# EEN-E2002 Combustion Technology 2017 LE 3 answers

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1 EEN-E2002 Combustion Technology 2017 LE 3 answers

2 1. Plot the following graphs from LEO-1 engine with data (Excel_sheet_data) attached on my courses? (12 p.) a. Draw cyclic pressure curve. Also non-fired (motored) by making mirror image after TDC? b. Heat release rate / CAD (crank angle in degrees) c. Cumulative heat release/cad d. Mark SOI and EOI on graphs. Look at Needle lift for injector on/off moments Cylinder pressure curve, high pressure part compression and expension measured in a medium-speed marine engine W20. The cylinder pressure data is 20 cycle average and run with 100% load and at engine speed 1000 r/min. The motored pressure should not be calculated as a mirror image It is either simulated or estimated with the polytropic equation of state. Engine data Bore 200 mm Stroke 280 mm Connecting rod length 510 mm Cylinders 6 Compression ratio 15 Polytropic exponent κ 1,35 Brake power 1195,2 kw Engine speed 1000 rpm Boost pressure 3,60 bar Fuel mass flow 0,06667 kg/s Dry air mass flow 1,75866 kg/s Exhaust gas counterpressure 2,774 bar Exhaust gas counterpressure 2500 Pa Ambient pressure Pa Displaced volume (1 cyl) 0, m3 Clearance volume (1 cyl) 0, m3 Crank radius 0, m Crank ratio λ 0, LHV 42,89 MJ/kg Fuel energy per cycle Qch 57186,67 J 2

3 Pressure (MPa) Cylinder pressure Motored pressure Crank angle (deg) 3

4 Rate of Heat Release (J/deg) Injector Needle Lift (10mV) Cumulative Heat Release (J) Heat-release rate Needle lift Cumulative heat-release dq dv 1 dp n p( ) V ( ) d 1 d 1 d Start of injection End of injection Kammenkulma (deg)

5 Notes on Q1 graphs Motored pressure is calculated as a polytropic process starting at crank angle just before injection start. Please, do not use mirror image. Only a very modest premixed peak is seen due to high compression ratio and high compression temperature and due to low engine speed. Heat release (combustion) starts at about 356 a few crank angles after fuel is injected. Fuel injection starts at about 353. The injection period is about 32 degrees in crank angles. The ignition delay is short, about 3 degrees CA = 0.5 ms. Heat release continues well after fuel injection end. At 409 CA 90% of cululative heat has been released, deltaphi is 53 degca. 95% heat has been released at 424 CA, deltaphi is 68 degca. Total cumulative analysed heat released is c. 88% of the fuel energy. Note that diesel combustion efficiency is always very close to 100% (99.5% for ex.). The 12% difference goes mainly to heat transfer in combustion chamber components and to some extent also heat release analysis errors and uncertainty. 5

6 2. Explain briefly three basic ways of fuel injection in SI engines. Which method is most modern and most advanced? In what respects that is better and why? Is there any shortcomings of the most advance method? (3 p.) Three ways of fuel admission in SI engines a) Single point injection or carburetor b) Multipoint fuel injection or so called port fuel injection (PFI) c) Gasoline direction injection Source: Ossi s slides and BOSCH Automotive Handbook 7th Edition The most advanced method is the gasoline direct injection. More freedom in manifold and port design, less flow restrictions, no fuel in intake => better volumetric efficiency => more torque and power. Fuel evaporation cools the charge => possibility to increase compression ratio => higher efficiency. Precise lambda control => more torque and power. Possibility to use stratified charge (lambda > 1) at part load. Shortcoming is some particulate emission due to not perfect mixing. 6

7 3. Draft a sketch of gasoline direct injection spray and diesel spray. Mention the typical injection pressure levels. (3p.) Gasoline direct injection bar. Pintle nozzle, wide spray, modest penetration. Diesel spray bar, several nozzle holes in an injector (several sprays), narrow spray angle, high penetration. Source: Ossi s slides. 7

8 4. Explain briefly why the speed range of SI engines is much larger than in CI engines. Why high-speed CI engines have larger speed range than large marine engines. (3p.) SI combustion is premixed combustion and flame propagation. More speed creates more turbulence. That speeds up flame propagation and thus combustion takes less time. This is favourable for the SI engine to adopt to large speed range. Diesel combustion is mixing controlled combustion (diffusion combustion). The mixing is controlled by fuel spray momentum. The combustion is difficult to be speeded up. The charge motion with swirl does speed up mixing to some extent in high speed engines. Source: Martti s lectures. 8

9 5. Explain briefly possible CI diesel fuel injection profiles/sequences. (Mass flow with respect to time or CA). Make a drawing to highlight the possible profiles. Why different profiles? (3 p.) Profiling affects heat release profile and thus expansion work and efficiency. It also affects noise and emission formation. Preinjection shortens the inginition delay of the main injection and thus premixed peak of the main injection => smoother combustion and less noise, With preinjection combustion is less sensitive to low quality (low cetane number ) fuels. Secondary injection (post injection) is made to enhance combustion end to burn down possible soot particles or just to affect exhaust temperature. Very late post injection is made to increase unburned hydrocarbons going to diesel oxidation catalyst to increase exhaust temperature to regerate particulate filter occasionally. Split injection is made to control heat release profile and combustion temperatures with respect to emission formation (NOx mainly). In diesel combustion you have balance in between high efficiency (high temperatures) and NOx emissions. Source: Ossi s slides and Martti s lectures. 9

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