# MODELLING OF THROUGH-THE-ROAD HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE OKE PAUL OMEIZA

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1 i MODELLING OF THROUGH-THE-ROAD HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE OKE PAUL OMEIZA A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Electrical-Mechatronics and Automatic Control) Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia DECEMBER 2014

2 To God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. iii

3 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor Dr. Kumeresan A. Danapalasingam for his dedication, encouragement, guidance, and suggestions. His tremendous support and commitment made this project a success. I also want to appreciate my friends for their encouragement, prayers, and support in the course of this project. I am greatly indebted to my family for their immeasurable support and encouragement in my academic pursuit.

4 v ABSTRACT This project report focuses on through the road architecture of hybrid electric vehicles. The main advantage of this type of architecture among many other advantages when compared to other hybrid electric vehicle s architecture is the similarity with the conventional vehicles and a potential of an all driven wheels technology, which will greatly reduce the tractive effort needed for each wheel. However, it is important to note that the interaction of the front axle and the rear axle can only occur through the vehicle chassis and on the road. This has given the need to gain adequate insight into how the actual torques of the two energy sources are generated, the nature of it power flow, how best to meet the torque request by adopting their most efficient operating region using dynamic nonlinear mathematical model. This work presents the mathematical modelling of Through-the-Road Hybrid Electric Vehicle (TtR-HEV), the model comprise of an internal combustion engine model, electric motor model, transmission model, vehicle propulsion dynamic model, and battery model. Two different models were built for MatLab/Simulink simulation, the TtR-HEV and the conventional vehicle models, the models was then applied to evaluate propose normal mode power flow design without the frequent start/stop of any of it powertrain. Using different standardized drive cycles, the TtR-HEV shows somewhat fuel consumption reduction for all the drive cycles as compared to the conventional vehicle. This study forms the basis for advance research and developments.

5 vi ABSTRAK Laporan projek memberi tumpuan kepada seni bina jalan kenderaan elektrik hibrid. Kelebihan utama jenis ini seni bina antara banyak kelebihan lain berbanding dengan seni bina lain hibrid elektrik kenderaan adalah persamaan dengan kenderaan konvensional dan potensi sebuah roda teknologi didorong semua yang akan mengurangkan usaha tarikan yang diperlukan bagi setiap roda. Walau bagaimanapun, ia adalah penting untuk ambil perhatian bahawa interaksi gandar depan dan gandar belakang hanya boleh berlaku melalui jalan raya dan casis kenderaan. Ini memandangkan keperluan untuk mendapatkan maklumat yang mencukupi ke dalam bagaimana tork sebenar kedua-dua sumber tenaga dihasilkan, sifat itu aliran kuasa, cara terbaik untuk memenuhi permintaan tork dengan mengguna pakai kawasan operasi yang paling berkesan menggunakan model matematik tak linear yang dinamik. Kerja ini membentangkan model matematik Melalui Jalan Hibrid Kenderaan Electric (TtR-HEV), model yang terdiri daripada model dalaman pembakaran enjin, model motor elektrik, model transmisi, pendorongan kenderaan model dinamik, dan model bateri. Dua model yang berlainan telah dibina untuk simulasi MatLab / Simulink, yang TtR-HEV dan model kenderaan konvensional, model kemudiannya digunakan untuk menilai mencadangkan biasa reka bentuk mod aliran kuasa tanpa kerap mula / berhenti di mana-mana ia powertrain. Menggunakan kitaran memandu seragam yang berbeza, TTR-HEV menunjukkan agak penjimatan penggunaan bahan api untuk semua kitaran memandu berbanding kenderaan konvensional. Kajian ini membentuk asas untuk penyelidikan dan perkembangan awal.

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