Power Performance and Exhaust Gas Analyses of Palm Oil and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester as Fuel for Diesel Engine

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1 ICCBT28 Power Performance and Exhaust Gas Analyses of Palm Oil and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester as Fuel for Diesel Engine R. Adnan *, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, MALAYSIA I. M. Azree, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, MALAYSIA A. Zulkifli, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, MALAYSIA ABSTRACT In this study, Palm Oil Methyl Ester (MEPa), Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UCOME) and Diesel were fuelled into stationary Diesel Engine (Robin Engines-DY23-2D). The experiment was conducted at Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the fuel power performance and exhaust emission of different type of fuel in the speed range of 1 rpm to 32 rpm. It shows that, the engine consumes high amount of biofuels, which indicates that UCOME has the highest fuel consumption. This contributes towards higher torque, brake power and brake mean effective pressure (bmep). In general, biofuels have low specific fuel consumption (sfc) at low speed range but diesel dominates from medium to high-speed range. UCOME has higher thermal efficiency at low speed range but MEPa has higher thermal efficiency from medium to high-speed range. Among all fuels, diesel emits the least amount of carbon monoxide. However, the amount of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas for biofuels is less than diesel. UCOME has the lowest carbon dioxide emission from medium to high engine speeds. Keywords: Palm Oil Methyl Ester, Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester, Alternative Fuel *Correspondence Author: Adnan Roseli, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia. Tel: , Fax:

2 Power Performance and Exhaust Gas Analyses of Palm Oil and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester as Fuel for Diesel Engine 1. INTRODUCTION The high costs of energy supplies have brought much pressure on many countries to reevaluate their national energy strategies. Over a decade, researchers have encouraged intensified search for renewable and environment-friendly fuels. In this respect, it has been demonstrated that vegetable oils can be successfully considered as substitutes for fossil fuels in diesel engines. Vegetable oils have low sulfur contents and higher flash points that are comparable to diesel fuel. However, vegetable oils have high viscosity and tendency to polymerize at normal conditions that leads to poor fuel atomization and combustion efficiency. According to Kaufmann and Ziejewski, these disadvantages could be overcome through heating, hybrid fuel and transesterification. Transesterification is a method of reducing vegetable oils viscosities by converting them to monoesters. Vegetable oil contains triglycerides which when reacted with excess alcohol in the presence of catalyst to form glycerol and methyl or ethyl esters. The resulting methyl esters have been aptly called biofuel since it comes from renewable and biodegradable resources and having the capacity to provide energy. In the transesterification process, a catalyst is most usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Since the reaction is reversible, excess alcohol is used to shift the equilibrium to the product side. Due to its low cost, physical and chemical advantages, methanol is favored among other higher-branched alcohol. The measured calorific values of diesel, UCOME and MEPa are 458, 413 and 412 kj/kg, respectively. The present work looks into the use of MEPa and UCOME as a substitute fuel (biofuel) for unmodified diesel engine. The performance of a direct injection diesel engine was tested with the biofuel and then compared with that using diesel in the aspects of fuel consumption, torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure, specific fuel consumption and gas emissions. 2. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP AND PROCEDURE 14

3 R. Adnan et. al A single cylinder four stroke air-cooled Robin diesel engine model DY23-2D was used for this test. Having a displacement of 23 cm 3, it is able to produce continuous output power rating at 2.8kW/3rpm, 3.1kW/36rpm and maximum output of 3.5kW/36rpm. The engine is held stationary and the output shaft is connected to a dynamometer. The schematic layout of the engine set-up is shown in Figure 1. The ordinary diesel was used in the tests as a base fuel for comparison which was obtained from commercial stations and the biofuels were provided by Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). Part-load engine performance was considered at speeds in the range of 1-32 rpm. Initially, the engine was fuelled with diesel at full throttle opening to give 32 rpm and zero dynamometer load. At this stage, the torque, fuel consumption and gas emissions data were recorded. The dynamometer load was then increased gradually as the engine speed reduced in the steps of 2 rpm down to 1 rpm. When the engine was tested using biofuels, the same testing procedures were carried out in order to determine the required data. 3. FUEL POWER PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Figure 2a shows the variation of the measured volume flow rate with engine speeds for the different fuels used. The trend of the graph shows that the fuel consumption is directly proportional to the engine speeds. It also shows that the fuel consumption of both biofuels were greater than that of diesel especially at engine speeds above 14 rpm. Clearly, the rate at which fuel delivered to the engine, at a particular speed is affected by its density and viscosity which contributes towards poor atomization and spray pattern during injection into the combustion chamber. Figure 2b and Figure 2c, respectively, shows the variation torque and brake power as a function of engine speed for the different fuels used. As the speed increases, the torque and brake power will also increase. UCOME produced more torque and brake power as compared to diesel and MEPa at any speeds range. This phenomenon can be attributed due to low calorific value, higher flow rate and gross energy input of UCOME. The brake mean effective pressure vs. engine speed for three types of fuels is shown in Figure 2d. It can be visualized that the bmep of the fuels increases as the engine speeds increases. Generally, the figure shows that UCOME has the highest bmep at any speed range and followed by the MEPa and diesel. This is because of the brake power of the biofuels were greater than that of diesel. The variation of specific fuel consumption with engine speeds is shown in Figure 2e. In general, it can be seen that diesel has the lowest value of sfc as compared to UCOME and MEPa specifically for engine speeds exceeding 14 rpm. The thermal efficiency vs. engine speeds of the fuels is shown in Figure 2f. UCOME has a better thermal efficiency at low engine speeds but MEPa was dominant in the medium and high engine speeds range. Diesel shows the lowest thermal efficiency almost at any speeds range. 15

4 Power Performance and Exhaust Gas Analyses of Palm Oil and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester as Fuel for Diesel Engine 4. EXHAUST GAS ANALYSIS The fuel-air equivalence ratio is the most important engine parameter that influences carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Carbon monoxide appears in the exhaust of rich-running engines since there is insufficient oxygen to convert all the carbon in the fuel to carbon dioxide, some fuel does not get burned and some carbon ends up as CO. Figure 3a shows that for engine speeds below 2 rpm, the emission of CO was low for all fuels. At high engine speeds, it can be visualized that the CO emissions of the MEPa was the highest than that of diesel and UCOME. This was attributed to incomplete combustion, due to the fact that the volume flow rate of MEPa was high which contributes towards rich combustion and CO emissions increases as the engine speeds increases. The variation of nitrogen oxide emissions with engine speed is shown in Figure 3b. It shows that the NO emissions of both biofuels were lower than that of diesel at any speeds range. Figure 3c shows the percentage of carbon dioxide vs. engine speeds for the different type of fuel used. As the speed increases, CO 2 emissions will also increase. Generally, UCOME has the lowest CO 2 emissions from medium to high engine speed. On the other hand, diesel emitted the most at medium engine speeds and MEPa at high engine speeds. The percentage of oxygen in combustion products vs. engine speed is shown in Figure 3d. From this figure we can see that for all fuels considered, the percentage of O 2 was high at low speed range. Taking the low percentage of O 2 in the exhaust gas as another indication of incomplete combustion, these results clearly shows that at high speed range the engine was over fuelled and combustion of biofuels was incomplete. Fuel Consumption (liter/hour) Torque (Nm) (a) (b) 16

5 R. Adnan et. al Brake Power (kw) BMEP (bar) (c) (d) SFC (kg/kwh) Thermal Efficiency (e) (f) Figure 2. Fuels Power Performance: Diesel, UCOME, MEPa CO (ppm) (a) NO (ppm) (b) 17

6 Power Performance and Exhaust Gas Analyses of Palm Oil and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester as Fuel for Diesel Engine CO 2 (ppm) O 2 (ppm) (c) (d) Figure 3. Exhaust Gas Analysis: Diesel, UCOME, MEPa 5. CONCLUSIONS The present experimental study showed that MEPa and UCOME have the capability to substitute diesel for unmodified compression ignition engine. When the engine is fuelled with biofuels, the fuel-metering device tends to deliver more fuel at high speeds range compared to diesel at the same throttle opening. As a result biofuels produced more brake power than ordinary diesel fuel. The percentage of CO emissions of biofuels was higher than that of diesel fuel, which indicates that the combustion was incomplete and part of the fuel delivered to the engine was wasted and low percentage of O 2 shows that at high speed range the engine was over fuelled. The NO emissions of both biofuels were lower than that of diesel, possibly because of lower combustion temperature. REFERENCES [1]. Masjuki, H.,Zaki, A.M., Sapuan, S.M. A Rapid Test to Measure Performance, Emission and Wear of Diesel Engine Fuel With Palm Oil, Journal of American Oil Chemist Society : [2]. Foglia, T.A., Nelson, L.A., Marmer, W.N., Knothe, G., Dunn, R. and Bagby, M.O., Improving Properties of Vegetable Oils and Fats for use of as Biodiesel, Proceeding of the World Conference of Oilseed and Edible Oil Processing, Istanbul, Turkey, 1996: [3]. Hanna, M.A. and Ma, F. Biodiesel Production: A Review, Bioresource Technology, Elsevier Science : [4]. Kaufman, M. Ziejewski. Testing of Vegetable Oils in Diesel Engines, in Fuels and Chemical from [5]. Oilseeds, Technology an Policy options, AAAS Selected Symposium, 1984:

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