AIT Austrian Institute of Technology

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1 AIT Austrian Institute of Technology Modeling of an electric Vehicle Dragan SIMIC Thomas BÄUML Markus EINHORN

2 Overview Settings and Libraries Modeling of a base-body model Implementation Driving resistances Parameterization Modeling of a chassis model Wheel models Body model Bus models (connection) Electric Vehicle - Modeling and Simulation Parallel HEV - Overview Series HEV - Overiview 2

3 Settings and Libraries 3

4 Settings and Libraries I Creating a work package, D:\WorkVPPC Copy of following cycle-files NEDC.txt FullLoad.txt Open Dymola/Modelica Dymola 7.4 Modelica 3.1 Loading of libraries SmartElectricDrives (1.3.2) Library VehicleInterfaces (1.1.1) Library VPPCTutorial_EVehicle File // Change Directory // // D:\WorkVPPC 4

5 Settings and Libraries II VPPCTutorial_EVehicle library 5

6 Modeling of a Base-Body Model 6

7 Creating a new Body Model I Components // Edit // New Class in Package // New Model // Body_vppc Modelica Text This is a body-model Import of SI units model Body_vppc "This is a body-model" import SI = Modelica.SIunits; end Body_vppc; 7

8 Creating a new Body Model II Equations of driving resistances: Air (drag) resistance F drag = 1/ 2 c ρ A v w 2 F acc Rolling resistance F roll Acceleration = c f m g F drag v F F acc = m a F roll Driving force F = F, F, F ) ( drag roll acc 8

9 Creating a new Body Model III Parameters: parameter SI.Mass mass "chassis mass"; parameter SI.Area A "chassis frontal area"; parameter SI.Density rhoair "density ambient air"; parameter Real cw "chassis aerodynamic coefficient"; parameter Real cr "rolling resistance coefficient"; constant Real g = Modelica.Constants.g_n; F F drag roll F acc = 1/ 2 c ρ A v = c f = m a w m g F = F, F, F ) ( drag roll acc 2 9

10 Creating a new Body Model IV Parameters + Variables: parameter SI.Mass mass "chassis mass"; parameter SI.Area A "chassis frontal area"; parameter SI.Density rhoair "density ambient air"; parameter Real cw "chassis aerodynamic coefficient"; parameter Real cr "rolling resistance coefficient"; constant Real g = Modelica.Constants.g_n; SI.Acceleration a "vehicle acceleration"; SI.Velocity v(start=0) "vehicle velocity"; SI.Position s(start=0) "vehicle position"; SI.Force fdrag "aerodynamic drag"; SI.Force froll "rolling resistance"; SI.Force facc "acceleration force"; SI.Force f "vehicle drive force"; F F drag roll F acc = 1/ 2 c ρ A v = c f = m a w m g F = F, F, F ) ( drag roll acc 2 10

11 Creating a new Body Model V Outside connector (communication) Change to Diagram window Insert flange connector from Modelica.Mechanics.Translational.Interfaces.Flange_a Change the name from flange_a to flange Put the flange to desired position 11

12 Creating a new Body Model VI Modeling equations SI.Force f "vehicle drive force"; equation s = flange.s; f = flange.f; v = der(s); a = der(v); fdrag = 0.5*cw*rhoAir*A*v^2; froll = mass*g*cr; facc = mass*a; F F drag roll F acc = 1/ 2 c ρ A v = c f = m a w m g F = F, F, F ) ( drag roll acc 2 f = facc + fdrag + froll; 12

13 Creating a new Body Model VII Modeling equations SI.Force f "vehicle drive force"; equation s = flange.s; f = flange.f; v = der(s); a = der(v); F drag v F acc F fdrag = 0.5*cw*rhoAir*A*v^2; froll = mass*g*cr; facc = mass*a; F roll f = facc + fdrag + froll; 13

14 Creating a new Body Model VIII Modeling equations SI.Force f "vehicle drive force"; equation s = flange.s; f = flange.f; v = der(s); a = der(v); F drag v F acc F fdrag = 0.5*cw*rhoAir*A*v^2; v*abs(v) froll = mass*g*cr; facc = mass*a; F roll f = facc + fdrag + froll; 14

15 Creating a new Body Model IX Modeling equations SI.Force f "vehicle drive force"; equation s = flange.s; f = flange.f; v = der(s); a = der(v); F drag v F acc F fdrag = 0.5*cw*rhoAir*A*v^2; v*abs(v) froll = mass*g*cr; facc = mass*a; F roll f = facc + fdrag + froll; 15

16 Creating a new Body Model X Modeling equations SI.Force f "vehicle drive force"; equation s = flange.s; F acc f = flange.f; v = der(s); v F a = der(v); F drag fdrag = 0.5*cw*rhoAir*A*v^2; v*abs(v) froll = mass*g*cr; facc = mass*a; F roll f = facc + fdrag + froll; signal 1 1 v 16

17 Creating a new Body Model XI Modeling equations SI.Force f "vehicle drive force"; equation s = flange.s; F acc f = flange.f; v = der(s); v F a = der(v); F drag fdrag = 0.5*cw*rhoAir*A*v^2; v*abs(v) froll = mass*g*cr; facc = mass*a; max(-1,min(1,v*100)) F roll f = facc + fdrag + froll; signal 1 1 v 17

18 Creating a new Body Model XII Change the Dymola window to Icon Draw the vehicle body icon 18

19 Creating a new Body Model XIII Insert the model name 19

20 Example-Testing of new Body Model I Create a new example in Example package Example_body_01 20

21 Example-Testing of new Body Model II Put the Body_vppc into Example_body_01 21

22 Example-Testing of new Body Model III Put the body parameters into the body model Setup parameters Simulate 22

23 Example-Testing of new Body Model IV Change to Simulation window in Dymola Plot Velocity (v) Acceleration (a) Force (flange.f) 23

24 Example-Testing of new Body Model V Rolling test Change the initial velocity (v.start) to 50/3.6 m/s Change to Simulation window in Dymola Simulate the model 24

25 Example-Testing of new Body Model VI Results discussion Velocity (v) Acceleration (a) Force (flange.f) Driving resistances 25

26 Example-Testing of new Body Model VII Results discussion Plot Fdrag and Froll dependent on the body velocity v 26

27 Example-Testing of new Body Model VIII Acceleration test Use the source component Modelica.Mechanics.Translational.Sources.ForceStep connection ForceStep 27

28 Example-Testing of new Body Model IX Acceleration test Parameterize the model (forcestep) Use the source component Modelica.Mechanics.Translational.Sources.ForceStep ForceStep 28

29 Example-Testing of new Body Model X Results discussion Acceleration velocity (km/h) Froll (N) Fdrag (N) 29

30 Example-Testing of new Body Model XI Two coupled body models Acceleration connection copy & paste 30

31 Example-Testing of new Body Model XII Two coupled body models fixed Initialization v.start 31

32 Example-Testing of new Body Model XIII Compare the results v Start 50 km/h Advanced Start 25 km/h Compare Results 32

33 Modeling of a Chassis Model 33

34 Modeling of Chassis I Create the MinimalChassis_vppc 34

35 Modeling of Chassis II Change to Text window in Dymola Put the text in the Text window before later model MinimalChassis_vppc model MinimalChassis_vppc "vppc chassis model" equation end MinimalChassis_vppc; import SI = Modelica.SIunits; extends VehicleInterfaces.Chassis.Interfaces.TwoAxleBase; extends VPPCTutorial_EVehicle.Icons.Chassis; equation end MinimalChassis_vppc; 35

36 Modeling of Chassis III View in different Dymola windows 36

37 Modeling of Chassis IV Insert the ChassisBus in the Dymola model window VehicleInterfaces.Interfaces.ChassisBus chassisbus 37

38 Modeling of Chassis V Insert the ChassisBus in the Dymola model window VehicleInterfaces.Interfaces.ChassisBus chassisbus Connect the chassisbus with controlbus text connect(controlbus.chassisbus, model chassisbus) 38

39 Modeling of Chassis VI Insert the wheel models to chassis model Modelica.Mechanics.Rotational.Components.IdealRollingWheel wheel_1 wheel_2 wheel_3 wheel_4 39

40 Modeling of Chassis VII Model rotation Edit // Rotate 90 Edit // Rotate -90 Rotation 40

41 Modeling of Chassis VIII Model view 41

42 Modeling of Chassis IX Connection with wheelhub 42

43 Modeling of Chassis X Model view 43

44 Modeling of Chassis XI Parameterize the wheel models 44

45 Modeling of Chassis XII Insert the body model 45

46 Modeling of Chassis XIII Connect the wheel models with body model 46

47 Modeling of Chassis XIV Parameterize the body model 47

48 Modeling of Chassis XV Change to Text window in Dymola and insert these parameters parameter SI.Mass mass "chassis mass" annotation(dialog(group="chassis")); parameter SI.Area A "chassis frontal area" annotation(dialog(group="chassis")); parameter Real cw "chassis aerodynamic coefficient" annotation(dialog(group="chassis")); parameter Real cr "rolling resistance coefficient" annotation(dialog(group="chassis")); parameter SI.Radius r "tire radius" annotation(dialog(group="tires")); parameter SI.Density rhoair "density ambient air" annotation(dialog(group="environment")); 48

49 Modeling of Chassis XVI Insert accsensor speedsensor positionsensor From Modelica. Mechanics. Translational. Sensors 49

50 Modeling of Chassis XVII Edit // Flip Horizontal accsensor speedsensor positionsensor 50

51 Modeling of Chassis XVIII Connect the sensors with body accsensor speedsensor positionsensor 51

52 Modeling of Chassis XIX Connect the sensors with chassisbus 52

53 Modeling of Chassis XX Check of the chassis model 53

54 Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation 54

55 Vehicle Example I Put the chassis model into vehicle model Parameterize the chassis model 55

56 Vehicle Example II Connect the chassis bus with driver bus connector 56

57 Vehicle Example III Connect the front wheel connectors 57

58 Vehicle Example IV Connect the rear wheel connectors 58

59 Vehicle Example V Check the model 59

60 Simulation and Results I Simulate the Example_master model Change to Simulation window in Dymola Simulate 60

61 Simulation and Results II Plot the variables controlbus.driverbus.longitudinalvelocityref controlbus.chassisbus.longitudinalvelocity controlbus.batterybus.soc 61

62 Simulation and Results III Change to Model window in Dymola Open the controller model (parameter list) Change MG2AndBrakes parameter From: To: without recuperation recuperation then braking Simulate the model 62

63 Simulation and Results IV without recuperation mode In this strategy for the electric vehicle only mechanical braking is implemented. The electric machine MG2 only acts as motor. The state of charge (soc) of the battery will decrease continuously without considering the soc limits in the controller. As depicted in figure the braking torque increases linearly with the brake pedal position whereas a brake pedal position of 0 means no braking and a brake pedal position of 1 means full mechanical braking torque. 63

64 Simulation and Results V braking with recuperation mode In this strategy for the electric vehicle mechanical braking and electrical recuperation are implemented. The electric machine MG2 acts as motor and generator. The state of charge (soc) of the battery will decrease and increase, depending on the drive cycle. As depicted in figure the full braking torque increases linearly with the brake pedal position. It consists of a mechanical part (taumechanical) and an electrical part (tauelectrical) whereas a brake pedal position of 0 means no braking and a brake pedal position of 1 means full braking torque. In the controller model, limits for the soc called socmax and socmin have to be defined. When the soc rises beyond the maximum limit, recuperation is disabled. Recuperation is enabled, when the soc falls beneath the minimum limit. 64

65 Simulation and Results VI recuperation then braking mode In this strategy for the electric vehicle electrical recuperation and mechanical braking are implemented. The electric machine MG2 acts as motor and generator. The state of charge (soc) of the battery will decrease and increase, depending on the drive cycle. As depicted in figure the full braking torque increases linearly with the brake pedal position. It consists of an electrical part (tauelectrical) and a mechanical part (taumechanical) whereas a brake pedal position of 0 means no braking and a brake pedal position of 1 means full braking torque. In the controller model, limits for the soc called socmax and socmin have to be defined. Mechanical braking only occurs when the maximum electrical braking torque is reached or no recuperation takes place because the soc has exceeded the maximum soc limit. 65

66 Simulation and Results VII Change to Simulation window in Dymola Advanced // Compare Results Plot the velocity and soc controlbus.chassisbus.longitudinalvelocity controlbus.batterybus.soc 66

67 Parallel and Series HEV 67

68 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Model (series) Start-Stop of the engine Electric drive, diesel-electric Optimum operating of the engine Different operating strategies Different types of el. components 68

69 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Model (parallel) Start-Stop Electric drive Boost function Different operating strategies Different types of el. components 69

70 AIT Austrian Institute of Technology your ingenious partner Dragan SIMIC Thomas BÄUML Markus EINHORN Austrian Institute of Technology Mobility Department Electric Drive Technologies Giefinggasse 2, 1210 Vienna, Austria T +43 (0) F +43 (0)

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