load cycles without failure. Fig 1 Model Equipment for Cornering Fatigue Test 3/9

10 Tyre Fig 2 Model Equipment for Radial Fatigue Test 5/9

11 7.0 MODIFICATION AND EXTENTION OF APPROVAL OF WHEEL RIM TYPE. 7.1 Every modification of the type of wheel rim shall be notified to testing agency, which has approved the type of wheel rim. The test agency may then either Consider that the modification made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and that in any case, the wheel rim still complies with the requirement; or Require a further test report from the testing agency responsible for conducting the test. For considering whether any further verification is required or not, guidelines given in 7.3 (criteria for extension of type approval) may be followed In case of 7.1.2, check for those parameters which are affected by modifications, only need to be carried out. 7.2 In the event of or in case of after successful compliance to the requirements, a certificate of compliance shall be validated for the modified version. 7.3 Criteria for extension of type approval In case of following changes, testing shall be carried out for establishing compliance of the changed parameters to the requirements specified in this standard: Increase in the load carrying capacity Any change in the design of the wheel rim Any change in the material of the wheel rim Any change in the thickness of the wheel rim Any change in the inset/outset of the wheel rim 6/9

12 A NNEX A (Clauses and ) TEST FACTORS A-1. To permit a uniform application of the test methods specified, the test factors given in the following table should be used when conducting the tests. Test Dynamic cornering fatigue µ = 0.7 (see ) Dynamic radial fatigue (see ) Accelerated Test Factors S = 1.60 K = /9

13 ANNEX B ( See 5.1) AIS-073 (Part 2) Technical Information to be submitted by Supplier 1. Name of Supplier: 2. Address of Supplier 3. Telephone No 4. FAX. No. 5. E mail address 6. Contact person 7. Wheel rim manufacturer name (In case different for supplier) 8. Address of wheel rim manufacturer (In case different for supplier) 9. The trade/brand name or mark 10. Wheel Rim size designation 11. Type of wheel rim (To be specified) 12. Location Rear/front/both 13. Maximum Design Load of Wheel Rim 14. Maximum Static loaded radius (R) for which wheel rim is designed for, in meters (m) 15. Engineering Drawing of Wheel rims giving details of profile, relevant dimensions, tightening torque for wheel bolts, Inset/outset, markings etc., in triplicate 8/9

14 ANNEX C (See Introduction) COMMITTEE COMPOSITION * Automotive Industry Standards Committee AIS-073 ( Part 2) Chairman Shri B. Bhanot Members Shri Alok Rawat Shri Sushil Kumar Shri Chandan Saha Shri S. Dasgupta Shri S. K. Bhatia (Alternate) Shri A. S. Lakra Shri D. P. Saste (Alternate) Director Dr. C. L. Dhamejani Dr. N. Karuppaiah (Alternate) Shri Dilip Chenoy Shri T.C. Gopalan Shri Ramakant Garg (Alternate) Shri K.N.D. Nambudiripad Shri G. P. Banerji Director The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune Representing Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi Department of Heavy Industry, Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises, New Delhi Office of the Development Commissioner, Small Scale Industries, Ministry of Small Scale Industries, New Delhi Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi Central Institute of Road Transport, Pune Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehra Dun Vehicles Research & Development Establishment, Ahmednagar Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers Tractor Manufacturers Association, New Delhi Automotive Components Manufacturers Association New Delhi Automotive Components Manufacturers Association New Delhi Member Secretary Mrs. Rashmi Urdhwareshe Deputy Director The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune * At the time of approval of this Automotive Industry Standard (AIS) 9/9

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