An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by using Hydrogen Blend

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1 IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering Volume 2 Issue 11 May 2016 ISSN (online): X An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by using Hydrogen Blend Patel Chetan N. M.E Student Department of Automobile Engineering LDRP-ITR, Gandhinagar Maulik A. Modi Assistant Professor Department of Automobile Engineering LDRP-ITR, Gandhinagar Abstract In today s generation everyone is dreaming about their own car. Due to this, the number of cars& the demand of fossil fuel are increasing day by day. But the main problem associated with the use of cars is the fuel economy & the pollution created by its use. So to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the emission of harmful gases we should find an alternative. HHO is one of the best alternatives, which helps for the complete combustion of the fuel & by this it also helps in reducing the emission of the harmful gases. We have worked on the 4-stroke, Single cylinder engine for the experiments, with the use of HHO. We have supplied the HHO gas, produced by HHO kit, at the inlet manifold of the engine. The hydrogen gas mixes with the air and improves the combustion efficiency. We got the desirable results of reducing the specific fuel consumption and increase in the brake power as well as increase in brake thermal efficiency and reduction in CO emission at the cost of slightly increase in NOx emission by supplying. In the end, we have compared the readings of different parameters of the 4-stroke, Single cylinder engine without attaching the HHO kit & after attaching the HHO kit. Keywords: HHO KIT, Petrol Engine, Electronic Devices, Performance, U-Tube Manometer I. INTRODUCTION Definition of Problem: Faced with the ever increasing cost of conventional fossil fuel, researches worldwide are working overtime to cost effectively internal combustion engine (ICE) fuel economy and emission characteristics. In recent years, many researchers have focused on the study alternative fuels which benefit enhancing the engine economic and emission characteristics. The main pollutants from the conventional hydrocarbon fuel are unburned partially burned hydrocarbon (UBHC), CO, oxides of nitrogen (NO X), smoke and particulate matter. It is very thermal efficiency of diesel engines certainly has advantages for conserving energy and also solving the greenhouse problem. Among all fuels, hydrogen is a long term renewable, recyclable and non-polluting fuel. Hydrogen has some peculiar compared to hydrocarbon fuels, the most significant being the absence of carbon. All regulated pollutant emissions, except nitrogen oxides, can be simply reduced by using carbon-free fuel. This is true whatever the alternative fuel source if the production of this carbonfree fuel in large plants is more efficient and therefore produces less CO 2 than direct conversion of the fuel source into mechanical power in the internal engine. II. HHO TECHNOLOGY Introduction: The HHO gas is nothing but the electrolyte from of water. It is also called as oxy hydrogen or brown gas. It is produced by electrolysis process, where an electrical power source is connected to two electrodes and which are placed in a mixture of water and electrolyte. Oxy hydrogen appears to be a Favorable alternative fuel on account of its high specific energy per unit weight; it s all time availability as a component of water. Good combustion characteristics and eco-friendly, fast burning and higher flame prorogation rates are the attractive features of HHO gas. HHO gas is a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gas, typically in a 2:1 atomic ratio the same prorogation as water. At normal temperature and pressure, oxy hydrogen can burn when it is between about 4% and 94% hydrogen by volume. Hydrogen fuel enhancement is a term used to describe the supplementation of an internal combustion (ICE) with hydrogen to improve fuel efficiency and power. All rights reserved by 208

2 HHO KIT Components: 1) Closed Tank: - It is used to carry electrolyte and electrodes for the chemical process. Normally the used tank for the HHO kit is made up the plastic or fibre. 2) Electrodes: - The electrodes used for the chemical of producing the HHO gas (or brown gas) are of graphite/copper. 3) Electrolyte: - Normally the electrolyte used in the HHO kit to producing the hydrogen is distilled water or NACL+H 2O or detergent power+ H 2O 4) Hoses: - The hoses are used to supply the produced hydrogen gas to the inlet manifold of the engine. The size of the hoses depends on the capacity of the HHO kit. 5) Cables: - They are used to connect the HHO kit with the car battery for the power supply. 6) Battery: - Normally the battery used for the car s electric circuit is used to supply the power to the HHO kit to produce the hydrogen. 7) Connectors: - The different types of clip, clamp, bolt etc. are used as connectors in the HHO kit for the connection of the kit s inlet & outlet to the battery & engine s air inlet respectively. III. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Experimental Setup Description The setup consists of single cylinder, four stroke, multi-fuel, research engine connected to eddy type dynamometer for loading. The operation mode of the engine can be changed from diesel to petrol or from petrol to diesel with some necessary changes. In both modes the compression ratio can be varied without stopping the engine and without the combustion chamber geometry by specially designed tilting cylinder block arrangement. The setup enables study of VCR engine performance for brake power, indicated power, frictional power, BMEP, IMEP, brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific fuel consumption, A/F ratio, heat balance and combustion analysis. Lab view based engine performance analysis software package engine soft is provided for online performance evaluation. Engine Starting (Petrol Mode): - Ensure that all foundation bolts, propeller shaft bolts and Allen bolt of tilting block (of VCR arrangement) are properly tightened. - Ensure that engine stop lever is free and can be pulled towards engine cranking side for stopping the engine. - Ensure that decompression lever (decomp lever) is in horizontal position and CR is set 6 to Connect petrol pipe to carburettor Compression Ratio Adjustment - Slightly loosen 6 Allen bolts provided for clamping the tilting block. - Loosen the lock nut on the adjuster and rotate the adjuster so that the compression ratio is set to maximum. Refer the marking on the CR indicator. - Lock the adjuster by the lock nut. All rights reserved by 209

3 - Tighten all the 6 Allen bolts gently. - You may measure and note the centre distance between two pivot pins of the CR indicator. After changing the compression ration the difference can be used to known new CR. Performance Measurement Method Compression Ratio Adjustment Arrangement The main parameters to, ensure performance desired from the engine is listed below: 1) power production by the engine 2) engine speed (rev/min) 3) fuel consumption HHO GAS INLET In the present set up volumetric fuel consumption was measured using a glass burette and time was measured automatically in program. Temperature was measured using thermocouple mounted on engine. An air box is designed to measure the volumetric flow rate of intake air to on engine. The air box dampens out the fluctuation of the intake air. All rights reserved by 210

4 IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Performance Analysis: First of all, we have taken the readings of the simple engine and the attach the HHO kit with it to check the effect of the HHO gas on the petrol engine. The engine was run on different loads at 1500 rpm with HHO gas rates to investigate the effect of HHO gas on engine performance and emissions. The performance and emission date was analyzed and presented graphically for all the different parameters. Effect of HHO gas on fuel consumption: Table observation table of fuel consumption Fig. 4.1: Load Vs Fuel Consumption In this table 4.1and figure 4.1 shown for Load is increase with fuel consumption increase. But in CR-7 petrol is compare with CR-7 petrol+hho in fuel consumption is decrease. In this table 4.1 and figure 4.1 loads is increase with fuel consumption increase. But in CR-8 petrol is compare with CR-8 petrol+hho in fuel consumption is decrease. In this table 4.1 and figure 4.1 load is increase with fuel consumption increase. But in CR-9 petrol is compare with CR-9 petrol+hho in fuel consumption is decrease. Effect of HHO gas on Fuel Consumption is shown in table 4.1 and figure 4.1. Fuel consumption is decreased with increased HHO gas rate. Effect of HHO gas on BSFC: Table observation table of BSFC All rights reserved by 211

5 Fig. 4.2: LOAD Vs BSFC In this table 4.2 and figure 4.2 shown Load is increase with brake specific fuel consumption decrease. But in CR-7 petrol is compare with CR-7 petrol+hho in brake fuel consumption is decrease. And CR-8 petrol is compare with CR-8 petrol+hho in brake fuel consumption is decrease. In CR-9 petrol is compare with CR-9 petrol+hho in brake fuel consumption is decrease. Effect of HHO gas on BSFC is shown in table 4.2 and figure 4.2 BSFC is decreased with increased HHO gas rate, which one of the desirable effects. Effect on HHO gas on mechanical efficiency. Table observation table of mechanical efficiency Fig. 4.3: Load Vs Mechanical Efficiency In this table 4.3 and figure 4.3 Load is increase with mechanical efficiency increase. But in CR-7 petrol is compare with CR-7 petrol+hho in mechanical efficiency will be increase. And other CR-8 petrol is compare with CR-8 petrol+hho in mechanical efficiency will be increase. In CR-9 petrol is compare with CR-9 petrol+hho in mechanical efficiency will be increase. All rights reserved by 212

6 Effect of HHO gas on mechanical efficiency is shown in table 4.3 and figure 4.3 Mechanical Efficiency is increased with increased HHO gas rate, which one of the desirable effects. Effect of HHO gas on brake thermal efficiency. Table Observation table of brake thermal efficiency Fig. 4.4: Load Vs Brake Thermal Efficiency In table 4.4 and figure 4.4 the effect of compression ratio on brake thermal efficiency is shown for all different petrol and petrol+hho blend. In CR-7 petrol is compare with CR-7 petrol+hho in brake thermal efficiency will be increase. And CR-8 petrol is compare with CR-8 petrol+hho in brake thermal efficiency will be increase. CR-9 petrol is compare with CR-9 petrol+hho in brake thermal efficiency will be increase. Effect of HHO gas on Brake thermal Efficiency is shown in table 4.4 and figure 4.4 Brake thermal efficiency is increased with increased is HHO gas rate. Effect of HHO gas on indicated thermal efficiency:- Table Observation table of indicated thermal efficiency All rights reserved by 213

7 Fig. 4.5: Load Vs Indicated thermal efficiency In table 4.5 and figure 4.5 the effect of compression ratio on indicated thermal efficiency is shown for all different petrol and petrol+hho blend. In CR-7 petrol is compare with CR-7 petrol+hho in indicated thermal efficiency will be decrease. And CR- 8 petrol is compare with CR-8 petrol+hho in indicated thermal efficiency will be decrease. CR-9 petrol is compare with CR-9 petrol+hho in indicated thermal efficiency will be decrease. Effect of HHO gas on Indicated Thermal Efficiency is shown in table 4.5 and figure 4.5. Indicated Efficiency is decreased with increased HHO gas rate. Effect of HHO gas on brake power: Table observation table of brake power Fig. 5.6: Load Vs Brake Power All rights reserved by 214

8 In table 4.6 and figure 4.6 the effect of compression ratio on brake power is shown for all different petrol and petrol+hho blend. In load is increase with brake power is increases. But different compression ratio petrol and petrol+hho value is approximate same not major difference. Effect of HHO gas on Brake Power is shown in table 4.6 and figure 4.6. Brake Power is decreased with increased HHO gas rate. V. CONCLUSION In present study the effect of HHO gas on performance was experimentally investigated. HHO gas was supplied with intake air, and performance and was experimentally investigated. Great reduction in specific fuel consumption (SFC) is achieved. Great amount of specific fuel consumption (SFC) is reduced with increased in HHO gas rate. Mechanical Efficiency is increased with increased HHO gas rate. Brake thermal efficiency is increased with increased is HHO gas rate. Indicated Efficiency is decreased with increased HHO gas rate. Brake Power is decreased with increased HHO gas rate. APPENDIX Cost Estimation of HHO Kit For our experimental work, we have made the HHO kit to supply the hydrogen gas to the air inlet of the engine. We have used the following components to prepare the HHO kit. The cost estimation of all the components is as shown in the table below Table 6 Cost Estimation of HHO kit components Sr.No Name of Component Quantity Cost(Rs.) 1 Air-tight Container Electrodes Electrolyte Cables Connectors Hose Pipes way valve M-seal Teflon tube 2 50 Total 975 REFERENCES [1] Santilli, R. M. (2006). A new gaseous and combustible form of water. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 31(9), [2] Yilmaz, A. C., Uludamar, E., & Aydin, K. (2010). Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines. international journal of hydrogen energy, 35(20), [3] Bari, S., & Esmaeil, M. M. (2010). Effect of H 2/O 2 addition in increasing the thermal efficiency of a diesel engine. Fuel, 89(2), [4] Miyamoto, T., Hasegawa, H., Mikami, M., Kojima, N., Kabashima, H., & Urata, Y. (2011). Effect of hydrogen addition to intake gas on combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a diesel engine. International journal of hydrogen energy, 36(20), [5] Birtas, A., Voicu, I., Petcu, C., Chiriac, R., & Apostolescu, N. (2011). The effect of HRG gas addition on diesel engine combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions. international journal of hydrogen energy, 36(18), [6] Wang, H. K., Cheng, C. Y., Chen, K. S., Lin, Y. C., & Chen, C. B. (2012). Effect of regulated harmful matters from a heavy-duty diesel engine by H 2/O 2 addition to the combustion chamber. Fuel, 93, [7] Greenwood, J. B., Erickson, P. A., Hwang, J., & Jordan, E. A. (2014). Experimental results of hydrogen enrichment of ethanol in an ultra-lean internal combustion engine. international journal of hydrogen energy, 39(24), [8] Sandalcı, T., & Karagöz, Y. (2014). Experimental investigation of the combustion characteristics, emissions and performance of hydrogen port fuel injection in a diesel engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(32), [9] Deb, M., Sastry, G. R. K., Bose, P. K., & Banerjee, R. (2015). An experimental study on combustion, performance and emission analysis of a single cylinder, 4-stroke DI-diesel engine using hydrogen in dual fuel mode of operation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. [10] Google Images [11] Wikipedia- The free encyclopedia [12] All rights reserved by 215

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