# Thermal Engines (Motores Térmicos)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Thermal Engines (Motores Térmicos) Tutorials Time schedule Hour/Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 11:00 12:00 MT MT MT 1

2 Tutorial 1 Engine Parts and Components Engine performance maps The reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) 2

3 Engine parts and components Piston cylindrical shaped mass that reciprocates back and forth in the cylinder, transmitting the pressure forces in the combustion chamber to the rotating crankshaft Connecting rod Cross Head Type Engine Used in large engine The lower end of the piston rod is connected to a cross head, which slides up and down in guides Crankshaft (crank) it is a rotating shaft through which engine work output is supplied to external systems. Fixed with the cylinder block, and receives motion forces from the piston Cross section of piston showing cooling and lubrication, GM Engine parts and components Cylinder circular cylinders in the engine block inside which the piston reciprocate, and beneath which crank is fixed, thus confining the motion linkage. Camshaft rotating shaft used to push open valves at proper time in the engine cycle. The cam profile is made to give such desired movement to the valve. 3

4 Engine parts and components Engine parts and components 4

5 Tutorial 2 Performance characteristics Engine performance maps Engine parameters Summary Piston travel distance x = f(θ) x θ = l + a a aosθ + R 2 sin 2 θ Piston swept volume V = f(θ) V θ = V d r v 1 + V d 2 R + 1 cosθ + R2 sin 2 θ Piston instantaneous speed U p = f(θ) U p θ = ω a sinθ 1 + cosθ R 2 sin 2 θ Piston acceleration a p = f(θ) a p θ = a ω 2 cosθ + a cos 2θ l Surface area A t = f(θ) A t = 2 πb 2 4 π B s 2 R + 1 cosθ + R2 sin 2 θ 1 2 5

6 Operating characteristics Mean Effective Pressure average (mean) pressure which, if imposed on the pistons uniformly from the top to the bottom of each power stroke, would produce the measured power output W= p mep V d But the power produced by the engine P is equal to the work done per operating cycle times the number of operating cycles per second. If N is the number of revolutions per second, and n c is the number of revolutions per cycle: P = W N / n c W = P n c / N p mep = W /V d p mep = Pn c V d N If T is the torque produced by the engine and w = 2pN is the angular velocity: P = 2πNT W = work per cycle (J) P = power output (W) P mep =mean effective pressure (Pascal) V d = displacement volume (m 3 ) N c = number of revolutions per cycle (for a 4-stroke engine n c = 2 ) N = number of revolutions per second (s -1 ) T = Torque (Nm) p mep = 2π Tn c V d Operating characteristics Mean effective pressure (MEP) is defined by the location measurement and method of calculation: Brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) -Mean effective pressure calculated from brake power Indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) -Mean effective pressure calculated from in cylinder pressure, average in cylinder pressure over engine cycle, 720. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) -Theoretical mean effective pressure required to overcome engine friction, can be thought of as mean effective pressure lost due to friction. BMEP = IMEP FMEP P = p mepv d N n c Brake Power (BP) Indicated Power (IP) Friction Power (FP) -BP = IP FP P brake = p mep brake V d N n c P indicated = p mep indicated V d N n c P friction = p mep friction V d N n c η m = Brake Indicated 6

7 Operating Characteristics Specific Fuel Consumption Fuel consumption rate sfc = Power output sfc = m f P sfc mg/j = m f g/s P kw Thermal efficiency sfc g/kwh = m f g/h P kw Power output η th = Thermal energy released in combustion Excess Air P η th = m f Q LHV η Bth = P brake m f Q LHV η ind = P indicated m f Q LHV 1 η th = sfc Q LHV 1 η Bth = sfc brake Q LHV 1 η ind = sfc ind Q LHV λ = Air Fuel Air Fuel st for SI engines burning gasoline: 12 < A/F < 18 for CI engines burning diesel fuel: 18 < A/F < 70 Mechanical efficiency, h m η m = P brake P indicated Indicated Power Engine Losses = Indicated - Brake Friction losses Mechanical losses due to friction between all sliding surfaces, e g., con rod bearings; crankshaft bearing; camshaft bearings etc. Parasitic losses Loads required to operate engine auxiliaries, e g., air conditioner; oil pump; water pump; alternator; supercharger, etc Influencing parameters - Stroke to bore ratio - Engine size - Piston rings - Compression ratio - Engine speed - Load η m decreases with increasing N Typical values for modern automobile engines at full open throttle range from η m =90% at low speeds ( rpm) to η m =75% at maximum speed. η m decreases as the engine is throttled 7

8 Indicated Power Power that develops inside the cylinder Theoretical power of a reciprocating engine if it is completely friction-less in converting the expanding gas energy (piston pressure displacement) in the cylinders. It is calculated from the pressure-volume diagram developed in the cylinders (called the indicator diagram), measured by a device called an engine indicator. P brake = η mec P ind P brake = 2πNT brake Brake Power (power available at the crankshaft ) =Indicated power Mechanical Losses Power measurements Engine Power before the loss in power caused by the gearbox and drive train. It is calculated from simultaneous measurements of the rotational speed and the Brake Torque measured with a dynamometer T brake = RF Illustration of an old device to measure torque (Prony brake) Electrical dynamometer setup showing engine, torque measurement arrangement and tachometer from: Marine Engineering Study Materials, The indicated power can be computed from the indicator diagram by measuring the area of the diagram (e g., with a planimeter) On modern engines the indicated diagram can be continuously taken by employing two transducers, one pressure transducer in the combustion space and other transducer on the shaft. Through the computer we can thus get on line indicated diagram and power of all cylinders. The output of the engine can also be measured at the driving wheels. These measurements give an indication of the engine power in real driving conditions, after losses in the drive train and gearbox. Note: In Europe the DIN standard tested the engine fitted with all ancillaries and exhaust system as used in the car. The American SAE system tests without alternator, water pump, and other auxiliary components such as power steering pump, muffled exhaust system, etc. so the figures are higher than the European figures for the same engine. Problem 1 Consider a four-cylinder automotive spark-ignition engine with a maximum brake torque of 150 N.m in the mid-speed range (~3000 rpm) at which the bmep is 925 kpa. Estimate a) the engine displacement; the cylinder bore; the engine speed at maximum piston speed; the maximum brake power Other data: R=Bore/Stroke=1; (MEP) max speed = 800 kpa; S pmax (maximum piston speed) = 15m/s Engine displacement: P brake = p mep brake V d N Substituting P = 2πNT in n c 2πNT = p mep brake V d N n c V d = 2πT n c 2 π N m = = m 3 = 2dm 3 p mep Pa Bore V d = 4 π B2 L 4 since B = L as for a small engine: B = V d π 1/3 = m = 86 mm At the maximum piston speed of 15 m/s the engine speed is: Spmax = 2LN max N max = 87 rps = 5220 RPM Maximum brake power P brake = p mep brake V d N n c = Pa m 3 87 rps 2 =7000 W = 70 kw 8

9 A 4 cylinder, 4 stroke engine gave the following results on a test bed: Stroke L = 100 mm Bore B = 100 mm Shaft speed N = 2500 rpm Torque arm R = 0.4 m Net Brake Load F = 200N Fuel consumption m f = 2 g/s Calorific value Q LHV = 42 MJ/kg Area of indicator diagram A d = 300 mm 2 Pressure scale S p = 80 kpa/mm Base length of diagram Y = 60 mm Calculate: 1. Brake Power 2. Fuel Power 3. Indicated Mean Effective Pressure 4. Indicated Power 5. h THbrake 6. h THindicated 7. h mechanical P brake = 2πN T brake P brake = 2π = kw 60 P fuel = m f Q LHV P fuel = kg/s kj/kg = 84 kw MEP ind = Area of indicator diagram Presure Scale Base length of diagram MEP ind = = 400 kpa 60 P ind = MEP ind L A p N 1 N n cylinders c P ind = π =26.18 kw η thb = P brake 100% = % = 24.9% P fuel 84 Problem η thi = P ind 100% = % = 31.1% P fuel 84 η m = P brake 100% = % = 80% P ind 26.1 Problem 3 A 6 cylinder, 4 stroke spark engine gave the following results on a test: Stroke L = 80 mm Bore B = 90 mm Shaft speed N = 5000 rpm Fuel consumption m f = 0.3 dm 3 /min Fuel density m f = 0.3 kg/m 3 Calorific value Q LHV = 44 MJ/kg Net brake load F brake = 180 N Torque arm R = 0.5 m Area of indicator diagram A d = 720 mm 2 Pressure scale S p = 40 kpa/mm Base length of diagram Y = 60 mm Calculate: 1. Brake Power 2. Indicated Mean Effective Pressure 3. Indicated Power 4. h mechanical 5. h THbrake Brake Power P brake = 2πNT brake P brake = 2π = W = kw 60 T brake = F brake Torn Arm180 N 0.5 m = 90N m Mean effective pressure Net Indicated Area MEP Indicated = pressure scale Base Length of indicator diagram MEP Indicated = Indicated Power 720 mm2 40 kpa/mm = 480 kpa 60 mm P Indicated = MEP indicated V displaced N cilinders 1 n c P Indicated = MEP indicated πb2 4 L N cilinders 1 n c P Indicated = 480kPa π0.092 m 2 0.8m P Indicated = 61.1 kw Mechanical efficiency η mechanical = P brake 100% = % = 77.2% P indicated Brake thermal efficiency η Bth = P brake % = 100% = P Fuel ρ fuel Vfuel Q LHV %28.6% 9

10 Problem 4 A 4 cylinder, two stroke spark engine gave the following results on a test: Bore B = 100 mm Stroke L = 100 mm Shaft speed N = 2000 rpm Fuel consumption m f = 5 g/s Calorific value Q LHV = 46 MJ/kg Net brake load F brake = 500 N Torque arm R = 0.5 m Area of indicator diagram A d = 1500 mm 2 Pressure scale S p = 25 kpa Base length of diagram Y = 66 mm Calculate: 1. h THindicated (26.3 %) 2. H mechanical (87 %) 3. h THbrake (22.8 %) Problem 5 A 3 liter, six cylinders SI engine operates on a four stroke cycle and run at 3600 rpm. The compression ratio is 9.5 the length of connecting rod is 16.6cm, and the bore equal the stroke. Combustion ends at 20 o after TDC calculate: (1) Cylinder bore and stroke, (2) average piston speed, (3) clearance volume of one cylinder, (4) the distance piston has travelled from TDC at the end of combustion, (5) volume of the combustion chamber at the end of combustion. 10

11 Problem 6 The engine in Problem 5 is connected to a dynamometer which gives a brake output torque of 205 Nm at 3600 rpm. At this speed air enters the cylinder at 85 kpa and 60 o C, and the mechanical efficiency of the engine is 85%. Calculate: (1) Brake power, (2) indicated power, (3) bmep, (4) imep, (5 )fmep, (6) friction power, (7) engine specific volume. Problem 7 The engine in Problem 6 is running with A/F ratio =15,a fuel of heating value; 44000kJ/kg and a combustion efficiency of 97%. The atmosphere is at kpa and 15 o C. Calculate: (1) the fuel flow rate (2) h BT, (3) h IT,(4) h V and (5) brake specific consumption. 11

12 Problem 8 A six-cylinder 4-stroke cycle petrol engine is to be designed to develop 300 kw of (b.p) at 2500 rpm. The bore / stroke ratio is to be 1:1.25. Assuming h m =83% and an indicated mean effective pressure of 9.5 bar, determine the required bore and stroke. If the compression ratio of the engine is to be 6.5 to 1, determine consumption of petrol in kg/h and in kg/bp.hr. Take the ratio of the indicated thermal efficiency of the engine to that of the constant volume air standard cycle as 0.55 and the calorific value of the petrol as 44770kJ/kg. Performance characteristics The performance characteristics of the engine are measured at OEMs for the complete range of operating conditions (engine speed) in special facilities, an engine test stand. the engine test stand The stand houses several sensors, data acquisition features and actuators to control the engine state. The most complete engine tests may include measurements of: crankshaft torque and angular velocity intake air and fuel consumption rates air-fuel ratio for the intake mixture Chemical composition of the exhaust gases (e g., carbon monoxide, different configurations of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide) including particulate matter temperatures and gas pressures at several locations on the engine body (eg., engine oil, spark plug, exhaust gas, intake manifold pressure) atmospheric conditions (temperature, pressure and humidity) Engine Test Bed Rental AVL, Austria TÜV SÜD Accredited Laboratory 12

14 Specific Fuel Consumption (s.f.c.) 24/10/2015 Performance characteristics Consumption loop test Test carried out at constant speed, constant throttle opening, and constant ignition setting. The specific fuel consumption is plotted to a base of "bmep". The A/F ratio is a minimum at A (i.e. richest mixture). As the A/F ratio is increased the "bmep" increases until a maximum is reached at B (usually for an A/F ratio between 10/1 and 13/1). Further increase in A/F ratio produce a decrease in "bmep" with increasing economy until the position of maximum economy is reached at D. Beyond D, for increasing A/F ratios, both "bmep" and consumption values are adversely affected. 18 E Near the point A the engine could be running unsteadily and there may be combustion of the mixture in the exhaust system. At E, with the weakest mixture, running will be unsteady and the combustion may be slow. Point C is the point of chemically correct A/F ratio. A D 10 B C b.m.e.p. For multi-cylinder engines the consumption loops are less distinct, but are generally similar to that for the single cylinder engine. This is also true for tests made at part throttle opening. Adapted from Fundamentals of Internal Combustion Engines, H. N. Gupta, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 2012 Performance characteristics Engine Maps SI Engine the bsfc increases upwards from point A where bsfc is maximum CI Engine In SI engines it is because of mixture enrichement from the action of the economizer and because of the poorer distribution at full throttle. In CI engines it is because of the increased fuel waste (smoke) associated with high fuel/air ratios at high loads. Moving to a lower bmep from point A, the bsfc increases due to reduced mechanical efficiency Moving to the left from point A to a lower piston speeds, the bsfc increases in SI engines because of the increased heat loss per cycle, poor distribution at low manifold velocities and lowered efficiency due to automatically retarded spark used for detonation control at low engine speeds. At very low speeds (not shown in the plot) the CI enmgines may also have increased bsfc because the injectioin equipment cannot be set to give completely satisfactory characetristics over the entire speed range. from Fundamentals of Internal Combustion Engines, H. N. Gupta, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.,

15 Tutorial 3 Engine Cycles Engine performance maps Problems P1 Estimate the temperature of the gas inside the cylinder at the ending of intake. Consider a normally aspirated engine, and if you assume it is a spark ignition engine consider the throttle is fully open. Assume values that seem realistic to the geometrical characteristics of the engine, temperature and gas pressure at the end of force exhaust, temperature and pressure at the end of intake. Remember there are variations of gas properties with temperature, but make the simplifications it deems appropriate. P2 For a given spark ignition engine of 9.5:1 compression ratio, calculate the temperature at the end of the compression (disregarding the effect of rising pressure that occurs due to the development of combustion). Consider that the temperature at the end of intake is T1 K, that the compression begins immediately at BDC (i.e., consider that the intake valve closes at BDC), that the properties of the mixture are approximately those of the air, and that the compression is adiabatic. Assume what you believe to be a realistic value for T1, and discuss the approximations listed above and those that you may make in solving this problem. P3 For the conditions of the previous problem, calculate the pressure at the end of the compression on the assumption that the pressure at the end of intake is p1 MPa. Assume a realistic value for p1, given that it is a spark ignition engine, normally aspirated, and the throttle is fully open. Discuss how you have solved this problem, and how you would have done it if you had not solved the problem 2). P4 For the conditions of problems 2 and 3, and considering a swept cylinder capacity of 400 cm3, calculate the work needed for the compression of the gas. P5 The same as problem 2) but for a Diesel engine with 22.0:1 compression ratio, and with the temperature T1 K at the end of intake. Assume again a value for T1 and compare it with the one assumed in problem 2). Discuss the approximations made and compare them and their suitability with those of problem 2) P6 The same as problem 3) but for the Diesel, and with the same pressure at the end of intake. P7 The same as problem 4) but for the Diesel (with the same cylinder capacity). 15

16 Engine boosting Superchargers and turbochargers Compressors mounted in the intake system Used to raise the pressure of the incoming air More air and fuel entering each cylinder during each cycle super-charging turbo-charging Supercharging Superchargers Mechanically driven directly off the engine - power is taken directly from the crankshaft driven by an accessory belt, which wraps around a pulley that is connected to a drive gear. Power needed to drive the supercharger is evaluated as W c = m a h out h in Where W sc = Power needed to drive the supercharger m a = air mass rate to the enguine h out = Enthalpy of the air at the outlet of the compressor h in = Enthalpy of the air at the inlet of the compressor Taking the air as a perfect gas: W c = m a C p T out T in Where T out = Temperature of the air at the outlet of the compressor T in = Temperature of the air at the inlet of the compressor power to drive the compressor is a parasitic load on the engine output, which is one of the disadvantages of superchargers 16

17 Isentropic efficiency: η is = W isc W real η is = m ac p T out,s T in m a C p T out T in If (T in and P in ) are known, and design output pressure is set: T out = T in p out p in γ 1 γ Supercharging Assuming constant C p : η is T out,s T in T out T in T out,s = T in p out,s p in γ 1 γ W c = m a C p T out T in W c = m ac p T in η is p out,s p in γ 1 γ 1 power needed to drive the supercharger η m = W ac W isc W ac = m ac p T in η is η m Mechanical efficiency of the compressor p out,s p in γ 1 γ 1 Power actually delivered by the engine Supercharging Additional requirements After-cooler cools the air temperature back to normal, thus reducing air density and improving volumetric efficiency. Generally C.I engines do not need after-coolers as there will be no concern about higher cycle temperature - engine water cooling (air-to-liquid heat exchanger) - air cooling (air-to-air heat exchanger) effectiveness of the after cooler: ε f = T c,in T c,out T c,in T coolant Multistage compression supercharger With more compressors to improve air/fuel delivery. 17

18 Turbocharging Turbocharging Principle of the Turbocharged Engine The turbocharger is bolted to the exhaust manifold of the engine and uses the exhaust flow to spin a turbine, which in turn spins a compressor. The advantage that the engine shaft output is not used to drive the compressor, and only waste energy in the exhaust is used. Main components: - A turbine (usually a radial inflow turbine) - A compressor (usually a centrifugal compressor) - A waste gate valve to divert the exhaust gases away from the turbine wheel. - An intercooler to cool the intake flow upstream the cylinder. 18

19 Turbocharging Thermodynamics η C = h 2s h 1 h 2 h 1 η T = h 3 h 4 h 3 h 4s η m = m 12C p12 T 2 T 1 m 34 C p34 T 3 T 4 Effect of overall turbocharger efficiency on the pressure ratio between engine inlet and exhaust manifold pressures, for a 2:1 compressor pressure ratio (p 1 /p 2 ) with different engine exhaust temperatures from R.Stone, Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines, 3rd edition, SAE Inc.,1999 Turbocharging Boost threshold engine speed (rpm) equivalent to the required exhaust gas flow for the turbo to produce boost, below this level the turbo simply will not produce boost and very little benefits will be achieved. Determined by: - the engine displacement - engine rpm - throttle opening and - size of the turbo Manual Pneumatic Electric (high-speed electrical motor to speed the turbocharger before exhaust gases are available) Hydraulic (drive system and over-speed clutch arrangement to accelerate the turbocharger) Turbo lag time delay between opening the engine s throttle valve and when the turbo accelerates and delivers positive pressure (boost) to the engine when engine speed is above the boost threshold. Determined by: - Inertia - friction and - compressor load The directly driven compressor in a supercharger does not suffer from this problem. Turbo lag is the most important parameter of a turbocharger when rapid changes in engine performance are required 19

20 Pressure ratio flow parameter adiabatic efficiency 24/10/2015 Turbine map Pressure ratio Example of a turbine map Compressor map Corrected mass flow Measured points Adiabatic efficiency Corrected shaft speed [rpm x 10-3 ] Example of a compressor map 20

21 Pressure 24/10/2015 Engine boosting summary Disadvantages and cautions Boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system, including the turbo, inside its thermal and mechanical design operating range. Over-boosting an engine frequently can cause: - pre-ignition - Overheating - Over-stressing the internal hardware of the engine To avoid engine knocking (pre-ignition or detonation) and the consequent damages to the engine, the intake manifold pressure must not get too high. Opening the waste-gate allows the energy for the turbine to bypass it and pass directly to the exhaust pipe. The turbocharger is forced to slow as the mass flow rate of exhaust gases to the turbine decreases. Slowing the turbine/compressor rotor produces less compressor pressure. Turbocharged Otto Cycle W Cycle = W W For a turbocharged engine: it has to be A A-4-5-A > A Thermodynamic cycle of the engine: 7 1 admission of air at the supercharging pressure (p 1 >p atm ) 1 2 isentropic compression 2 3 heat addition at constant volume 3 4 isentropic expansion heat rejection at constant pressure (blowdown) 5 6 driving out exhaust at constant atmospheric pressure Volume Thermodynamic cycle of the supercharger: admission of air at atmospheric pressure 0 1 isentropic compression to pressure p delivery of supercharged air at constant pressure p 1 p 1 = supercharging pressure p o = exhaust pressure Area : supercharger work (mechanically driven) to supply air at a constant pressure p 1 Area : output of the engine Area : gain in work during the gas exchange process due to supercharging (Part of the work is recovered) Area : cannot be recovered and represents a loss of work 21

22 Efficiency, h 24/10/2015 Turbocharged Otto Cycle Defining b as the pressure ratio of the compressor: b is limited by the occurrence of knock : Where: β = p 1 p o = p 7 p 6 β = p 1 p o p 2,limit p o r v γ p 2,limit = p 1 r v,limit γ β γ 1 η = B γ 1 r v,limit γ 1 γ 1 B βγ 1 β 1 βγ r v,limit B = Q LHV 1 with R T o 1 + Air Fuel Throttled turbocharged b = 0.22 Maximum efficiency Compression ratio, b Problem 8 Discuss the use of a turbocharger in the 6 cylinder SI engine of the previous lecture 22

23 Problem 8 (cont) efficiency of the turbine, h T = 65% efficiency of the compressor, h C = 70% N A/F (r v) limit h Otto [h Otto] limit p 2,limit kpa T 1 K (p 1) orig kpa (Dp) admi kpa p 1 kpa p 2 kpa m ar/cylinder kg 4.972E E E E E-04 m fuel/cylinder kg 3.314E E E E E-05 m fuel kg/s 5.97E E E E E-02 m ar kg/s 8.95E E E E E-01 T 2 K T 3 K p 3 kpa p 4 kpa T 4 K T A K W 4-A kw p 7 kpa X WG (p 7=p 1) b Pressure at the sart of combustion may cause knock Waste gate valve opens β γ 1 η = B γ 1 r v,limit γ 1 γ B 1 B βγ Problem 8 (cont) 1 β 1 βγ r v,limit 2.87E E E+06 h

24 N A/F (r v ) limit h Otto [h Otto ] limit p 2,limit kpa T 1 K (p 1 ) orig kpa (Dp) admi kpa p 1 kpa p 2 kpa m ar /cylinder kg 6.90E E E E E E E E E E E E-04 m fuel /cylinde kg 4.60E E E E E E E E E E E E-05 m fuel kg/s 9.19E E E E E E E E E E E E-02 m ar kg/s 1.38E E E E E E E E E E E E-01 T 2 K T 3 K p 3 kpa p 4 kpa T 4 K T A K W 4-A kw X WG kpa b Problem 8 (cont) γ ex W t = m ex η t γ ex 1 R ex T ex 1 p t2 p t1 γ ex 1 γ ex γ c W c = m c η c γ c 1 R c T c p c2 p c1 γ c 1 γ c 1 p t1 = 1 C τ p c2 p c1 p t2 γ ex γ c 1 γ γ ex 1 τ = η t η c T ex T o C = λ A F γ c 1 + λ A γ c 1 γ ex 1 γ ex F From: Control problems in a turbocharged spark-ignition engine, W. Mitianiec and L. Rodak, J. of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 18, No. 3,

### AME 436. Energy and Propulsion. Lecture 6 Unsteady-flow (reciprocating) engines 1: Basic operating principles, design & performance parameters

AME 436 Energy and Propulsion Lecture 6 Unsteady-flow (reciprocating) engines 1: Basic operating principles, design & performance parameters Outline Classification of unsteady-flow engines Basic operating

### Operating Characteristics

Chapter 2 Operating Characteristics 2-1 Engine Parameters 2-22 Work 2-3 Mean Effective Pressure 2-4 Torque and Power 2-5 Dynamometers 2-6 Air-Fuel Ratio and Fuel-Air Ratio 2-7 Specific Fuel Consumption

### AME 436. Energy and Propulsion. Lecture 6 Unsteady-flow (reciprocating) engines 1: Basic operating principles, design & performance parameters

AME 436 Energy and Propulsion Lecture 6 Unsteady-flow (reciprocating) engines 1: Basic operating principles, design & performance parameters Outline Classification of unsteady-flow engines Basic operating

### VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR SI ENGINE VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR CI ENGINE

VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR SI ENGINE VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR CI ENGINE Page 1 of 13 EFFECT OF VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM ON VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY: Qu. 1:Why Inlet valve is closed after the Bottom Dead Centre

### LECTURE NOTES INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES SI AN INTEGRATED EVALUATION

LECTURE NOTES on INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES SI AN INTEGRATED EVALUATION Integrated Master Course on Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department November 2015 Approach SI _ indirect injection

SET - 1 II B. Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary Examinations, April/May-2017 THERMAL ENGINEERING-I (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 70 Note: 1. Question Paper consists of two parts

### Kul Internal Combustion Engine Technology. Definition & Classification, Characteristics 2015 Basshuysen 1,2,3,4,5

Kul-14.4100 Internal Combustion Engine Technology Definition & Classification, Characteristics 2015 Basshuysen 1,2,3,4,5 Definitions Combustion engines convert the chemical energy of fuel to mechanical

### (a) then mean effective pressure and the indicated power for each end ; (b) the total indicated power : [16]

Code No: R05220304 Set No. 1 II B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007 THERMAL ENGINEERING-I ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer

### 2. Discuss the effects of the following operating variables on detonation

Code No: RR220303 Set No. 1 II B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2006 THERMAL ENGINEERING-I ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer

### Applied Thermodynamics Internal Combustion Engines

Applied Thermodynamics Internal Combustion Engines Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mazlan Abdul Wahid Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia www.fkm.utm.my/~mazlan 1 Coverage Introduction Operation

### 2013 THERMAL ENGINEERING-I

SET - 1 II B. Tech II Semester, Regular Examinations, April/May 2013 THERMAL ENGINEERING-I (Com. to ME, AME) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 75 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry Equal Marks ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

### Chapter 1 Internal Combustion Engines

Chapter 1 Internal Combustion Engines 1.1 Performance Parameters Engine performance parameters can be measured by two means; the indicator equipment or the dynamometer. The indicator system consists of

### 2.61 Internal Combustion Engines

Due: Thursday, February 19, 2004 2.61 Internal Combustion Engines Problem Set 2 Tuesday, February 10, 2004 1. Several velocities, time, and length scales are useful in understanding what goes on inside

### Assignment-1 Air Standard Cycles

Assignment-1 Air Standard Cycles 1. What do u mean by air standard cycle? List assumptions for air standard cycle & give reasons why air standard cycle differs from actual cycle. 2. Derive an equation

### AT AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES QUESTION BANK

AT6301 - AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES QUESTION BANK UNIT I: CONSTRUCTION & WORKING PRINCIPLE OF IC ENGINES 1. State the application of CI engines? 2. What is Cubic capacity of an engine? 3. What is the purpose of

### Combustion engines. Combustion

Combustion engines Chemical energy in fuel converted to thermal energy by combustion or oxidation Heat engine converts chemical energy into mechanical energy Thermal energy raises temperature and pressure

### ACTUAL CYCLE. Actual engine cycle

1 ACTUAL CYCLE Actual engine cycle Introduction 2 Ideal Gas Cycle (Air Standard Cycle) Idealized processes Idealize working Fluid Fuel-Air Cycle Idealized Processes Accurate Working Fluid Model Actual

### (v) Cylinder volume It is the volume of a gas inside the cylinder when the piston is at Bottom Dead Centre (B.D.C) and is denoted by V.

UNIT II GAS POWER CYCLES AIR STANDARD CYCLES Air standard cycles are used for comparison of thermal efficiencies of I.C engines. Engines working with air standard cycles are known as air standard engines.

### Internal Combustion Engines

Introduction Lecture 1 1 Outline In this lecture we will learn about: Definition of internal combustion Development of the internal combustion engine Different engine classifications We will also draw

### Internal Combustion Engine

Internal Combustion Engine 1. A 9-cylinder, 4-stroke cycle, radial SI engine operates at 900rpm. Calculate: (1) How often ignition occurs, in degrees of engine rev. (2) How many power strokes per rev.

### Chapter 6. Supercharging

SHROFF S. R. ROTARY INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY (SRICT) DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Chapter 6. Supercharging Subject: Internal Combustion Engine 1 Outline Chapter 6. Supercharging 6.1 Need

### SAMPLE STUDY MATERIAL

IC Engine - ME GATE, IES, PSU 1 SAMPLE STUDY MATERIAL Mechanical Engineering ME Postal Correspondence Course Internal Combustion Engine GATE, IES & PSUs IC Engine - ME GATE, IES, PSU 2 C O N T E N T 1.

### Engine Cycles. T Alrayyes

Engine Cycles T Alrayyes Introduction The cycle experienced in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine is very complex. The cycle in SI and diesel engine were discussed in detail in the previous

### L34: Internal Combustion Engine Cycles: Otto, Diesel, and Dual or Gas Power Cycles Introduction to Gas Cycles Definitions

Page L: Internal Combustion Engine Cycles: Otto, Diesel, and Dual or Gas Power Cycles Review of Carnot Power Cycle (gas version) Air-Standard Cycles Internal Combustion (IC) Engines - Otto and Diesel Cycles

### EEN-E2002 Internal Combustion Definitions and Characteristics, lecture 3. January 2017, Martti Larmi

EEN-E2002 Internal Combustion Definitions and Characteristics, lecture 3 January 2017, Martti Larmi Textbooks on Internal Combustion Internal combustion engine handbook : basics, components, systems, and

### Assignment-1 Introduction

Assignment-1 Introduction 1. Compare S.I. engines with C.I engines. 2. Explain with the help of neat sketch, the working of a 2-stroke petrol engine. 3. Derive an equation of efficiency, work output and

### Internal Combustion Engines TUTORIAL

Internal Combustion Engines TUTORIAL College of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department Academic Year 2012-2013 Class 3 rd Year Class Subject Lecturer Internal Combustion Engines Dr. Raoof M. Radhi

### Principles of Engine Operation. Information

Internal Combustion Engines MAK 4070E Principles of Engine Operation Prof.Dr. Cem Soruşbay Istanbul Technical University Information Prof.Dr. Cem Soruşbay İ.T.Ü. Makina Fakültesi Motorlar ve Taşıtlar Laboratuvarı

### AT 2303 AUTOMOTIVE POLLUTION AND CONTROL Automobile Engineering Question Bank

AT 2303 AUTOMOTIVE POLLUTION AND CONTROL Automobile Engineering Question Bank UNIT I INTRODUCTION 1. What are the design considerations of a vehicle?(jun 2013) 2..Classify the various types of vehicles.

### density ratio of 1.5.

Problem 1: An 8cyl 426 ci Hemi motor makes 426 HP at 5500 rpm on a compression ratio of 10.5:1. It is over square by 10% meaning that it s stroke is 10% less than it s bore. It s volumetric efficiency

### LABORATORY MANUAL I. C. ENGINES & GAS TURBINES (ME-317-E)

LABORATORY MANUAL I. C. ENGINES & GAS TURBINES (ME-317-E) LIST OF EXPERIMENTS S.No. Name of the Experiment 1. To study the constructional details & working principles of two-stroke petrol/ four-stroke

### Internal Combustion Engine. Prepared by- Md Ferdous Alam Lecturer, MEE, SUST

Internal Combustion Engine Prepared by- Md Ferdous Alam Lecturer, MEE, SUST What is an Engine? -a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy Two types of engines : 1. Internal

### Internal Combustion Engines

Internal Combustion Engines Reading Problems 8-3 8-7 8-35, 8-45, 8-52 Definitions 1. spark ignition: a mixture of fuel and air is ignited by a spark plug applications requiring power to about 225 kw (300

### SUPERCHARGER AND TURBOCHARGER

SUPERCHARGER AND TURBOCHARGER 1 Turbocharger and supercharger 2 To increase the output of any engine more fuel can be burned and make bigger explosion in every cycle. i. One way to add power is to build

### Powertrain Efficiency Technologies. Turbochargers

Powertrain Efficiency Technologies Turbochargers Turbochargers increasingly are being used by automakers to make it possible to use downsized gasoline engines that consume less fuel but still deliver the

### UNIT 2 POWER PLANTS 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES. Objectives. Structure. 2.1 Introduction

UNIT 2 POWER PLANTS Power Plants Structure 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.2 Classification of IC Engines 2.3 Four Stroke Engines versus Two Stroke Engines 2.4 Working of Four Stroke Petrol Engine 2.5 Working

### CHARGING SYSTEM OF SPARK IGNITION ENGINE WITH TWO TURBOCHARGERS

Journal of KONES Powertrain and ransport, ol 5, No 2 2008 CHARGING SYSEM OF SPARK IGNIION ENGINE WIH WO URBOCHARGERS Bronisaw Sendyka Section of Special Engine, Faculty of Machanical Engineering, Cracow

### 2.61 Internal Combustion Engines Design Project Solution. Table 1 below summarizes the main parameters of the base engine. Table 1 Base Engine Summary

.6 Internal Combustion Engines Design roject Solution Here is a possible solution for the design problem.. Base Engine Table below summarizes the main parameters of the base engine Table Base Engine Summary

### UNIT IV INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

UNIT IV INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Objectives After the completion of this chapter, Students 1. To know the different parts of IC engines and their functions. 2. To understand the working principle of

### CHAPTER I GAS POWER CYCLES

CHAPTER I GAS POWER CYCLES 1.1 AIR STANDARD CYCLES Air standard cycles are used for comparison of thermal efficiencies of I.C engines. Engines working with air standard cycles are known as air standard

### Week 10. Gas Power Cycles. ME 300 Thermodynamics II 1

Week 10 Gas Power Cycles ME 300 Thermodynamics II 1 Today s Outline Gas power cycles Internal combustion engines Four-stroke cycle Thermodynamic cycles Ideal cycle ME 300 Thermodynamics II 2 Gas Power

### Internal combustion engines can be classified in a number of different ways: 1. Types of Ignition

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-3 ENGINE CLASSIFICATIONS Internal combustion engines can be classified in a number of different ways: 1. Types of Ignition 1 (a) Spark Ignition (SI). An SI engine starts the combustion

### Unit WorkBook 4 Level 4 ENG U13 Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines UniCourse Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Sample

Pearson BTEC Levels 4 Higher Nationals in Engineering (RQF) Unit 13: Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines Unit Workbook 4 in a series of 4 for this unit Learning Outcome 4 Internal Combustion

### Internal Combustion Engines

Air and Fuel Induction Lecture 3 1 Outline In this lecture we will discuss the following: A/F mixture preparation in gasoline engines using carburetion. Air Charging technologies: Superchargers Turbochargers

### SIDDHARTH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY :: PUTTUR (AUTONOMOUS) QUESTION BANK UNIT I I.C ENGINES

SIDDHARTH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY :: PUTTUR UNIT I I.C ENGINES 1 (a) Explain any six types of classification of Internal Combustion engines. (6M) (b) With a neat sketch explain any three

### Class Notes on Thermal Energy Conversion System

Class Notes on Thermal Energy Conversion System For the students of Civil & Rural 3 rd semester Ramesh Khanal Assistant Professorr Nepal Engineering College Bhaktapur, Nepal 2015 Course Structure MEC 209.3:

### COVENANT UNIVERSITY NIGERIA TUTORIAL KIT OMEGA SEMESTER PROGRAMME: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

COVENANT UNIVERSITY NIGERIA TUTORIAL KIT OMEGA SEMESTER PROGRAMME: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COURSE: MCE 320 DISCLAIMER The contents of this document are intended for practice and leaning purposes at the

### INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (SKMM 4413)

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (SKMM 4413) Dr. Mohd Farid bin Muhamad Said Room : Block P21, Level 1, Automotive Development Centre (ADC) Tel : 07-5535449 Email: mfarid@fkm.utm.my HISTORY OF ICE History of

### KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Question Bank. UNIT-I THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES Part-A (2 Marks)

KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Question Bank Sub. Code/Name: ME1351 - THERMAL ENGINEERING Year/Sem: III/VI 1. What is a thermodynamic cycle? UNIT-I THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES

### Hours / 100 Marks Seat No.

17529 14115 3 Hours / 100 Seat No. Instructions (1) All Questions are Compulsory. (2) Answer each next main Question on a new page. (3) Illustrate your answers with neat sketches wherever necessary. (4)

### η th W = Q Gas Power Cycles: Working fluid remains in the gaseous state through the cycle.

Gas Power Cycles: Gas Power Cycles: Working fluid remains in the gaseous state through the cycle. Sometimes useful to study an idealised cycle in which internal irreversibilities and complexities are

### Evaluation Of Parameters Affecting The Performance Of Spark-Ignition Engine BY Bello Lawal And Dr. Isa Garba

Evaluation Of Parameters Affecting The Performance Of Spark-Ignition Engine BY Bello Lawal And Dr. Isa Garba ABSTRACT This paper focused on the performance of a spark-ignition (engine, which is affected

### Prepared by: Dr. Assim Adaraje

Air-standard cycles Prepared by: Dr. Assim Adaraje CH. 2 ۱ Cold-air-standard assumptions: When the working fluid is considered to be air with constant specific heats at room temperature (25 C). Air-standard

### ENGINE & WORKING PRINCIPLES

ENGINE & WORKING PRINCIPLES A heat engine is a machine, which converts heat energy into mechanical energy. The combustion of fuel such as coal, petrol, diesel generates heat. This heat is supplied to a

### Which are the four important control loops of an spark ignition (SI) engine?

151-0567-00 Engine Systems (HS 2017) Exercise 1 Topic: Lecture 1 Johannes Ritzmann (jritzman@ethz.ch), Raffi Hedinger (hraffael@ethz.ch); October 13, 2017 Problem 1 (Control Systems) Why do we use control

### FLUID POWER TUTORIAL HYDRAULIC PUMPS APPLIED PNEUMATICS AND HYDRAULICS H1

FLUID POWER TUTORIAL HYDRAULIC PUMPS This work covers outcome 2 of the Edexcel standard module: APPLIED PNEUMATICS AND HYDRAULICS H1 The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive so the tutorial

### MEB THERMAL ENGINEERING - I QUESTION BANK UNIT-I PART-A

MEB 420 - THERMAL ENGINEERING - I QUESTION BANK UNIT-I Each question carries 1 mark. PART-A 1. Define temperature. 2. Define intensive property 3. Explain the term absolute zero of temperature 4. State

### Problem 1 (ECU Priority)

151-0567-00 Engine Systems (HS 2016) Exercise 6 Topic: Optional Exercises Raffi Hedinger (hraffael@ethz.ch), Norbert Zsiga (nzsiga@ethz.ch); November 28, 2016 Problem 1 (ECU Priority) Use the information

### Gas exchange process for IC-engines: poppet valves, valve timing and variable valve actuation

Gas exchange process for IC-engines: poppet valves, valve timing and variable valve actuation Topics Analysis of the main parameters influencing the volumetric efficiency in IC engines: - Valves and valve

### Module 3: Influence of Engine Design and Operating Parameters on Emissions Lecture 14:Effect of SI Engine Design and Operating Variables on Emissions

Module 3: Influence of Engine Design and Operating Parameters on Emissions Effect of SI Engine Design and Operating Variables on Emissions The Lecture Contains: SI Engine Variables and Emissions Compression

### Comparative Study Of Four Stroke Diesel And Petrol Engine.

Comparative Study Of Four Stroke Diesel And Petrol Engine. Aim: To study the construction and working of 4- stroke petrol / diesel engine. Theory: A machine or device which derives heat from the combustion

### B.Tech. - VIEP - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (BTMEVI) Term-End Examination June 2016

No. of Printed Pages : 5 I BIME-010 I B.Tech. - VIEP - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (BTMEVI) 00 1 Ems, Term-End Examination June 2016 BIME-010 : THERMAL ENGINEERING Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 70 Note : Attempt

### Chapter 4 ANALYTICAL WORK: COMBUSTION MODELING

a 4.3.4 Effect of various parameters on combustion in IC engines: Compression ratio: A higher compression ratio increases the pressure and temperature of the working mixture which reduce the initial preparation

### ME2301 THERMAL ENGINEERING L T P C OBJECTIVE:

ME2301 THERMAL ENGINEERING L T P C 3 1 0 4 OBJECTIVE: To integrate the concepts, laws and methodologies from the first course in thermo dynamics into analysis of cyclic processes To apply the thermodynamic

### Natural gas engine E 0836 LE 202 Technical data

Page 1 Principle: No of cylinders : Supercharging: Mixture cooling: Engine cooling : Lubrication : Spark plugs: Starter motor: 4-stroke Otto gas engine 6 in line Exhaust turbocharger with water-cooled

### Internal Combustion Engines

Lecture-19 Prepared under QIP-CD Cell Project Internal Combustion Engines Ujjwal K Saha, Ph.D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1 Background The power output

### GYANMANJARI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (GMIT) SUBJECT: ELEMENTS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Assignment Ch 1

1. 3. GYANMANJARI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (GMIT) Assignment Ch 1 A steel ball having mass of 10 kg and a specific heat of 460 J/kg K is heated from 50 o C to 200 o C. Determine the heat required. In a

### Chapter 8 Production of Power from Heat

Chapter 8 Production of Power from Heat Different sources of power, such as solar energy (from sun), kinetic energy from atmospheric winds and potential energy from tides. The most important source of

### Noble Group of Institutions, Junagadh. Faculty of Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

Semester:1 st Subject: Elements of Mechanical Engineering (2110006) Faculty: Mr. Ishan Bhatt Year: 2017-18 Class: Comp. & IT Ele TUTORIAL 1 INTRODUCTION Q.1 Define: Force, Work, Pressure, Energy, Heat

### Introduction. Internal Combustion Engines

Introduction Internal Combustion Engines Internal Combustion Engines A heat engine that converts chemical energy in a fuel into mechanical energy. Chemical energy first converted into thermal energy (Combustion)

### AN ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO IN C.I. ENGINE USING TURBOCHARGER

AN ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO IN C.I. ENGINE USING TURBOCHARGER E.Saravanapprabhu 1, M.Mahendran 2 1E.Saravanapprabhu, PG Student, Thermal Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

### Internal Combustion Engines

Engine Cycles Lecture Outline In this lecture we will: Analyse actual air fuel engine cycle: -Stroke cycle -Stroke cycle Compare these cycles to air standard cycles Actual Engine Cycle Although air standard

### Design and Fabrication of Simple Turbo Alternator

Design and Fabrication of Simple Turbo Alternator S.Arunkumar, A.Sridhar, S.Praveen vaitheeswaran, S.Sasikumar, Sefin Jose Department of mechanical engineering, Nandha College of technology, Erode. Abstract

### Engine Turbo/Super Charging. Super and Turbo-charging. Why super/ turbo-charging? Fuel burned per cycle in an IC engine is air limited

Engine urbo/super Charging Super and urbo-charging Why super/ turbo-charging? Fuel burned per cycle in an IC engine is air limited (F/A) stoich = /4.6 orq m Q f, v fuel conversion and volumetric efficiencies

### Introduction to I.C Engines CH. 1. Prepared by: Dr. Assim Adaraje

Introduction to I.C Engines CH. 1 Prepared by: Dr. Assim Adaraje 1 An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion

### Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emissions of a Stratified Charge CNG Direct Injection Engine with Turbocharger

MATEC Web of Conferences 1, 7 (17 ) DOI:1.11/matecconf/1717 ICTTE 17 Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emissions of a Stratified Charge CNG Direct Injection Engine with charger Hilmi Amiruddin

### C87 ENT 260 kw ( rpm rpm Stage IIIA / Tier 3

C87 ENT 260 kw (354 HP) @ 2100 rpm - 1500 Nm @ 1400 rpm SPECIFICATIONS Technical code F2CE9687A*EXX Thermodynamic cycle Diesel 4 stroke Air intake TAA Arrangement 6L Bore x Stroke mm 117 x 135 Total displacement

### ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

1 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DIVISON OF THERMAL AND ENERGY CONVERSION IC Engine Fundamentals 2 Engine Systems An engine

### Analysis of Parametric Studies on the Impact of Piston Velocity Profile On the Performance of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-issn: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 12, Issue 2 Ver. II (Mar - Apr. 2015), PP 81-85 www.iosrjournals.org Analysis of Parametric Studies

### EEN-E2002 Combustion Technology 2017 LE 3 answers

EEN-E2002 Combustion Technology 2017 LE 3 answers 1. Plot the following graphs from LEO-1 engine with data (Excel_sheet_data) attached on my courses? (12 p.) a. Draw cyclic pressure curve. Also non-fired

### Performance Enhancement of Multi-Cylinder Common Rail Diesel Engine for Automotive Application

Performance Enhancement of Multi-Cylinder Common Rail Diesel Engine for Automotive Application SUNDHARAM K, PG student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Internal Combustion Engineering Divisions,

### Manufacturer: Address: ZIP Code: City: Country: VAT #: Signatory, Name: Signatory, Title: Phone: Fax: WWW: Head of Engineering:

CERTIFICATION APPLICATION Reciprocating internal combustion engines Certificate No.: EX Exhaust emission measurement - Part 1: Test-bed measurement of gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions Ref.: ISO

### Scheme - G. Sample Test Paper-I. Course Name : Diploma in Mechanical Engineering Course Code : ME Semester : Fifth Subject Title : Power Engineering

Sample Test Paper-I Marks : 25 Time:1 hour Q1. Attempt any Three 3X3=9 a) Define i) Mean Effective Pressure ii) Piston Speed iii) Swept Volume b) Draw Carnot cycle on P-V and T-S Diagram c) State the need

### Template for the Storyboard stage

Template for the Storyboard stage Animation can be done in JAVA 2-D. Mention what will be your animation medium: 2D or 3D Mention the software to be used for animation development: JAVA, Flash, Blender,

### INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

1 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DIVISON OF THERMAL AND ENERGY CONVERSION By Desta Lemma (BSc, MSc) Introduction

### Engine Heat Transfer. Engine Heat Transfer

Engine Heat Transfer 1. Impact of heat transfer on engine operation 2. Heat transfer environment 3. Energy flow in an engine 4. Engine heat transfer Fundamentals Spark-ignition engine heat transfer Diesel

### Common Terms Selecting a Turbocharger Compressor... 4

TURBOCHARGERS Common Terms... 2 Adiabatic Efficiency... 2 Pressure Ratio... 2 Density Ratio... 2 Turbine... 2 A/R Ratio... 2 Charge-Air-Cooler... 2 Boost... 3 Waste Gate... 3 Turbo Lag... 3 Boost Threshold...

Important Instructions to examiners: 1) The answers should be examined by key words and not as word-to-word as given in the model answer scheme. 2) The model answer and the answer written by candidate

### Idealizations Help Manage Analysis of Complex Processes

8 CHAPTER Gas Power Cycles 8-1 Idealizations Help Manage Analysis of Complex Processes The analysis of many complex processes can be reduced to a manageable level by utilizing some idealizations (fig.

### SHREE RAMCHANDRA EDUCATION SOCIETY S LONIKAND, PUNE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL. Applied Thermodynamics (ATD) Semester-IV

SHREE RAMCHANDRA EDUCATION SOCIETY S SHREE RAMCHANDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, LONIKAND, PUNE 412 216 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL Applied Thermodynamics (ATD) Semester-IV Prepared by

### I.C ENGINES. CLASSIFICATION I.C Engines are classified according to:

I.C ENGINES An internal combustion engine is most popularly known as I.C. engine, is a heat engine which converts the heat energy released by the combustion of the fuel taking place inside the engine cylinder

### Thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel turbocharged V18 engine for ship propulsion and power plant applications

IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering PAPER OPEN ACCESS Thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel turbocharged V18 engine for ship propulsion and power plant applications To

### Chapter 9 GAS POWER CYCLES

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6 th Edition Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles McGraw-Hill, 2008 Chapter 9 GAS POWER CYCLES Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction

### Chapter 9 GAS POWER CYCLES

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach Seventh Edition in SI Units Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles McGraw-Hill, 2011 Chapter 9 GAS POWER CYCLES Mehmet Kanoglu University of Gaziantep Copyright The McGraw-Hill

### 2.61 Internal Combustion Engines Spring 2008

MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 2.61 Internal Combustion Engines Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. Engine Heat Transfer

### Reducing emissions using 2-stage turbo charging

WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 1. Reducing emissions using -stage turbo charging AUTHORS: Christer Wik, Engine Performance Technologies, Wärtsilä Global R&D and Björn Hallbäck, Engine Performance Technologies

### Kul Internal Combustion Engine Technology

Kul-14.4100 Internal Combustion Engine Technology Gas Exchange, 2015 Topics Gas exchange in four stroke engines Volumetric efficiency Valves and valve flow Two stroke engine scavenging Camshaft and intake

### Sensors & Controls. Everything you wanted to know about gas engine ignition technology but were too afraid to ask.

Everything you wanted to know about gas engine ignition technology but were too afraid to ask. Contents 1. Introducing Electronic Ignition 2. Inductive Ignition 3. Capacitor Discharge Ignition 4. CDI vs

### SI engine combustion

SI engine combustion 1 SI engine combustion: How to burn things? Reactants Products Premixed Homogeneous reaction Not limited by transport process Fast/slow reactions compared with other time scale of