IMPROVEMENT OF PALM OIL BIODIESEL PROPERTIES USING ETHANOL AS AN ADDITIVE AND ITS EFFECT ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE, COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

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1 VOL., NO., JULY 7 ISSN Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved. IMPROVEMENT OF PALM OIL BIO PROPERTIES USING ETHANOL AS AN ADDITIVE AND ITS EFFECT ON ENGINE PERFORMANCE, COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS S. Madiwale, A. Karthikeyan, V. Bhojwani and M. Dombale 4 Sathyabama University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Deptatment of Automobile Engineering, Sathyabama University,Chennai, Tamilnadu, India Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM s, College of Engg., Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra, India 4 JSPM s, College of Engineering., Hadapsar,Pune, Maharashtra, India ABSTRACT As we need an alternating fuel that will replace diesel fuel in order to reduce the harmful emissions coming out of engine as exhaust by products, which necessitates the improvement in engine performance and increase in combustion characteristics of fuels in the combustion chamber. As biodiesels are having high viscosity and higher flashpoint than diesel, it will be difficult to use biodiesel as a fuel alone in present diesel engines. Hence it is preferred to blend biodiesel with diesel to get required properties of blend that will suit the present diesel engines. But higher kinematic viscosity of biodiesel/diesel blends as compared to diesel affects the atomization of fuel in the combustion chamber which further reduces the combustion pressure and temperature and reduces the power output of the engine. This necessitates the addition of ethanol as an additive in the blends which further enhances the hot flow, cold flow and thermo-physical properties of the biodiesel/diesel blends. Therefore in this study feedstock of palm oil biodiesel is used as fuel with % ethanol by volume as an additive in the blends of palm oil biodiesel/diesel blends. Hot flow and cold flow properties of blends of palm oil biodiesel/ethanol/diesel blends are experimentally investigated as per IS 448 standards. Investigation outcome shows that ethanol as an additive improves the kinematic viscosity of blends of palm oil biodiesel/diesel by 4% lesser than biodiesel/diesel blend without ethanol and % higher than diesel. But on the other hand calorific value of the blends with the addition of ethanol decreases calorific value by 6.7% than biodiesel/diesel blend without ethanol and 6.87 % than diesel. Most importantly the cold flow properties are enhanced by the addition of ethanol in the blend such as cloud point increases by % than biodiesel/diesel blend without ethanol and pour point increases by 4% than biodiesel/diesel blend without ethanol. The combustion and performance analysis are improved with the addition of ethanol and decreases the harmful emissions from the exhaust manifold of the engine. The effect of ethanol as an additive in the blends of palm oil biodiesel/diesel blend on properties, performance, and combustion and on emissions are studied in this paper. Keywords: palm oil biodiesel, ethanol, combustion, performance, diesel engine. INTRODUCTION Generally biodiesel derived from vegetable oils (triglycerides) have high viscosity, high pour point high density and low calorific value than a diesel fuel. This makes it difficult to use biodiesel oil as a fuel in conventional diesel engines. Biodiesel can be derived from vegetable oil or animal fats (triglycerides). Vegetable oils have high viscosity, pour point and density. Hence vegetable oil only not used as a fuel in conventional diesel engines. The properties of vegetable oil can be brought to certain required level by transterification process [4].The transestrified vegetable oil is called as biodiesel. Transterification process is also called as alcoholysis, where exchange of alcohol from an ester by another alcohol in a process similar to hydrolysis, except that an alcohol is used instead of water [4]. In order to carry reaction in shorter time the reaction temperature, time, pressure ratio of alcohol to oil, concentration and type of catalyst, mixing intensity, and kind of feedstock, are relevant variables which affect the transterification process. Addition of methanol to oil or fat gives the biodiesel.biodiesel is a mixture of mono-alkyl ester of saturated and unsaturated long chain fatty acids. Whereas diesel is nothing but the mixture of paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons []. As biodiesel fuel has technical, environmental and strategic advantages it can be accepted as an alternative fuel for diesel in diesel engines []. Biodiesel has biodegradability, less toxicity and good lubricity. Biodiesel is also miscible with petroleum diesel thus blending of biodiesel can be possible in any proportion. Biodiesel/diesel fuel blend does not require any significant changes in present diesel engines. There is difference in chemical nature of biodiesel and diesel, which altered basic properties of blend and thus affects emissions and performance of diesel engine. Biodiesel generally has high density, high viscosity, high pour point, high cloud point and high cetane number and lower heating value and volatility [-9]. In order to find out the specifications of blending mixture whether it fits with diesel engine, properties of a blend composition must be investigated. Higher kinematic viscosity of biodiesel/diesel blends as compared to diesel affects the atomization of fuel in the combustion chamber which further reduces the combustion pressure and temperature and reduces the power output of the engine []. This necessitates the addition of ethanol as an additive in the 987

2 VOL., NO., JULY 7 ISSN Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved. blends which further enhances the hot flow, cold flow and thermo-physical properties of the biodiesel/diesel blends. Ethanol [CH CH OH] is a colourless liquid, it is also known as ethyl alcohol. Ethanol has higher octane number. Ethanol is low cost oxygenated fuel containing 4% higher oxygen by weight []. Ethanol can be made by fermentation process biologically from variety of biomass resources like Sugarcane, Corn, Sugar beet etc. It is produced through catalytic hydration of ethylene using sulphuric acid as catalyst [6]. Table shows the properties of 99.99% pure ethanol which are investigated as per IS 448 standards in the NABL accredited laboratory. Table-. Properties of 99.99% pure ethanol [6, 7, 8]. Properties Ethanol Density (kg/m³) 79 Viscosity (Cst).4 Cetane number 8 Calorific value (MJ/Kg) 6.9 Flash point C Cloud point C -6 PALM OIL BIO Since last years palm oil became world s major agricultural commodity from minor crop in west and central Africa. Whereas Palm oil has been cultivated in Africa for centuries, but it has dramatically increased in Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America and Malaysia. Palm oil production is driven by producers responding to consumer demand much of which is from India and China. Palm oil is not only an industrial crop but it is also a smallholder crop too increasing rural development in humid tropics []. Three important things regarding palm oils are as follows: a) Demand for palm oil will continue to increase in response to growing population as it is edible one. b) Palm oil plantation stores more carbon than other alternatives. c) Oxidation stability of palm oil is due to presence of higher concentration of saturated fatty acids i.e. palm oil is stable for more time when stored as compared to other feedstock of vegetable oil. The feedstock of palm oil biodiesel was collected from SVM Agro Industries, Nagpur. Table- shows the properties of palm oil biodiesel (B-% biodiesel), which are investigated as per IS 448 standards in the NABL accredited laboratory. Table-. Properties of Palm oil biodiesel (B). Test parameter Units Value IS 448 Standards Gross calorific value kj/kg 47 Bomb Calorimeter Kinematic viscosity at 4 C cst.6 IS 448 Part I (P-) Cloud point C 8 IS 448 Part I (P-) 4 Pour Point C IS 448 Part I (P-) C kg/m³ 896. IS 448 Part I (P-6) 6 Flash point C 7 IS 448 (P) 7 Fire point C IS 448 (P-69) FUEL BLENDS PREPARATION The palm oil biodiesel /diesel blends were prepared in blending concentration of %, 4%, 6% and 8% palm oil biodiesel with diesel fuel but without ethanol and %, 4%, 6% and 8% palm oil biodiesel with % ethanol by volume in diesel fuel. All the blends with and without ethanol were prepared on the volumetric analysis. The thermo physical properties or hot and cold flow properties such as, calorific value, density, viscosity, pour point, cloud point, fire point and flash point were experimentally investigated as per IS: 448 standards for all blends of palm oil biodiesel/diesel with and without ethanol. PROPERTIES INVESTIGATION AND DISCUSSIONS properties plays very important role in complete combustion of the fuel in compression ignition engines. Addition of ethanol as an additive changed the fuel blends properties [9]. Table- shows properties of blends of palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol and these properties are compared with conventional diesel fuel. 988

3 VOL., NO., JULY 7 ISSN Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved. Table-. Properties of Palm oil biodiesel/diesel blends with and without ethanol. CV kj/kg Kinematic viscosity cst Cloud point C Pour point C Density Kg/m³ Flash point C Fire point C Diesel P P E P P4 E P P6 E P P8 E CV kj/kg Diesel P PE P4 P4E P6 P6E P8 P8E CV kj/kg Figure-. Variation of Calorific value of Palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different Blend ratio. Figure- shows the variation of Calorific value of blends of palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratio. Calorific value is the important property of fuel which decides the heat release capacity of the fuel. Lower heating value or calorific value of biodiesel and ethanol, decreases the overall calorific value of the all the blends. For PE the calorific value is 7% less than diesel for P8E it is % less than diesel. So as the percentage of biodiesel increases in the blend, the calorific value of the overall blend decreases. Density kg/m³ Figure-. Variation of density of Palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratio. Figure- shows the variation of density of blends of palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratio. Low density of ethanol is responsible to reduce the overall density of palm oil biodiesel/diesel blend for all blend ratios. Although density of PE is % greater than diesel but it is % less than P. So addition of ethanol reduces the density of P blend. For all other blends the similar trend was noticed. Kinematic viscosity cst Diesel P PE P4 P4E P6 P6E P8 P8E Density kg/m³ Kinematic viscosity Cst Figure-. Variation of kinematic viscosity of Palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratio. Figure- shows variation of kinematic viscosity of Palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratio. Low viscosity of fuel is always preferable for the complete combustion. Addition of the palm oil biodiesel with diesel always increases viscosity of the blend. In order to address this problem, ethanol is added in the blend and addition of ethanol reduces the overall viscosity of the blends. This is because of the low 989

4 VOL., NO., JULY 7 ISSN Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved. viscosity of ethanol. Kinematic viscosity of PE reduces by.44% than P. The reduction in the viscosity takes place from 6 to 9 % for blend ratios of P4E up to P8E as compared with P4 to P8 blend ratio of palm oil biodiesel. Cloud point C Cloud point C Figure-4. Variation of cloud point of Palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratio. Pour point C Pour point C Figure-. Variation of pour point of Palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratio. Figure-4 and Figure- shows the variation of cloud point and pour point of palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratio. The cloud point and pour point of palm oil biodiesel is higher than the diesel fuel, which limits its application and usability of biodiesel in very cold climatic conditions []. But as the cloud point and pour point of ethanol is lower than palm oil biodiesel/diesel blends, so addition of ethanol in the blends of biodiesel reduces the cloud point and pour point of the biodiesel/diesel blends. Cloud point of PE is % lower than the P, and pour point of PE is 4% lower than P. Flash point C 4 4 Figure-6. Variation of flash point of Palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratio. Fire point C Diesel P PE P4 P4E P6 P6E P8 P8E Flash point C Fire point C Figure-7. Variation of fire point of Palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratio. Addition of palm oil biodiesel in the diesel increases the flash and fire point of the blends, which is not at all desirable for the combustion. Higher flash point and fire point will increases the ignition delay and affect the combustion temperature and pressure, which will further reduce the power output of the engine. As ethanol having the very low kinematic viscosity than the biodiesel, so addition of ethanol in the blend reduces the flash point and fire point of the blend. For PE flash point is reduces by % than P and fire point reduces by 47% than P respectively. Fig 6 and 7 shows the variation of flash point and fire point of palm oil biodiesel with and without ethanol for different blend ratios. 99

5 VOL., NO., JULY 7 ISSN Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved. EXPERIMENTAL TRIAL SET UP AND FUEL The % palm oil biodiesel is mixed with 7% diesel and the % ethanol was added as an additive i.e. PE. The test fuel was tested for engine performance combustion and for emission in single cylinder variable compression diesel engine. Same engine also tested for the % palm oil biodiesel and 8% diesel blend without ethanol i.e. P. The results of engine performance combustion and emission of PE and P are compared with diesel. The engine was single cylinder, four stroke, and variable compression ratio diesel engine. Engine was equipped with eddy current dynamometer. The compression ratio of the engine was 8. Engine test rig was installed with pressure transducer and crank angle measurement sensor. With the help of data logger the signals were interface to computer for various P- and P- V diagrams.engine was also equipped with air box, U- tube manometer, and fuel measuring system, air flow and fuel flow measuring instruments. For varying load condition test were carried out on the engine for the load of kg, 6kg, 9kg and kg running at rpm. Labview based software; engine soft was interface with engine to computer in order to test and record real time data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS a) Performance analysis BP kw P PE Figure-8. Variation of brake power with load. Figure-8 shows the variation of brake power with the different load condition. It is observed that the brake power of PE is reduces in the range of 7 to 8% as compared with diesel. This is due to the lower calorific value of PE as compared with P and diesel fuel. Figure-9 shows the variation of brake mean effective pressure with load on engine. The BMEP of PE is % more than the conventional diesel because of the lower kinematic viscosity of the blend which ensures the maximum combustion in cylinder and build the maximum BMEP. BMEP bar -. Figure-9. Variation of brake mean effective pressure with load. Break thermal efficiency % P PE P PE Figure-. Variation of brake thermal efficiency with load. Figure- shows the variation of brake thermal efficiency with Load. For PE the brake thermal efficiency is increases from 4% to 7 % than conventional diesel fuel and % to 6% more than P. Figure- shows the variation of Specific fuel consumption with load. It is reported that for PE the fuel consumption is increased from to 7% as compared to diesel. This is due to the lower heating value of the biodiesel and ethanol. 99

6 VOL., NO., JULY 7 ISSN Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved. 6 SFC kg/kwh 4 - P PE HC PPM P PE Figure-. Variation of specific fuel consumption with load. b) Emission analysis Figure-, Figure-, Figure-4 and Figure- shows the variation of CO, HC, CO and NOx emission with varying load respectively. Investigation reported that CO emissions of PE are more than diesel but less than P by % to 4%. HC emissions of PE blend are more than diesel by % but less than P by near about 4% to %. Carbon dioxide emissions of PE are more only at kg load and are less than diesel by % to % but on the other hand CO emissions are less than P blend by % to %. NO X emissions of PE reduces as compared with P. This is because of the more nitrogen is available for the combustion, as in air 7% nitrogen is available. Also biodiesel is a oxygenated fuel which liberate more amount of energy and increases combustion temperature which dissociate nitrogen in to nitrogen oxide. CO % P PE Figure-. Variation of carbon monoxide in (%) with load. Figure-. Variation of hydrocarbon in PPM with load. CO %.... Figure-4. Variation of carbon dioxide in (%) with load. NO X ppm P PE P PE Figure-. Variation of nitrogen oxides in PPM with load. 99

7 VOL., NO., JULY 7 ISSN Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved. c) Combustion analysis Figure-6 shows the variation of pressure build near TDC with crank angle. It is clear from the figure that because of the higher heating value of the diesel; the maximum pressure is build after the TDC in case of diesel fuel as compared with PE and P who possesses lower heating value than diesel. Pressure (bar) Mass fraction burned kg Crank angle (degree) Figure-6. Variation of pressure with crank angle P PE Crank angle (degree) PALM PE Figure-7. Variation of mass fraction burned with crank angle. Figure-7 shows the quantity of fuel consumed for the combustion. Mass fraction of PE is greater than the P because of the lower kinematic viscosity, which ensures good atomization and maximum combustion. But mass fraction of PE and P is less than diesel fuel. Heat release kj Crank angle (degree) Figure-8. Variation of heat release with crank angle. Figure-8 shows the variation of heat release with crank angle. Near the TDC at the time of combustion the heat release in case of diesel fuel is more as compared with PE and P. Heat release in case of PE and P is same because of the lower calorific value of the fuel blend. CONCLUSIONS Palm oil biodiesel/diesel blend should be prepared with the addition of % ethanol as an additive only. Addition of ethanol by % in volume of blend of PE enhances the hot flow, cold flow and thermophysical properties of the blend. Kinematic viscosity of PE reduces by 4% than P, which is beneficial to the process of atomization and combustion. Also cloud point and pour point of PE reduces by % and by 4 % than P respectively. Flash point and fire point defines the combustion quality of the fuel. Addition of ethanol enhances the flash point of PE by % than P and fire point by 47% than P. Because of addition of ethanol as an additive in the fuel i.e PE improves the performance of the engine than the fuel without ethanol i.e. P. There is improvement in brake thermal efficiency of PE than P by 6%. Emission analysis shows that CO emissions of PE are higher than diesel but less than P by % to 4%. HC emissions of PE blend are more than diesel by % but less than P by near about 4% to %. Carbon dioxide emissions of PE are only more at load of kg and it is less than diesel by % to % but it is less than P blend by % to %. A NOX emission of PE reduces as compared with P. Addition of ethanol as an additive in palm oil biodiesel improves the properties of the blends, enhances the performance and reduces the harmful exhaust emission from diesel engine. REFERENCES PE P [] Grabosky M and Mccormick R. 998.Combustion of fat and vegetable oils derived fuels in diesel engines. 99

8 VOL., NO., JULY 7 ISSN Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 4: [] Schumacher L.G., Wetherell W. and Fisher J.A Cold flow properties of biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel. Annual ASAE meeting. pp [] Srivastava A. and Prasad R.. Triglycerides based diesel fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 4: -. [4] Altin R., Cetinkaya S. and Yucesu H.S.. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines. Energy Conversation and Management. 4: 9-8. [] Knothe G., Matheaus A. C. and Ryan III T. W.. Cetane numbers of branched and straight chain fatty esters determined in an ignition quality tester.. 8: [6] Carraretto C., Macor A., Mirandola S., Stoppato A. and Tonon S. 4. Biodiesel as alternative fuel: experimental analysis and energetic valuations. Energy. 9: 9-. [7] Dmytryshyn S.L., Dalai A.K., Chaudhari S.T., Mishra H.K. and Reaney M.J. 4. Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters evaluation for their diesel additive properties. Bioresource Technology. 9: -64. [8] Knothe G., Van Gerpen J. and Krahl J.. The biodiesel handbook. Champaign Illinois: AOCS Press. [9] Knothe G.. Dependence of biodiesel fuel properties on the structure of fatty acid alkyl esters. Processing Technology. 86: 9-7. [] Schumacher L.G., Van Gerpen J.H. and Adams B. 4. Biodiesel fuels. Encyclopaedia Energy. : - 6. [4] Jain S. and Sharma M.P.. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 4(): [] Cardona C.A. and Sanchez O.J. 7. ethanol production: process design trends and integration opportunities. Bioresource Technology. 98: [6] Azad A. K., Ameer Uddin S. M. and Alam M. M.. Mustard oil, an alternative fuel: An experimental investigation of bio-diesel properties with and without Transesterification, reaction. Global Advanced Research Journal of Engineering Technology and Innovation. (): [7] Atabani A. E., Silitonga A. S., Badruddin I. A., Mahlia T.M.I., Masjuki H. H. and Mekhilef S.. A comprehensive review on biodiesel as an alternative energy resource and its characteristics. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 6: 7-9. [8] Mofijur M., Masjuki H.H., Kalam M.A., Atabani A.E., Shahabuddin M., Palash S.M. and Hazrat M. A.. Effect of biodiesel from various feed stocks on combustion characteristics, engine durability and materials compatibility: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 8: [9] Senthilkumar S., Sivakumar G. and Siddarth M.. Investigation of palm methyl ester biodiesel with additive on performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine under 8-mode testing cycle. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 4(): [] Wan Nor Maawa Wan Ghazali, Rizalman Mamat, Masjuki H. H. and Gholamhassan Najafi.. Effects of biodiesel from different feed stocks on engine performance and emissions: A review. : 8-6. [] Sahoo P.K. and Das L.M. 9. Combustion analysis of Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a diesel engine.. 88: [] Jeffrey S. and Jaboury G.. Oil Palm expansion transforms tropical landscapes and livelihoods. Global Food Security. (): 4-9. [] Verma P., Sharma M.P. and Dwivedi G. 6. Evaluation and enhancement of cold flow properties of palm oil and its biodiesel. Energy Reports. : 8-994

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