ATASA 5 th. Batteries. Please Read The Summary. ATASA 5 TH Study Guide Chapter 17 Pages Battery Theory & Service 70 Points

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1 ATASA 5 TH Study Guide Chapter 17 Pages Battery Theory & Service 70 Points ATASA 5 th Please Read The Summary

2 1. Electrical energy in a battery is produced by the that occurs between two dissimilar metal plates surrounded by an solution. Mechanical Reaction, Electrolyte Chemical Reaction, Electrolyte Chemical Reaction, Enzyme

3 2. When the battery becomes discharged & the chemicals are weak, a battery restores the chemical nature of the cells. Charging voltage must be higher than the battery s voltage.

4 3. Battery cells are connected in to provide higher voltage & connected in to increase the amperages of the pack of cells. Series, Parallel Parallel, Series

5 4. Battery and heat shields prevent damage from vibration & under hood temperatures. Hold Downs Zip Ties Bungee Cords

6 5. Battery cables are normally or gauge. 1 or 2 4 or 6 8 or 10

7 6. is the color for positive cables & for negative cables. is the color for the high voltage cables use in hybrid vehicles.

8 7. High voltage hybrid vehicle batteries have their own system, including fans, engine coolant circulation, and in some cases, a refrigerant system. Fuel Cooling Ignition

9 8. In cold climates, a battery is used to keep the battery warm and working efficiently. Coolers De Icers Heaters

10 9. % of all lead acid batteries from motor vehicles are recycled thanks to the RBRC. 20% 50% 98%

11 10. is the voltage measured across the terminals when there is no load on the battery. Parasitic Load Open Circuit Voltage Voltage Drop

12 11. The rating is the amount of steady current that a fully charged battery can supply for 20 hours at 80 F without dropping below 10.5 volts. Amp Hour : The unit of measure for a battery's electrical storage capacity, obtained by multiplying the current in amps by the time in hours of discharge. Example: A battery delivering 10 amps for 20 hours = 10 amps x 20 hours = 200 AH.

13 12. The rating is calculated by AH rating multiplied by battery voltage. Watt Hour What Hour Wheat Hour The unit of measure for electrical energy. Watt Hour = Watts x Hours.

14 15. The (RC) is the length of time in minutes that a fully charged starting battery at 80 F can be discharged at 25 amperes before dropping below 10.5 volts.

15 16. batteries are the most commonly ones used as automotive starter batteries. Absorbed Glass Mat Gel Cell Lead Acid (Flooded Cell)

16 17. batteries are used in power tools, NiMH are more environmentally friendly than NiCad. NiCad NiMH Li Ion Popular as NiMh batteries, Nickle metal hydride batteries are secondary (electrochemical cells) in nature and similar to the nickel cadmium cells. However, for the negative electrode, these NiMh batteries carry a hydrogen absorbing alloy instead of cadmium. That is why NiMh batteries are better and more efficient companions than nickel cadmium cells of equivalent sizes. If we compare lithiumion cells with NiMh batteries then the volumetric energy density in NiMh batteries will be lower and self discharge capacity will be higher. In the absence of toxic cadmium, NiMh batteries are not hazardous to the environment at all. However, the batteries comprising electrodes are posing environmental impacts. That is why NiMh batteries are recommended to the users and as their improper disposal also will not affect our surroundings.

17 18. (Li Ion) and (Li Poly) are the high voltage batteries currently used to power hybrid vehicle traction motors. This type has technologically evolved from lithiumion batteries. The primary difference is that the lithium salt electrolyte is not held in an organic solvent but in a solid polymer composite such as polyethylene oxide or polyacrylonitrile. The advantages of Li ion polymer over the lithiumion design include potentially lower cost of manufacture, adaptability to a wide variety of packaging shapes, and ruggedness. A compelling advantage of Li poly cells is that manufacturers can shape the battery almost however they please, which can be important to mobile phone manufacturers constantly working on smaller, thinner, and lighter phones. Hyundai Motor Company plans to use this battery type in its hybrid electric vehicles. A Li poly powered Audi A2 covered the record distance of 600 km without recharging on October 26, 2010.

18 19. High voltage battery cell configuration s can be either or.

19 20. Positive plates are filled w/lead & negative plates are pasted w/ lead in a lead acid starting battery. This applies to wet cell, absorbed glass mat, and gel cell batteries. Peroxide, Sponge Hydrogen, Mop Dioxide, Sponge

20

21 21. Battery Electrolyte is made of % and % acid. 64% H 2 0 & 36% H 2 SO 4 36% H 2 0 & 63% H 2 SO 4 50% H 2 0 & 50% H 2 SO 4

22 34. (S.G.) is the weight of a given volume of any liquid divided by the weight of an equal volume of water. Water has a specific gravity of Electrolyte in a fully charged battery has a Specific Gravity of

23 22. Battery electrolyte is both explosive & corrosive! Neutralize it with...or Ammonia (both are bases)

24 23. When a battery discharges, is formed on the plates & S.G. decreases. Lead Sulfate

25 Note: It s normal for a battery to need water added at regular intervals. H 2 SO 4 should never be added. needing water added often are being overcharged!

26 Note: The positive post of a battery is larger than the negative post.

27 Battery capacity drops during cold temperatures due to slowed chemical reaction.

28 Battery capacity drops during cold temperatures due to slowed chemical reaction.

29 36. As a battery discharges or gets colder, it s specific gravity. Increases Decreases Does Not Vary

30 13. The (CCA) rating is the most common method of rating automotive starting batteries. It is the load in amps that a battery can deliver for 30 seconds at 0 Fwithout terminal voltage dropping below 7.2 volts. Cold Car Amp Cold Cranking Amp Cold Control Amp

31 14. The (CA) rating is similar, but done at 32 F. (always higher than CCA) Cranking Amp Cold Amp Cranking Amplitude

32 Fact: When sizing a battery for replacement, match 2 CCA s per cubic inch of engine displacement or 2 CCA s per 16 cc s of displacement. 350 Cu. In. needs at least 700 CCA battery 1600 cc (1.6 liter) needs at least 200 CCA battery

33 Fact: Best Practice is to follow up battery replacement with a both a parasitic load test and a check for AC diode ripple under a light load, both of which could have caused battery failure.

34 Note: Battery terminal corrosion results from electrolyte condensation during gassing which takes place during charging.

35 24. A battery is designed to go through many more charge & discharge cycles than a starter battery. They have thicker and fewer plates. Lead Acid Deep Cycle Flooded Cell

36 25. A battery experiences little gassing during discharge & recharge cycles. Maintenance Free Deep Cycle Lead Acid

37 26. A battery experiences a cycle when it is near totally discharged and then recharged. Shallow Medium Deep

38 27. A battery is completely sealed, maintenance free, with gel cell electrolyte. Recombinant

39 28. The electrolyte in an (AGM) battery is held in moistened fiberglass matting. AGM batteries are recombinant with minimal gassing during charging. Absorbed Glazed Material Absorbed Glass Mat Adsorbed Glazed Material

40 29. During normal use in a recombination battery (H) & (0 2 ) are captured and recombined to form water (H 2 0) within the electrolyte, eliminating the need to ever add water.

41 30. Factors that limit battery life are: improper electrolyte, temperatures & freezing, corroded connections and self discharge,, from undercharging, poor mounting that allows vibration and repeated cycling. Level, Cold, Overcharging, Sulfation Level, Hot, Undercharging, Duration Level, Cold, Recharging, Domination

42 30. Factors that limit battery life are: improper electrolyte, temperatures & freezing, corroded connections and self discharge,, from undercharging, poor mounting that allows vibration and repeated cycling. Level, Cold, Overcharging, Sulfation Level, Hot, Undercharging, Duration Level, Cold, Recharging, Domination

43 31. Before testing a battery, remove the surface charge by turning on the headlights for minutes. 3 minutes

44 32. Cleaning a battery with & water or ammonia & water neutralizes any acid on the case between the terminals. This reduces the chance of dirt circuit & corrosion leakage.

45 33. If battery terminal results from electrolyte condensation during gassing, then recombinant batteries should have less terminal corrosion. Erosion Explosion Corrosion

46 35. A fully charged battery should have a specific gravity of to at 80 F to to to 1.100

47 37. Hydrometer readings should not vary more than per cell. More variance = bad battery aka 5 points or 5%

48 38. Specific gravity is a good indication of the battery s of (SOC). State of Charge Sulfation of Charge Sum of Charge

49 39. The same that is used to check engine coolant can check the specific gravity of battery electrolyte. A refractometer uses light refraction though a prism to analyze fluids. Refractometer Hydrometer Manometer

50

51 40. A corrected is the most accurate tool for testing the specific gravity of battery electrolyte. 80 Fº is the standard test temperature w/ correction. Temperature Corrected Temperature Connected Terminal Corroded

52 41. Some batteries have built in hydrometer. Green = White means ORANGE also means RECHARGE!

53

54 42. Sealed batteries cannot be hydrometer tested for state of charge so either a test (VAT 45) or a capacitance or conductance test with the Midtronics tester must be performed. Load Road Mode

55 43. A battery capacity or load test is done by draining the CCA rating in amps (or 3x the A H rating) for degrees w/a carbon pile. The battery OCV should not fall below volts. ½, 15, 9.6 ½, 30, 12 ½, 90, 9.6

56 This is a Carbon Pile Rheostat

57

58 44. The conductance test can detect defects, shorts, normal aging, and open circuits. These tests are effective in predicting the end of life before the battery fails. Replace Battery Cell Plate Terminal

59 45. A fully charged new battery will have a conductance rating from 110% to 140% of its rating. CA Reserve Capacity CCA

60 46. loads are current drains on the battery that exist when the ignition key is off. Paralytic Parasitic Paramedic

61 46. loads are current drains on the battery that exist when the ignition key is off. Paralytic Parasitic Paramedic

62 47. A normal parasitic load is about: [ ] 3 mamp [ ] 30 mamp [ ] 300 mamp [ ] 3.0 Amps Modules have wake up times to periodically monitor conditions, these are planned parasitic loads. Excessive Parasitic Load

63 48. Parasitic load is determined by placing an ammeter in with the negative battery cable or by placing a low current probe/clamp around the negative cables. Parallel, Inductive Parallel, Conductive Series, Inductive Vehicles today typically will draw less than.020 amps (20 milliamps) of current to maintain electronic memories & circuits. Several devices on a modern vehicle are continuously using small amounts of current to function and retain their memory. Usually, about 30mA is all that is necessary to maintain the computer memory after all the various accessories and modules are inactive. This can vary check the service manual for the vehicle in question.

64 49. Poor connections and corrosion of cables will cause voltage. Drops Drips Increases

65 50. Test voltage drop under load. The normal VD range is for connections, wiring, switches 0.0 volts to.9 volts.1 volts to.2 volts.5 volts to 1.5 volts

66 51. Battery chargers are not all the same. There are voltage chargers, or intelligent chargers and slow or chargers. A trickle charger, also known as a battery trickle charger, is typically a low current (500 1,500 ma) battery charger. Constant, Smart, Trickle Constant, Dumb, Tickle Constant, Smart, Ripple An intelligent or smart charger may monitor the battery's voltage, temperature and/or time under charge to determine the optimum charge current at that instant.

67 52. Intelligent chargers charge in 3 steps:,,& rates. Bulk, Absorption, Float

68 53. Hybrid vehicles have an orange, high voltage service plug to isolate the system. Connect Disconnect Reconnect

69 54. There is a proper sequence for making connections while jump starting. True or False

70 55. After a jumped vehicle is started, let it run for minutes before disconnecting the booster. This puts less of a shock or strain on the jumped vehicle s charging system. 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes

71

72

73 There are many Carbon Pile Load Testers

74

75 Midtronics has become the industry standard for battery testing by continuing to advance their testing technology and providing innovative product solutions. Why do the major automobile manufactures choose Midtronics testers as required maintenance tools? Only Midtronics offers patented conductance technology and the conductance testing advantages: SAFE no load means no heat or sparks, so its safe for anyone to use anywhere. FAST no one can test a battery faster than Midtronics. FRIENDLY easy to use and understand means more accurate testing. PORTABLE take it anywhere you need to test.

76

77 Absorbed Glass Mat Battery Flooded Cell & Gel Cell

78

79

80

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