EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON VCR ENGINE BY USING DUAL BIODIESEL

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1 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 9, Issue 6, June 2018, pp , Article ID: IJMET_09_06_042 Available online at ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON VCR ENGINE BY USING DUAL BIODIESEL Srinivas Prasad Sanaka Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering V.R. Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada, AP, India Amaraiah Mogili PG Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering V.R. Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada, AP, India ABSTRACT In the present study, experiments has been carried out on a direct injection, single cylinder, constant speed, water cooling system VCR engine at injection pressures 200, 210 bar and compression ratio of 17.5 using various blends. The effect of dual biodiesel blends and injection pressure were examined with various engine loads. Pongamia oil and Lemongrass oil were blended with diesel at various blend ratios for the purpose of investigation. Performance and emission characteristics obtained from the systematic study reveals that brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of blend B20 (i.e. Pongamia 5%, Lemongrass 15% and Diesel 80%) was higher than diesel. The emissions of carbon monoxide, hydro carbons and carbon dioxides of dual biodiesel blends were better than that of diesel. It was identified that with increase in injection pressure from 200bar to 210bar can be improving the performance analysis while reducing the exhaust gas emissions. But increases the nitrogen oxides emissions Keywords: blends ratio compression ratio injection pressure performance emissions Cite this Article: Srinivas Prasad Sanaka and Amaraiah Mogili, Experimental Investigation on VCR Engine by Using Dual Biodiesel, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 9(6), 2018, pp INTRODUCTION The utilization of the energy is increasing day by day with the increase of industrialization and growth of modern civilization. The demand for biodiesel is increasing rapidly due to the limited reserve of the fossil fuels and its better emission characteristics. In concern of the society for the depleting world s renewable energy sources with fuel and energy crisis led to the search for biofuels. Therefore, an investigation on Biodiesel has been chosen in this paper. The scope of this paper is to evaluation the performance and emissions characteristics using

2 Experimental Investigation on VCR Engine by Using Dual Biodiesel different mixed blends ratio of Pongamia and Lemongrass oils with diesel in a VCR engine. The objectives of this experimental investigation are extraction of Biodiesels (Pongamia and Lemongrass oil) using Transesterification process, determination of the properties of dual biodiesels, study of effect of the properties of blending of dual biodiesels and diesel, study of performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine using different blends of Pongamia and lemongrass oils with diesel. Biodiesel as the most favorable alternate is presently produced from usually grown vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm and sunflower oils [1]. Alternative fuels identified are biofuels having desirable fuel properties which are permitting them to replace the existing fuel completely. However, the researchers are working on different techniques for giving better solution to apply higher fraction of replacing biofuel in the existing diesel engine [2]. Muralidharn et al. [3] investigated the break thermal efficiency and found out that the blend waste cooking oil 40% with waste cooking oil is marginally higher than that of diesel at maximum compression ratios. Waste cooking biodiesel blends give longer combustion pressure at maximum compression ratio due to higher ignition delay, lower heat release rate and maximum rate of pressure rise when compared with diesel. Brake thermal efficiency of the blends increase with increases in load. A.Sanjid et al. [4] investigated and concluded that mustard biodiesel showed favorable biofuel properties compared to few biodiesels. From the performance and emission analysis were also found hopeful. As conclude that mustard biodiesel 10% and 20% can be used in diesel engine without modifications. Srinivas et al. [5] studied the performance and emission characteristics with palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil blends with diesel fuel on VCR diesel engine at compression ratio 19:1 and 220 bar injection pressure. The entire test biofuels were used in computer based different compression ratio engine at different loads. Concluded that the palm kernel oil 85% and eucalyptus oil 15% blend reduced emissions and improved combustion when compared to diesel. Ankur Nalgundwar et al [6] the results for lower blend of 10% biodiesel with diesel presented 4.7% average increase in brake power than compare to diesel. There was slight reduction seen in brake specific fuel consumption for lower blends. Higher mixed biodiesel blend 80% have presented up to 15% average improve in brake thermal efficiency. A significant decrease in exhaust gas temperature for most of biodiesel blends was identified. There were 8%, 18% and 15% average reductions in carbon monoxide emissions with mixed blends 10%, 20% and 30% with compared to diesel. Lower mixed blends of biodiesels 10% and 20% showed 6% and 10% average increase in nitrogen oxides emissions with compare to diesel. S V Channapattana et al. [7] based on the experimental studies on Honne biodiesel without any engine modification. Further increases in injection pressure at a higher compression ratio of 18, genuinely decreased emissions are identified irrespective of the fuel utilized. The nitrogen oxide emissions increase with increase in injection pressure. The NOx emissions increase as the blend percentage is increased. From the honne biodiesel blend 20% gives better thermal performance compared to few blends of honne biodiesel, but it causes higher levels of exhaust emissions. S. Nagaraja et al. [8] has been establish that the palm oil blend 20% shows better performance and emission analysis than further blends and diesel at maximum compression ratio at full load conditions. P. Shanmughasundaram et al [9] was observed that the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions reduced with increases in the injection pressure and compression ratio, while the exhaust nitrogen oxide gas emission increased with the increase in the injection pressure and compression ratio. Concluded that 20 percent biodiesel blend could be used as biofuel in a VCR diesel engine for lower carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. K. Srithar et al. [10] the present study brings obtainable an experimental of dual biodiesels from Pongamia and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at different blends ratio. From the brake thermal efficiency of blend B20 (i.e. Pongamia oil 10% and mustard oil 10%) was found higher than diesel. The emissions of hydro carbon, nitrogen oxides and smoke of dual biodiesel mixed blends were higher than

3 Srinivas Prasad Sanaka and Amaraiah Mogili compare to diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends ratio was lower than diesel. From the literature survey it is evident that, there are few studies on bio diesel such as soybean, sunflower etc. Therefore, the available biodiesel (Pongamia and Lemongrass oil) with better properties has been selected in the present study. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1. Biodiesel Production One of the processes of converting raw oil into biodiesel is called Transesterification. In this process, crude Pongamia oil to taken as a raw oil to produce a useful biodiesel. The components used in this process are: a) Pongamia oil ml b) Methanol-200 ml c) KOH 6.5 g. First 1000 ml of crude Pongamia oil is taken into a glass beaker and it is placed on a heater. Then by using heater Pongamia oil is heated up to C to remove the impurities present in the Pongamia oil and after heating the oil is cooled to 600C which is standard temperature for the process. Then in another beaker, 200ml of methanol is taken and 6.5 g of KOH is added to this methanol. Mixture of methanol and KOH is poured into raw oil which is at 60 0 C.Then a lid is placed on container which contains raw oil at 60 0 C and dissolved KOH in methanol. Then a magnetic stirrer is placed in beaker on heater. Stir the mixture with 1200 rpm by maintaining at 55 0 C-60 0 C till 150 minutes (2.30 h). Then, switch off the heater and allowed to cool. Pour the mixture after cooling into a funnel and leave the mixture in a stable position for 24 h to settle. After 24 h we get two layers in the funnel upper layer is crude biodiesel and lower layer is crude glycerin. Drain off the glycerin and crude biodiesel and water more than 50% of crude biodiesel is poured in a bottle. Then shake the bottle and this mixture is poured in to funnel again. Allow to leave this mixture in funnel for h to settle. Again, two layers are formed in the funnel upper layer is oil and crude in lower layer. Refined Pongamia Bio diesel produced is collected and heated up to 45 0 C-55 0 C. The refined lemongrass oil has been collected from market to conduct experiments with dual biodiesel mixed with diesel. Figure 1 Transestrification process of biodiesel 2.2. Biodiesel blends preparation Blends were prepared in different proportions of Pongamia, lemongrass oils and diesel P15L5, P10L10 and P5L15 maintaining constant blend ratio B20. The various properties of tested fuels like density, viscosity, calorific value, flash and fire point were determined by using ASTM methods. The mixed blends appearances presented that viscosity of the mixed blends increases with dual biodiesel proportions. The dual biodiesel and diesel description is given below in Table 2.1. The viscosity was higher for dual biodiesels and lower for diesel. The density of the mixed blends (i.e. P15L5, P10L10 and P5L15) showed a commonly in relation to an increase in blends proportion. It was described that lower calorific value of mixed dual biodiesels is due to longer oxygen content than compare to diesel. Density and higher viscosity of blends are due to their complicated chemical structure and higher molecular weight

4 Experimental Investigation on VCR Engine by Using Dual Biodiesel Table 2.1 Properties of fuels Properties Diesel P15L5 P10L10 P5L15 Density kg/m CST Calorific value MJ/kg Flash point 0C Fire point 0C Experimental Setup The engine set up used is a computer based four stroke, single cylinder, water cooling system, direct injection, VCR (variable compression ratio) diesel engine. From the test was showed at different loads resultant in constant speed. Exhaust emission AVL gas analyzer was used to measure emissions form exhaust channel tube of the engine. From the experimental on VCR diesel engine setup is given in below Finger. The detailed engine specifications are given below Table. The performance and emission characteristics of VCR diesel engine running with dual biodiesel blends ratio with compared to diesel Figure 2 Experimental Setup Table 2.2 Test engine specifications Parameter Model Type Cooling System Bore diameter Stroke Compression ratio Rated Speed Rated Power Specifications Kirloskar VCR engine 4Stroke,Single cylinder Water Cooled 80 mm 56 mm 12:1 to 20: rpm 3.7 kw 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The experimental data from tests on VCR engine has been systematically studied. The effect of blend ratio and fuel injection pressure at compression ratio of 17.5 has been presented by varying loads. Three blends characteristics have been compared with diesel to understand the effect of each parameter. The operation of the VCR (Variable Compression Ratio) diesel engine was found to be smooth all over the full load condition at different injection pressures, Compression ratio (CR17.5:1) without any operational difficulties for the dual biodiesel blends diesel fuel (i.e. P15L5, P10L10 and P5L15)

5 Srinivas Prasad Sanaka and Amaraiah Mogili 3.1. Brake thermal efficiency for various blends Figure 3.1 Variation of brake thermal efficiency with load The nature of change of brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with percentage load for various mixed blends is shown in above Figure 3.1. The brake thermal efficiency of biodiesel is higher than compare to diesel especially at full load condition. From the graph it is evident that the brake thermal efficiency has increased with increase in blend ratio of lemongrass biodiesel. From the brake thermal efficiency of mixed blends for P15L5, P10L10 and P5L15 are (7.8%), (12%) and (14%) respectively higher than diesel (17.93). Even the calorific value of bio diesel blends is lower than compare to diesel; proper fuel mixing provides quality combustion. This proves that dual biodiesel provides better brake thermal efficiency than diesel Specific fuel consumption for various blends Figure 3.2 Variation of brake specific fuel consumption with load The variation of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) with percentage load is shown in above Figure 3.2. As load increases the brake specific fuel consumption reduces for the dual biodiesels mixed blends. For the maximum full load condition in compression ratio17.5 (CR17.5:1), the value of brake specific fuel consumption of mixed blends ratio B20 in P15L5, P10L10 and P5L15 showed for 0.49, 0.43 and 0.42 kg/kw h whereas diesel have 0.47 kg/kwh Carbon monoxide for various blends Figure 3.3 Variation of carbon monoxide with load

6 Experimental Investigation on VCR Engine by Using Dual Biodiesel The variation of carbon monoxide with percentage load is shown in above Figure 3.3. From the plot it was observed that as the load increase the carbon monoxide also increased. The carbon monoxide of dual biodiesels mixed blends ratio B20 (i.e.p15l5, P10L10 and P5L15) decreases when compared to the diesel at compression ratio17.5 for full load condition (CR17.5:1), The value of carbon monoxide (CO) of mixed Blends ratio B20 in P15L5 is 3.78%, P10L10 is 3.79% and P5L15 is 3.74% whereas diesel have 4.74% Hydro carbons for various blends Figure 3.4 Variation of hydrocarbons with load The variation of hydro carbons with percentage loads is shown in above Figure 3.4. From the plot observed that as the load increases the hydro carbon increases. The hydro carbon of dual biodiesel mixed blends ratiob20 (i.e. P15L5, P10L10 and P5L15) decreases when compared to the diesel at full load condition in compression ratio17.5 (CR17.5:1), the value of hydro carbons (HC) of mixed blends ratio B20 in P15L5 is 387 ppm, P10L10 is 404 ppm and P5L15 is 383 ppm whereas diesel have 450 ppm. The emission has decreased by 14.8% with B20 compared with diesel at full load condition 3.5. Carbon dioxide for various blends Figure 3.5 Variation of carbon dioxide with load The variation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with percentage load is shown in above Figure 3.5. From the plot it was observed that as the load increase the carbon dioxide increased. The carbon dioxide of dual biodiesel mixed blends B20 (i.e. P15L5, P10L10 and P5L15) decreased when compared to the diesel at full load condition. As a combustion product CO 2 is formed when there is necessary amount of oxygen present during the formation of carbon monoxide

7 3.6. Nitrogen oxides for various blends Srinivas Prasad Sanaka and Amaraiah Mogili Figure 3.6 Variation of nitrogen oxides with load The effect of loads on nitrogen oxides is shown in above Figure 3.6. The nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased by at fuel load condition for each mixed blends ratio B20 (i.e. P15L5, P10L10 and P5L15). For the compression ratio 17.5 (CR17.5:1) in maximum full load condition, mixed blends ratio P15L5 gives 213 ppm whereas diesel gives 185 ppm, P10L10 gives 220 ppm, P5L15 gives 317 ppm at the same maximum fuel load condition. From the results, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission is higher for dual biodiesel mixed blends ratio than diesel. However, the nonedible oil based biodiesel contains a required amount of nitrogen which contributes toward NOx production. All the blends give higher NOx with compared to diesel. The higher average gas temperature, the presence of fuel oxygen content and residence time at full load conditions with the mixed blends ratio combustion caused higher NOx emissions 3.7. Effect of injection pressure on performances Figure 3.7 Variation of brake thermal efficiency with load Break thermal efficiency at injection pressure of 200bar and 210bar for diesel and mixed blend (P5L15) has been plotted in Figure 3.7 at various loads. The break thermal efficiency of blend at 210bar is increased by 9.24% compared with 200bar. This increase is due to complete burning of the biofuel at injection pressures (210bar) Figure 3.8 Variation of brake specific fuel consumption with load

8 Experimental Investigation on VCR Engine by Using Dual Biodiesel Brake specific fuel consumption at injection pressure of 200bar and 210bar for Diesel and mixed blend (P5L15) has been plotted in Figure 3.8 at different loads. The brake specific fuel consumption of blend at 210bar is decreased by 9.52% compared with 200bar Effect of injection pressure on emissions Figure 3.9 Variation of carbon monoxide with load The variation of carbon monoxide with increase in injection pressure (200 and 210bar), the biofuel atomization happens effectively, which outcomes complete burning of the blend and production of carbon elements is decreased. From above Figure 3.9 represents variation in carbon monoxide for mixed blend ratio (i.e. P5L15) with respect to diesel at injection pressure 200bar for increased injection pressures at CR17.5. Figure 3.10 Variation of hydrocarbons with load The variation of hydro carbons with increased injection pressure resulted in suitable combustion. Hydro carbon emissions are identified to be lower than that of diesel. As the injection pressure is increases, biofuel atomization happens effectively. This outcomes into complete burning of the blend and formation of hydro carbon is reduces. From above Figure 3.10 presents change in hydro carbon for mixed blend ratio (i.e. P5L15) with respect to diesel at injection pressure 200bar for increased injection pressures at CR17.5. Figure 3.11 Variation of carbon dioxide with load The variation of carbon dioxide with increase in injection pressure, the biofuel atomization happens effectively. This outcome for complete burning of the biofuel and production of carbon elements is reduces by 42.8%. From above Figure 3.11 presents change in carbon dioxide for mixed blend ratio (i.e. P5L15) with respect to diesel at injection pressure 200bar for increased injection pressures at CR

9 Srinivas Prasad Sanaka and Amaraiah Mogili Figure 3.12 Variation of nitrogen oxides with load The variation of nitrogen oxides with injection pressure of 200bar and 210bar has been plotted in above Figure It is evident that the NOx are increasing with the use of blends compared with diesel and as the blend at higher injection pressure results higher NOx. 4. CONCLUSIONS Effects of blends on a single cylinder VCR diesel engine characteristics run by dual biodiesels blend B20 mixed ratios (i.e.p15l5, P10L10 and P5L15) were systematically studied. The following are the conclusions from this study. Dual Biodiesel blends with 5% Pongamia oil, 15% Lemon grass oil and 80 % Diesel with high injection pressure can be selected as an alternative fuel. This study provides the reliable data for researchers to choose suitable biodiesel combination. This study furnishes qualitative and quantitative information about the performance of engine with dual biodiesels. Higher BTE, lower BSFC, lower emissions are the superior qualities of the selected dual biodiesel combination. However, the NOx intensity to be reduced by choosing the suitable technology. Comparison of properties of the biodiesels such as Viscosity, calorific value, helps the engineers to choose the various combinations of blends. Performance comparison of blends with diesel engine proved that the biodiesel blends are good renewable source to meet energy crisis and to address the eco-friendly societal problem. This study augments the data base pertaining to biodiesels REFERENCES [1] Takase, Mohammed, Ting Zhao, Min Zhang, Yao Chen, Hongyang Liu, Liuqing Yang, and Xiangyang Wu. An Expatiate Review of Neem, Jatropha, Rubber and Karanja as Multipurpose Non-Edible Biodiesel Resources and Comparison of their Fuel, Engine and Emission Properties. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 43: [2] Rao, P.S. and Srinivas, K.,Experimental Analysis Of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled With Methyl Ester Of Palm Kernel Oil Blending With Eucalyptus Oil. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2, pp [3] K. Muralidharn, D. Vasudevan, Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a variable compression ratio engine using esters of waste cooking oil and diesel blends, Appl. Energy 88 (2011) [4] Banoth, B.N. and Kadavakollu, K.R., Performance and Emission of VCR-CI Engine with palm kernel and eucalyptus blends. Perspectives in Science, 8, pp [5] Nalgundwar, A., Paul, B. and Sharma, S.K.,Comparison of performance and emissions characteristics of DI CI engine fueled with dual biodiesel blends of palm and jatropha. Fuel, 173, pp [6] Channapattana, S.V., Pawar, A.A. and Kamble, P.G. Effect of injection pressure on the performance and emission characteristics of VCR engine using honne biodiesel as a fuel. Materials Today: Proceedings, 2(4-5), 2015.pp [7] Nagaraja, S., Sooryaprakash, K. and Sudhakaran, R.,Investigate the effect of compression ratio over the performance and emission characteristics of variable

10 Experimental Investigation on VCR Engine by Using Dual Biodiesel compression ratio engine fueled with preheated palm oil-diesel blends. Procedia earth and planetary science, 11, pp [8] Shanmughasundaram, P.,Experimental investigation on the emission characteristics of a variable compression ratio multi-fuel engine using palm biodiesel. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 38 (6), pp [9] Srithar. K, Balasubramanian. K.A, Pavendan, V. and Kumar, B.A, Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines. Journal of King Saud University- Engineering Sciences, 29(1), pp [10] Can, Ö., Öztürk, E. and Yücesu, H.S., Combustion and exhaust emissions of canola biodiesel blends in a single cylinder DI diesel engine. Renewable Energy, 109, pp [11] Uyumaz, A., Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with mustard oil biodiesel fuel blends at different engine loads. Fuel, 212, pp [12] Yuvarajan, D. and Ramanan, M.V., Experimental analysis on neat mustard oil methyl ester subjected to ultrasonication and microwave irradiation in four stroke single cylinder diesel engine. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 30(1), pp [13] Babu, A.R., Rao, G.A.P. and Prasad, T.H., Performance and emission characteristics of CI engine with methyl esters of palm stearin under varying compression ratios and fuel injection pressures. Int J Eng Manag Res, 5, pp [14] Öztürk, E., Performance, emissions, combustion and injection characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with canola oil hazelnut soapstock biodiesel mixture. Fuel Processing Technology, 129, pp [15] Cardoso, C.C., Celante, V.G., de Castro, E.V.R. and Pasa, V.M.D, Comparison of the properties of special biofuels from palm oil and its fractions synthesized with various alcohols. Fuel, 135, pp [16] Raheman, H. and Phadatare, A.G., Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel. Biomass and bioenergy, 27(4), pp

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