STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH TOBACCO SEED METHYL ESTERS AND CASTOR SEED METHYL ESTERS.

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1 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 8, Issue 11, November 2017, pp , Article ID: IJMET_08_11_109 Available online at ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH TOBACCO SEED METHYL ESTERS AND CASTOR SEED METHYL ESTERS. K.Srinivasa Reddy, T.T.Sandeep Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India Dr.Y.V.Hanumantha Rao Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India ABSTRACT: In the present study, tobacco-diesel blends and castor-diesel blends were used as substitute fuel for I C Engines. The properties of tobacco seeds and castor seed oil were determined. The crude forms of tobacco and castor oils are converted into tobacco methyl esters and castor methyl esters by esterification process. The performance and emission parameters of diesel engine were calculated by using blends prepared with the standard diesel and the required graphs were plotted. The parameters obtained were compared with the base line data obtained from using diesel as standard fuel and blend T10 of TSOME has showed best performance in brake thermal efficiency and decrease in specific fuel consumption reduction in emissions. Finally results we can say that Tobacco seed methyl esters serve as best alternate fuel in terms of availability, efficiency and cost. Keywords: Brake power, CSOME (Castor seed Methyl Esters), Emission parameters, TSOME (Tobacco seed Methyl Esters) Cite this Article: K.Srinivasa Reddy, T.T.Sandeep and Dr.Y.V.Hanumantha Rao, Study on the Performance Analysis of Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Tobacco Seed Methyl Esters and Castor Seed Methyl Esters., International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 8(11), 2017, pp

2 Study on the Performance Analysis of Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Tobacco Seed Methyl Esters and Castor Seed Methyl Esters. 1. INTRODUCTION: Energy utilization is unavoidable in human life. There are many reasons for choosing alternative fuels instead of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels which are polluting the environment, economically competitive and depleted fast. The population explosion has also triggered the energy crisis. The increase in population has also resulted in increase of vehicles, industries and the requirements for fossil fuels. This increase in requirement gives rise to time.the energy demand occurs due to three major reasons, one is the rapid increase in the global population and second one is the sophisticated human. Major attention has been given to bio diesel as an alternative fuel for the future transportation system. In many countries for the past few years, meeting the challenges of increasing diesel prices and fast depleting reserves have resulted in an economical-crisis. The term Bio diesel is the name of the clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources. It contains no petroleum but it blends easily with diesel and petrol at any proportions. It can be used in engines with little or no modification. 2. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS: A sample of oils is collected from castor seeds and tobacco seeds by using oil extraction technique and the equipment used is mechanical press. The oil produced after pressing is filtered by using serigraphy papers for removing impurities from oils and filtered oil will be preheated by using direct heating. The molar ratio of 16:1 we mixed Methanol and KOH by titration up to dissolving KOH completely. The solution is mixed with Tobacco seed oil as well as castor seed oil and heated further to separate glycerin and other fatty acids in between the temperature range of 60 c-75 c. The mixture solution is cooled by using separator funnel by pouring the mixture and leaves it for 1 day at atmospheric temperature. This process is called Esterification process. Properties of the blends will be determined by using different apparatus like flash and fire point setup, Bomb calorimeter to measure calorific value of oils, Redwood viscometer to determine viscosity. 3. PREPERATION OF CASTOR SEED AND TOBACCO SEED BLENDS Esterification process The method used for preparation of biodiesel from Crude oils for this work. Esterification which is a process of using methanol in the presence of a catalyst, such as potassium hydroxide (KOH), to chemically break the molecule of castor seed oil into an ester and glycerol. This process is a reaction of the oil with an alcohol to remove the glycerin, a byproduct of biodiesel production. In this experiment 1000 ml of crude oils i.e. Castor seed oil and tobacco seed oil is taken in separate containers and is stirred with a mechanical stirrer and simultaneously heated with the help of a heating coil The speed of the stirrer is minimum and when the temperature of the raw oil reaches 60 C the KOH-alcohol solution is poured into the raw oil containers and the containers is closed with a air tight lid. Now the solution is stirred at high speeds. Care should be taken that the temperature does not exceed 60 C as ethanol evaporates at temperatures higher than 60 C. Also the KOH-alcohol solution is mixed with the oils only at 60 C because heat is generated when KOH and alcohol are mixed together and the temperature of the raw oil should be more than this when mixing is done if the reactions have to take place properly. After stirring the oil-koh-alcohol solution at 60 C for half an hour the solution is transferred to a glass container

3 K.Srinivasa Reddy, T.T.Sandeep and Dr.Y.V.Hanumantha Rao Figure 1 Figure 2 above Castor seed blends Left to Right (C5,C10,C20,C30,C40). Figure 3 above Tobacco seed blends. (T5,T10,T20,T30,T40) Properties of crude oil: Table 1 Properties of Diesel, Castor seed oil and Tobacco seed oil are shown below Property Pure Diesel Castor seed oil Tobacco seed oil Boiling point c 313 c 320 c Specific Gravity(gm/cm 3 ) Flash Point( c) 58 c 296 c 210 c Calorific value(kj/kg) Dynamic viscosity at 40 c(centi-poise) Transport information Hazardous Non hazardous Non hazardous

4 Study on the Performance Analysis of Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Tobacco Seed Methyl Esters and Castor Seed Methyl Esters. 4. EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS: 4.1 Specific Gravity Results: Specific gravity is the relative measure of the density of the substance. It is defined as the ratio of density of the substance to the reference density. Hydrometer is used to measure the specific gravity of the blends prepared and tabulated as shown below. Figure 4 Table 2 Results of Specific Gravity of TSOME,CSOME, DIESEL S. No Oil Blend Specific gravity 1 2 Diesel Castor oil 3 Tobacco Seed Oil Methyl Ester Blend with Bio-Diesel (TSOME) 4 Castor Seed Oil Methyl Ester Blend with Bio-Diesel (CSOME) D100 B100 T10 T20 T30 C10 C20 C Flash and Fire point results for Blends and Diesel Flash point is the minimum temperature to which it must be heated to give off sufficient vapor to form an inflammable mixture with air. At this temperature the vapor may cease to burn when the source of ignition is removed. The fire point is the minimum temperature to which it must be heated so that vapours burn at least 5 seconds. Figure

5 K.Srinivasa Reddy, T.T.Sandeep and Dr.Y.V.Hanumantha Rao Table 3 Flash and Fire Point Results. S. No Oil Blend FLASH POINT FIRE POINT Diesel Castor oil Tobacco seed oil 4 TSOME 3 Castor Seed Oil Methyl Ester Blend with BioDiesel (CSOME) D100 C100 T100 T10 T20 T30 B10 B20 B Viscosity results Viscosity is the property of a homogeneous fluid, which causes it to offer frictional resistance to motion. Viscosity may be expressed as dynamic and kinematic viscosities. Dynamic viscosity is the tangential force on unit area of either of the two parallel planes at unit distance apart when the space between the planes moves relatively to the other with unit velocity in its own plane. Redwood viscometer is used to determine viscosity property for blends and diesel. Figure 6 Table 4 Kinematic and Dynamic Viscosity Results S. No Oil Blend Kinematic viscosity(mm²/s) Dynamic viscosity(centi-poise) Diesel Castor oil Tobacco seed Oil TSOME Blends 3 CSOME Blends D100 C100 T100 -C10 C20 C

6 Study on the Performance Analysis of Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Tobacco Seed Methyl Esters and Castor Seed Methyl Esters. 4.4 Carbon Percentage The carbon residue property is a measure of the tendency of fuel to form carbonaceous deposits in the engine, which can lead to stress, corrosion or cracking of components. A destructive distillation method for estimation of carbon residues in the fuels and lubricating oils Conrad son carbon test is used. Experimental setup of Canradson carbon residue test is shown in figure below. Figure 7 Table 5 Results of Carbon residue for CSOME, TSOME and DIESEL Oil % of carbon Diesel D Castor Seed Oil Methyl Ester Blends with Bio-Diesel(CSOME) CSOME 0.23 Tobacco Seed Oil Methyl Ester Blends with Bio-Diesel(TSOME) TSOME Calorific Value: Calorific value of the fuel is the thermal energy released per unit quantity of fuel when the fuel is burned completely and the products of combustion are cooled back to initial stage temperature of the combustion mixture. A Bomb calorimeter is used to measure the calorific value of blends prepared. Figure below shows the setup of bomb calorimeter used for calculating calorific value of oils

7 K.Srinivasa Reddy, T.T.Sandeep and Dr.Y.V.Hanumantha Rao Figure 8 Table 6 Calorific value results of oils are shown below. Oil Crude B10 B20 B30 TSOME (KJ/Kg) CSOME(KJ/Kg) Diesel (KJ/Kg) DIESEL ENGINE EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Experimental set up consists of a water cooled single cylinder vertical diesel engine coupled to a rope pulley brake arrangement to absorb the power produced necessary weights and spring balances are induced to apply load on the brake drum suitable cooling water arrangement for the brake drum is provided. A fuel measuring system consists of a fuel tank mounted on a stand, burette and a three way cock. Air consumption is measured by using a mild steel tank which is fitted with an orifice and a U-tube water manometer that measures the pressures inside the tank. For measuring the emissions the gas analyzer is connected to the exhaust flow. Figure 9 Specifications of diesel engine: Brake horse power 5HP Speed 1500 RPM Bore 80mm Stroke 110mm Compression ratio 16.5:1 Method of start Crank shaft Orifice diameter 20mm

8 Study on the Performance Analysis of Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Tobacco Seed Methyl Esters and Castor Seed Methyl Esters. No of cylinders 1 Type of ignition Compression ignition Make Kirloskar (a) Figure 10 (a) 4- Stroke diesel engine (b) (b) Dynamometer 5.1 Exhaust gas analyzer: Gas analyzer is mainly used to know the emissions. Gas analyzer measures the concentration of CO, CO 2, and O 2 in volume percentages and the concentration of HC and NOx in parts per million (ppm). The system uses a non-dispersive infrared system for determining the concentration CO, CO 2, and HC, and performs the measurement of O 2 and NOx by electro chemical cells. Figure below shows the 5 mode exhaust gas analyzer

9 K.Srinivasa Reddy, T.T.Sandeep and Dr.Y.V.Hanumantha Rao Table 6 Specifications of 5 Mode exhaust gas emission analyzer. CO 0 to 9.99%vol. Res. 0.01% HC 0 to 20000ppm. (propane) Res. 1ppm Co2 0 to 20.00% vol. Res. 0.10% O2 0 to 25% Res. 0.01% Lambda to 1.800% Res % Air/Fuel 0 to 30:1 Res.1 6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 6.1. Performance and Emission parameters The performance and emission characteristics of a bio-diesel blends were investigated on single cylinder diesel engine at various loads were discussed as per the results obtained and graphs were plotted. 6.1 BRAKE POWER Vs AIR FUEL RATIO. The variation of Brake power Vs Air Fuel ratio is plotted and shown in graph below. The graph reveals that as brake power increases Air Fuel ratio is decreasing in both the cases of TSOME and less for T30 Blend compared with all the blends BRAKE POWER Vs BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION. The variation of Load Vs Brake specific fuel consumption was shown in graph below. The graph reveals that as Brake Power increases with decrease in Brake specific consumption that means fuel consumption decreases. It is observed that all blends of Castor oil shows higher specific fuel consumption a long with sole fuel of the engine. It is due to high viscosity and poor volatility of the Castor oil as results in poor atomization and mixture formation and increases in fuel consumption. C20 oil shows the maximum specific fuel consumption than other blends and one interesting point is that T10 having less fuel consumption compared to other blends

10 Study on the Performance Analysis of Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Tobacco Seed Methyl Esters and Castor Seed Methyl Esters BRAKE POWER Vs INDICATED SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION. The variation of Load Vs Indicated specific fuel consumption was shown in graph below. The graph reveals that as Brake Power increases there is more decrement in Indicated specific consumption for blends T10 followed by T30 that means fuel consumption decreases compared to Castor seed Methyl Esters and other blends of Tobacco Seed Methyl Esters BRAKE POWER Vs BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY. The variation of Brake Power Vs Brake Thermal Efficiency was plotted and shown in graph below. As the Brake Power increases the Brake Thermal Efficiency also increased and blend T10 has showed maximum when compared to all other blends. CSOME shows lower values due to high viscosity of the castor oil leads to lower the break thermal efficiency

11 K.Srinivasa Reddy, T.T.Sandeep and Dr.Y.V.Hanumantha Rao 6.5. LOAD Vs MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY. The variation of Load Vs Mechanical Efficiency is plotted and shown in graph below. The graph shows that as Brake Power increases Mechanical Efficiency also increases. The Mechanical Efficiency of a diesel engine was high while using tobacco seed oil blends than that of castor seed oil blends. 7. CONCLUSIONS Based on the experimental results the following conclusions are arrived: The Maximum brake thermal efficiency for T10 (38.61%) and for C10 (30.42%) was achieved which means there was an increase of 8.47% and 6.28% compared with diesel. In T10 fuel the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption is lower than diesel by 27.5%and in C10 lower by 18.52%. As a C I Engine fuel, T10 Blend results in an average reduction of 21.53% of smoke densities and C10 by 20.79%. Since T10 blend reduces the environmental pollution, high in thermal efficiency when compared with diesel it will be a promising energy source for sustaining the energy. From the above points it is concluded that the Tobacco seed oil Methyl esters can be used as a substitute fuel for the diesel fuel

12 Study on the Performance Analysis of Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Tobacco Seed Methyl Esters and Castor Seed Methyl Esters. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Authors take immense pleasure in expressing our deep gratitude to Dr A.Srinath Head of Mechanical Engineering Department for his encouragement all the way during the investigation of the work. REFERENCES [1] B.Y.Mathur, P.M.Poonia and Jethoo A.S, Economics Formulation Techniques and Properties of Biodiesel A Review Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, Volume1, 2011, Issue2: [2] Dilip Kumar Bora, Performance of single cylinder diesel engine with karabi seed biodiesel. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, Vol. 68, November 2009, pp [3] Dutra,Teixeira, Colaco, Calderia and Leiroz, Comparative Analysis of Performance and Emissions of an Engine Operating with Palm Oil ethyl Ester and their Blends with Diesel,20 International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, Gramado, RS, Brazil November 15-20,2009. [4] K.Pramani, Properties and use of jatrophacurcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engines, Renewable Energy 28(2003) pp [5] L.Ranganathan, S.Sampath A review on biodiesel production, combustion emissions ad performance International journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research, Issue 1,Vol 1 October 2011 ISSN [6] L.Panwara, HemantY.Shrirama, N.S.Rathore, SudhakarJindal, A.K.Kurchania, Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of castor seed oil, Applied Thermal Engineering 30(2010), pp [7] S. Jindal Effect of engine parameters on NOx emissions with Jatropha biodiesel as fuel. International journal of energy and environment, Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp [8] S.S.Ragitha,S.K.Mohapatra and Kundu, Comparative study of engine performance and exhaust emissions characteristics of a single cylinder 4-stroke CI engine operated on the esters of hemp oil and neem oil Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences Vol. 18, June 2011, pp [9] K. Srinivasa Reddy, P. Revanth, M.Yatheendar, J.S.V.M Teja and P. Rajavardhan Reddy, Experimental Investigation on Performance of Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Mahua Oil Methyl Esters, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 8(11), 2017, pp [10] E.C. Prasad Nidumolu, K. Sandeep Kumar and Dr. J. Krishnaraj. Performance and Emission Analysis of CI Engine Fuelled with the Blends of Palm Methyl Esters and Diesel. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 8(6), 2017, pp [11] V.Nagaraju, P.Sivakumar, K.Sreekanth, A.SaiHarsha, P.Venkatesh and K.Hanu Kumar Experimental Investigation on Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine by Using Linseed Oil, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 8(5), 2017, pp

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