COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF TWO STROKE SPARK IGNITION ENGINE WITH COPPER COATED PISTON WITH METHANOL BLENDED GASOLINE

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1 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 5, Issue 12, Dec 2014, pp , Article ID: Available online at Journal Impact Factor (2014): (Calculated by GISI) ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF TWO STROKE SPARK IGNITION ENGINE WITH COPPER COATED PISTON WITH METHANOL BLENDED GASOLINE Dr. K. Kishor Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, CBIT, Hyderabad, India ABSTRACT Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of two stroke single cylinder, spark ignition (SI) engine, with alcohol blended gasoline (80% gasoline, 20% methanol, by volume) having copper coated engine [CCE, copper-(thickness, 300 μ) coated on piston crown] and compared with conventional SI engine (CE) with pure gasoline operation. Performance parameters (brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and volumetric efficiency) were determined with different values of brake mean effective pressure of the engine Copper coated engine (CCE) with methanol blended gasoline considerably improved the performance in comparison with CE with pure gasoline operation. CCE with methanol blended gasoline increased the brake thermal efficiency, decreased the exhaust gas temperature and increased the volumetric efficiency. Key words: Brake Thermal Efficiency, Copper Coated Engine, Exhaust Gas Temperature, Methanol Blend, Piston Crown, Volumetric Efficiency. Cite this Article: M. Ashok Kumar and S. Rajesh. Performance Evaluation of A Solar Still Coupled To An Evacuated Tube Collector Type Solar Water Heater, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 5(12), 2014, pp INTRODUCTION The paper is divided into i) Introduction, ii) Materials and Methods, iii) Results and Discussions, iv) Conclusions, Research Findings, Future scope of work followed by References

2 Dr. K. Kishor The individual transport which consumes petrol heavily and the fact of fast depletion of fossil fuels, the alternate fuel research has assumed importance. Because of their compatible properties to gasoline fuels, alcohols are considered to be the suitable substitutes for use in SI engines. No major engine design modification is needed, if small quantities of alcohols are blended with gasoline. The change in fuel composition like blending of petrol with methanol is one of the methods adopted to improve the performance of the engine. Sane et al. [1] carried out the investigations on Bajaj 150cc scooter engine using various blends of ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol with petrol and also pure alcohol. They reported that there was an overall improvement in engine performance. However, some modifications were required to be incorporated to run the engine with pure alcohol. Being a good conductor of heat that promotes combustion, copper coating on piston crown [2] increased combustion stabilization and improved the performance of the engine. Maji et al. [3] conducted an experiment and found that, methanol blended gasoline (90% methanol +10% gasoline) when used as a fuel in a two-stroke si engine gave rise to abnormal combustion even at a low compression ratio. Pankhaniya et al. [4] conducted an experiment to study the effect of methyl alcohol blend when being used as fuel in an SI engine. These performance tests were conducted at an engine speed of 2000 rpm and variable load condition, using various blends of M0 to M20 fuels and reported improved performance. Murali Krishna et al. [5] evaluated the performance of four-stroke, single cylinder SI engine. With methyl alcohol blend in various configurations of the engine, BTE was found to be higher. In comparison with base engine the performance of catalytically activated engine was found to be improved with experimental fuels in different versions of the engine. However these investigations were carried out on four stroke SI engine. The present paper evaluated the performance of two stroke CCE with methanol blended gasoline (gasoline-80%, methanol- 20% by volume), which includes determining performance parameters at various values of BMEP and compared with CE with pure gasoline operation. An increase of 22% in BTE, a decrease of 32% in EGT and an increase of 4% in VE were observed with the use of alcohol gasoline blend in CCE over CE with pure gasoline operation. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS This section deals with fabrication of copper coated engine, description of experimental set up and definition of used values. In the copper coated engine, by flame spraying technique, a high thermal conductive catalytic material like copper was coated on the top surface of piston crown. For 100µ thickness, nickel-cobalt-chromium bond coating was sprayed. On this coating, for another 300µ thickness, an alloy of copper (89.5%), aluminium (9.5%) and iron (1%) was coated with a METCO (Trade name of the company) flame spray gun. The bond strength of the coating was so high that it does not wear off even after operating it for 50 hrs continuously [2], [6]

3 Comparative Studies on Performance Parameters of Two Stroke Spark Ignition Engine with Copper Coated Piston with Methanol Blended Gasoline Plate.1 shows the photographic view of copper coated piston. Plate 1 Photographic view of copper coated piston Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the experimental set up that was employed to evaluate the performance parameters. 1. Engine, 2.Electrical swinging field dynamometer, 3. Loading arrangement, 4. Fuel tank, 5.Torque indicator/controller sensor, 6. Fuel rate indicator sensor, 7. Hot wire gas flow indicator, 8. Multi- channel temperature indicator, 9. Speed indicator, 10. Air flow indicator, 11. Exhaust gas temperature indicator, 12. Mains ON 13. Engine ON/OFF switch, 14. Mains OFF, 15. Motor/Generator option switch, 16. Heater controller, 17. Speed indicator, 18. Directional valve, 19. Air compressor, 20. Rotometer, 21. Heater, 22. Air chamber, 23. Catalytic chamber, 24. CO/HC analyzer, 25. Filter, 26. Round bottom flasks containing DNPH solution, Figure 1 Schematic diagram of the experimental set up An air-cooled single-cylinder 2.2 kw BP two-stroke SI engine with a rated speed of 3000 rpm was provided with an electrical swinging field dynamometer for the measurement of brake power (BP). The fuel consumption, speed, torque, air flow rate and exhaust gas temperature were measured with digital electronic sensors. A pressure-feed system provides the engine oil. Performance parameters of brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and volumetric efficiency (VE) are evaluated at different values of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of the engine. Brake specific energy consumption was determined at full load operation of the engine. Experiments were carried out on CE with pure gasoline and copper coated engine (CCE) with methanol blended gasoline (gasoline-80%, methanol-20% by volume]

4 Dr. K. Kishor 2.1. Definitions of used values Brake mean effective pressure: It is defined as specific torque of the engine. Its unit is bar. (1) BP =Brake power of the engine in kw; BMEP= Brake mean effective pressure of the engine in bar L= Stroke of the piston in m, A= Area of the piston = (πd 2 )/4 Where D= Bore of the cylinder in m, n= Effective number of power cycles= N, where N=Speed of the engine = 3000 rpm, k = no. of cylinders = 1 Brake thermal efficiency (BTE); It is the ratio of brake power of the engine to the energy supplied to the engine. Brake power was measured with dynamometer. Energy supplied to the engine is the product of rate of fuel consumed (m f ) and calorific value (c v ) of the fuel. Higher the efficiency betters the performance of the engine is. (2) Brake specific energy consumption (BSEC): It is measured at full load operation of the engine. Lesser the value, the better the performance of the engine is. It is defined as energy consumed by the engine in producing 1 kw brake power. When different fuels having different properties are tested in engine, brake specific fuel consumption is not the criteria to evaluate the performance of the engine. Peak BTE and BSEC at full load are important parameters to be considered to evaluate the performance of the engine. (3) Volumetric efficiency: It is the ratio of the volume of air drawn into a cylinder to the piston displacement. Calculation of actual discharge of air: By means of water tube manometer and an orifice flow meter, head of air (h a ) can be calculated. Velocity of air (V a ) can be calculated using the formula (4) ; (5) Actual discharge of air =, where a= area of an orifice flow meter, c d = Coefficient of discharge. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This section deals with i) variation of brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, volumetric efficiency with brake mean effective pressure with test fuels with different versions of the engine, ii) variation of brake specific energy consumption at full load operation with test fuels with CE and CCE, iii). Variation of EGT with brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of the engine, and IV) variation of VE with brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) determined at full load operation of the engine

5 Comparative Studies on Performance Parameters of Two Stroke Spark Ignition Engine with Copper Coated Piston with Methanol Blended Gasoline 3.1. Performance Parameters Figure.2 shows the variation of brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) in CE with pure gasoline and CCE with methanol blended gasoline at a compression ratio of 7.5:1 and speed of 3000 rpm. Figure 2 Variation of BTE with BMEP in CE and CCE with test fuels From the Fig.2 it was noticed that, BTE increased up to 80% of peak load. Beyond that load, with increase of BMEP, the efficiency was decreased for both configurations of the engine with test fuels, because of increase of fuel conversion efficiency up to 80% of peak load and beyond that load, performance deteriorated with increase of friction power. With methanol blend, higher BTE was noticed over pure gasoline at all loads due to lower stoichiometric air requirement of methanol blended gasoline over pure gasoline operation. Similar trends were observed by Murali Krishna [7]. Figure.3 presents bar charts showing the variation of brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) at full load operation of CE with pure gasoline and CCE with methanol blended gasoline operation. Figure 3 Bar chart showing the variation of BSEC with test fuels in CE and CCE Brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) was defined as the energy consumed by the engine in producing 1 kw brake power. It was evident from the Figure-3 that, BSEC was lower at full load operation of copper coated engine with methanol blend in comparison with the CE. When compared with pure gasoline, the mass flow rate of burning of methyl alcohol was lower. Therefore methyl alcohol blend consumes less energy when compared with pure gasoline, as the consumption of energy depends on the consumption of mass of fuel and heating value of the fuel. Figure.4 shows the variation of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) with BMEP in different versions of the engine with test fuels at a speed of 3000 rpm and

6 Dr. K. Kishor compression ratio of 7.5:1, which indicated that EGT increased with an increase of BMEP. This was due to increase of fuel consumption with load. EGT was found to be less with methanol blend in comparison with the pure gasoline at different operational loads of the CE and CCE. This was due to extended compression stroke which leads to a decrease in the value of EGT. Indirectly there was more transfer of work from the piston to the gases. Since methyl alcohol has high latent heat of evaporation, it absorbs more amount of heat from combustion reactions causing reduction of EGT when compared with CE. The heat thus produced was diverted in increasing BTE for CCE causing reduction in EGT in comparison with the base engine. Hence CCE was more suitable for methyl alcohol blend. Figure 4 Variation of EGT with BMEP in CE and CCE with experimental fuels Fig.5 shows the variation of volumetric efficiency (VE) with BMEP with test fuels at a speed of 3000 rpm and a compression ratio of 7.5:1, which indicated that VE decreased with increase of BMEP due to increase of gas temperature [7]. Figure 5 Variation of VE with BMEP in CE and CCE with experimental fuels From the Fig.5 it was noticed that, as BMEP increases VE reduces with different configurations of the engine with experimental fuels at all loads. This was due to increase of temperature with the increase of fuel consumption. When compared with the base engine and both experimental fuels, catalytic coated engine exhibited higher VE due to the decrease of residual charge and deposits in its combustion chamber. The variations in the volumetric efficiencies are very small. However, they are to be calculated to determine the utility of air in improving thermal efficiency. Similar trends were reported by Dhandapani [6]. Methyl alcohol blend increased VE in comparison with the base fuel in both the configurations of the engine, as temperature of air was decreased with high latent heat of methyl alcohol leading to an increase in the mass of air. 4. CONCLUSIONS 1. Brake Thermal efficiency (BTE) increased by 22% with alcohol blended gasoline operation in CCE over pure gasoline operation in CE

7 Comparative Studies on Performance Parameters of Two Stroke Spark Ignition Engine with Copper Coated Piston with Methanol Blended Gasoline 2. Exhaust gas temperature decreased by 32% with alcohol blended gasoline operation in CCCC over pure gasoline operation in CE. 3. Volumetric efficiency increased by 4% with alcohol blended gasoline operation in CCCC over pure gasoline operation in CE. 4. CCE with alcohol blended gasoline showed lower value of BSEC in comparison to CE with pure gasoline operation Research findings and future scope of work Investigations on evaluation of performance parameters with copper coating on top surface of piston were systematically investigated. Copper coating can be done on inner surface of cylinder head to improve the performance further. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Authors thank authorities of Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology, Hyderabad for facilities provided. Financial assistance from Andhra Pradesh Council of Science and Technology (APCOST), Hyderabad, is greatly acknowledged. Authors sincerely thank authorities of M/S Sai Surface Coating (P) Limited, Patancheru, Hyderabad, for extending the cooperation in coating the components of the SI engine. REFERENCES [1] N.K. Sane, K.K. Nigalye, and D.S. Gunjegaonkar,, Use of alcohol in high speed spark ignition engines, Proc. 7th National Conf. on I.C. Engines and Combustion, KREC, Srinivasnagar, AF , [2] N. Nedunchezhian, and S. Dhandapani, Experimental investigation of cyclic variation of combustion parameters in a catalytically activated two-stroke SI engine combustion chamber, Engineering Today, 2, 2000, [3] S. Maji, M. Abraham, B.P. Pundir, and Radzimirski, Abnormal combustion in a 2-stroke spark ignited methanol engine S., SAE Transactions, Paper Number , [4] A. Milan Pankhaniya, B. Bharatsinh Chauhan, and Savan Ranpara, Study of performance & exhaust analysis of petrol engine using methanol-gasoline blends, Proc. of International Conf. on Current Trends In Technology (NUiCONE-2011), Institute Of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, 2011, 1-5 [5] M.V.S. Murali Krishna, K. Kishor, P.V.K. Murthy, A.V.S.S.K.S. Gupta, and S. Narasimha Kumar, Performance evaluation of copper coated spark ignition engine with gasohol with catalytic converter, International Journal of Engineering Studies, ISSN , 2(4), 2010, [6] S. Dhandapani, Theoretical and experimental investigation of catalytically activated lean burn combustion, doctoral diss., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, [7] M.V.S. Murali Krishna, S. Narasimha Kumar, P.V.K. Murthy, D.N. Reddy, and K. Kishor, Performance evaluation of a two-stroke copper coated spark ignition engine with gasohol with catalytic converter with different catalysts, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (IJETAE), ISSN , 2(3), 2012, [8] K. D. Sapate and A. N. Tikekar. Comparative Study of Two Stroke Spark Ignition Carburettor Mode with Direct Injection Mode Engine, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 4(5), 2013, pp

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