EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST FROM COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE BASED AUTOMOBILES USING AN INNOVATIVE CATALYTIC CONVERTER DURING EMISSIONS TEST

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1 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 9, Issue 13, December 2018, pp , Article ID: IJMET_09_13_094 Available online at ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST FROM COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE BASED AUTOMOBILES USING AN INNOVATIVE CATALYTIC CONVERTER DURING EMISSIONS TEST S. S. K. Deepak* Ph. D. Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. C.V.R.U. Bilaspur, C.G., India Dr. Mukesh Thakur Principal, N.M.D.C. D.A.V. Polytechnic, Dantewada, C.G., India ABSTRACT The severity of the impact of air pollution can be estimated from the fact that several millions of people have lost their lives till now owing to air pollution. The inhalations of toxic substances present in air lead to various health ailments ranging from irritation, decrease in visibility, allergy, lung diseases and cancer causing death. Another factor which makes the problem of air pollution alarming is that every year, the number of pollution causing automobiles and industries in increasing steadily. Air pollution from C. I. engine has become a matter of serious concern. The harmful gases released by the combustion in the C.I. engines include nitrogen oxides, hydro carbons, carbon monoxide and various other harmful particulates. The uniqueness of nanotechnology is based on the unique features of nano-particles which make them class apart from their counterparts. So, nano-technology emerges out as a good alternative to prevent the rising threat of air pollution from automobiles. Catalytic converter is a device used for emission concentration reduction from the exhaust of the automobiles. In some countries, it is mandatory to use the catalytic converters in the automobiles and get the pollution clearance certificate as per the laws. Emissions test is an advanced test conducted to estimate the concentration of harmful exhaust emissions including CO, HC and other emissions emitted from the automobiles. In this research work, emissions test was conducted on a Four Stroke Single Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine test rig using KIGAZ 310 PRO exhaust gas analyzer at different loading conditions before and after using the fabricated Innovative Catalytic Converter coated with iron oxide nano-particles. It was evident from the measured exhaust emission values that the Innovative Catalytic Converter coated with iron oxide nano-particles is very effective in reducing the concentration of the harmful exhaust emissions

2 Experimental Investigation of Exhaust from Compression Ignition Engine Based Automobiles Using an Innovative Catalytic Converter During Emissions Test List of Abbreviations/Symbols C.I. Compression Ignition CO Carbon Monoxide CO 2 Carbon Dioxide EGT Exhaust Gas Temperature HC Hydrocarbons NOx Nitrogen Oxides O 2 Oxygen PPM Parts Per Million R.P.M. Revolutions Per Minute S.I. Spark Ignition Key words: Automobiles, catalytic converter, emissions, nano-technology, pollution Cite this Article: S.S.K. Deepak, Dr. Mukesh Thakur, Experimental Investigation of Exhaust from Compression Ignition Engine Based Automobiles Using an Innovative Catalytic Converter During Emissions Test, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 9(13), 2018, pp INTRODUCTION Automobiles release various toxic gases as a result of incomplete or improper combustion. The toxic gases include carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and various other particulates. In many countries, the emission norms are not as strict as they should be to keep a check in the pollution level. The most common toxic gases released by the S.I. and C.I. engine automobiles are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and various other harmful particulates. Stringent methods are required to curb the pollution emitted from the tailpipe of S.I. and C.I. engine automobiles. Many reports have suggested that the concentration of nitrogen oxides emitted by the C.I. engine automobiles is far more as compared to S.I. engine automobiles. Moreover, the large number of C.I. engine automobiles on road makes it more alarming. Nano-particles are widely being used today for various applications. Nano-particles possess unique properties as compared to their bulk counterparts. This is due to their very small size and very high surface area to volume ratio. Exhaust emissions measurement is necessary to assess the levels of various toxic gases present in a sample of air. Various methods are available for different exhausts. Most of the measurement systems employ a probe inserted in the polluted volume of space. The probe is connected with a Data Acquisition System to display the digital reading of the measured toxic gases. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Subramani T. [1] conducted tests for estimation of the CO, HC emissions and smoke density from mobile polluting sources. He described that automobiles emit a variety of harmful emissions which can be deteriorating for the well being of human beings. In a developing country like India, the automobiles contribute approximately % of the total air pollution. So, it is very necessary to periodically keep a check on the emissions level from the automobiles and take necessary steps accordingly. Zhang, K. and Batterman, S. [2] performed simulation modeling for estimating the health hazards due to automobile pollution in areas located near the congested roads. From the results, it was evident that the automobile sources pose a severe health hazard to not only human beings but plants and animals also. This health hazard is more prominent in urban areas and areas located near a road where many automobiles pass by. So, it is very necessary to reduce the level of automobile exhaust emissions

3 S.S.K. Deepak, Dr. Mukesh Thakur Ogur, E. O. and Kariuki, S. M. [3] analyzed the effect of emissions from cars on human health as well the environment. They reported that the automobiles like cars can cause a severe impact on the well being of humans as well the environment. The harmful emissions emitted by the cars such as CO, HC and NOx can lead to a variety of health ailments. Inhalation of CO can lead to cancer due to formation of a poisonous substance called Carboxy Hemoglobin. It can lead to premature death. Other health ailments include allergy, asthma, throat congestion and breathing problems. So, many awareness programmes should be conducted to encourage people to take effective measures for reducing the pollution level. Jonson et al. [4] explained that the NOx emitted by the compression ignition engine based automobiles pose a severe threat to the well being of humans and other forms of life. The harmful emissions from diesel exhaust are responsible for many pre mature deaths in Europe. Alabi et al. [5] conducted a comparative analysis of the exhaust emissions from S.I. and C.I. engines. They calculated the exhaust emissions concentrations at varying loads and speeds using a suitable exhaust gas detector. They found that CO and HC are the most harmful gases emitted from the exhaust. Apart from this, they stated that incombustible rate is more in C.I. engine as compared to S.I. engine. Ibrahim et al. [6] studied the pollutant emissions from diesel engine exhaust and the related after treatments. They iterated the need for an effective after treatment method to keep a check on the menace of the air pollution from diesel engine automobiles. They reported CO, HC, particulate emissions and NOx are mainly emitted by the diesel engine exhaust. Various approaches like using diesel particulate filter, catalytic converter and exhaust gas recirculation systems can be used for reducing the diesel exhaust emissions. Laxmi, N. et al. [7] designed and fabricated a rechargeable catalytic converter for Compression Ignition engines. They analyzed that a catalytic converter is very helpful in converting harmful gases from automobile exhaust system in to less toxic gases causing less harm to the atmosphere. It was found out by experimentation that the concentration of CO, HC and NO decreases after using a catalytic converter. Narendra, R.W. et al. [8] studied the performance of catalytic converter using Nickel as a catalyst. Ajin, C.S. and Sajith V. [9] employed Cerium oxide in a catalytic converter for emissions reduction. Jain, V. et al. [10] conducted a performance analysis of exhaust gas re-circulation system using a diesel engine test rig. The test was conducted at varying conditions of brake power. The variation of various exhaust gas parameters like CO, CO 2, HC and exhaust gas temperature was analyzed with respect to changing values of brake power. Qasim, M. et al. [11] performed experimentation on a 5.5 kw Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine test rig to understand the variation of the emission parameters with changing blends of bio-diesel. 3. METHODOLOGY 3.1. Fabrication of an Innovative Catalytic Converter A catalytic converter named as Innovative Catalytic Converter was designed and fabricated during the research work. Fabrication of the Innovative Catalytic Converter was done by using seamless pipes made of Mild Steel having 2 mm thickness. The fabrication of the Innovative Catalytic Converter was performed in several steps to achieve the required shape and size

4 Experimental Investigation of Exhaust from Compression Ignition Engine Based Automobiles Using an Innovative Catalytic Converter During Emissions Test Figure 1 Fabricated Innovative Catalytic Converter Assembly Iron oxide nano-particles were used in this research work as a catalyst. They were synthesized and coated on the surfaces of the honeycomb structures of the Innovative Catalytic Converter by the use of sol-gel dip coating method. After coating, a thin uniform film of iron oxide nano-particles was obtained. The size of the iron-oxide nano-particles was in the range of nm Experimental Investigation by Emissions Test After coating of the iron oxide nano-particles, Emissions Test was performed on a Four Stroke Single Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine Test Rig before and after using the fabricated Innovative Catalytic Converter. An exhaust gas analyzer of the model KIGAZ 310 PRO was used for this purpose. The specifications of the Single Cylinder Compression Engine are as follows: Engine Four Stroke Single Cylinder Type VRC - 1 Rated Power 3.7 kw (5 BHP) Rated R. P. M Fuel High Speed Diesel Oil Compression Ratio 17.5 : 1 Bore 80 mm Stroke Length 110 mm Lubricating Oil SAE 30/40 Method of Ignition Compression Ignition Type of Cooling Water Cooling Type of Governor Centrifugal Governor Governor Class B1 Loading of Engine: Dynamometer Dynamometer Type Rope Brake Maximum Load Capacity 20 kg KIGAZ 310 PRO was used to measure the CO, HC, CO 2, O 2 and EGT values for the exhaust emissions emitted from the Four Stroke Single Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine. The EGT values were calculated from the thermocouples installed on the test rig

5 S.S.K. Deepak, Dr. Mukesh Thakur Emissions test is an advanced test generally required after conducting the smoke test. Emissions test is very useful in obtaining the accurate values of various exhaust parameters so that an appropriate treatment measure can be employed to control the concentration of various exhaust emissions. Figure 2 Experimental Setup of Four Stroke Single Cylinder Compression Engine Test Rig with EDM 1601 smoke meter Figure 3 Emissions Test Before and After Using Innovative Catalytic Converter The experimental setup diagram is shown in figure 2. The emissions test was performed in two stages. In the first stage, CO, HC, CO 2, O 2 and EGT values of the exhaust emissions were

6 Experimental Investigation of Exhaust from Compression Ignition Engine Based Automobiles Using an Innovative Catalytic Converter During Emissions Test obtained from KIGAZ 310 PRO before using the Innovative Catalytic Converter at the exhaust pipe. In the second stage, the same procedure was repeated after using the Innovative Catalytic Converter at the exhaust pipe. Table 1 CO Values Before and After Using Catalytic Converter during Emissions Test CO (Before using Catalytic CO (After using Catalytic Table 2 HC Values Before and After Using Catalytic Converter during Emissions Test HC (Before using Catalytic HC (After using Catalytic Table 3 CO 2 Values Before and After Using Catalytic Converter during Emissions Test CO 2 (Before using Catalytic CO 2 (After using Catalytic Converter) (%) Converter (%) Table 4 O 2 Values Before and After Using Catalytic Converter during Emissions Test O 2 (Before using Catalytic O 2 (After using Catalytic Converter) (%) Converter) (%)

7 S.S.K. Deepak, Dr. Mukesh Thakur Table 5 EGT Values Before and After Using Catalytic Converter during Emissions Test EGT (Before using Catalytic EGT (After using Catalytic Converter) ( C) Converter) ( C) CONCLUSIONS Emission test was also conducted on the single cylinder diesel engine test rig using KIGAZ 310 PRO multi gas analyzer. The results clearly revealed that on using the iron oxide nanoparticles coated Innovative Catalytic Converter, exhaust emissions concentration reduced effectively and concentration of CO 2 and O 2 increased at different loading conditions. This increase can be accounted to the oxidizing nature of iron oxide nano-particles. Iron oxide nano-particles contain surplus oxygen which facilitates in better combustion thereby increasing the exhaust gas temperature. REFERENCES [1] Subramani, T., Study of Air Pollution due to Vehicle Emission in Tourism Centre, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2(3), 2012, [2] Zhang, K. and Batterman, S., Air Pollution and Health Risks due to Vehicle Traffic, Sci. Total Environment, 1, 2013, [3] Ogur, E.O. and Kariuki, S.M., Effect of Car Emissions on Human Health and the Environment, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 9(21), 2014, [4] Jonson, J.E., Kleefeld, J.B., Simpson, D., Nyiri, A. Posch, M. and Heyes, C, Impact of Excess NOx Emissions from Diesel Cars on Air Quality, Public Health and Eutrophication in Europe, Environmental Research Letters, 12, 2017, [5] Alabi, I.O., Olaiya, K.A., Kareem, M.O. and Olalekan, A.I., Comparative Analysis of Exhaust Gases Obtained in S.I. and C.I. of an Internal Combustion Engine, Archives of Applied Science Research, 7(9), 2015, [6] Ibrahim, A.R. and Kemal, A., The Pollutant Emissions from Diesel Engine Vehicles and Exhaust After Treatment Systems, Clean Tech. Environ. Policy, 17, 2015, [7] Laxmi, N., Jhonson, V. and Shekhar, R.C., Design and Fabrication of Rechargeable Catalytic Converter for I.C. Engine, International Journal and Magazine of Engineering, Technology, Management and Research, 2(7), 2015, [8] Narendra, R.M., Chirag, M.A. and Dabhi. S.K., Development and Performance Analysis of Nickel based Catalytic Converter, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, 4(2), 2013, [9] Ajin, C.S. and Sajith, V., Diesel Engine Emission Reduction using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation, Journal of Engineering, 1, 2013, 1 8. [10] Jain, V., Parihar, D.S., Jain, V. and Mulla, I.H., Performance of Exhaust Gas Recirculation System on Diesel Engine, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3(4), 2013, [11] Qasim, M., Ansari, T.M. and Hussain, M., Combustion, Performance and Emission Evaluation of a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel like Fuel Blends Derived from a Mixture of Pakistani Waste Canola and Waste Transformer Oils, Journal of Energies, 10, 2017,

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