Design Strategy of a Piezoelectric Valve for a Color Sorter

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1 Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 57, No. 4, October 2010, pp Design Strategy of a Piezoelectric Valve for a Color Sorter So-Nam Yun, Young-Bog Ham and Jung-Ho Park Environment and Energy Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials, Daejeon Hong-Hee Kim and Hyung-Jong So Kyungwon Ferrite Ind. Co. Ltd., Siheung (Received 8 January 2010) A color sorter is a kind of machine for separating foreign bodies in grain and consists of a feeder, a shoot, a sensor with a lamp and an ejector with a solenoid actuator driven pneumatic valve. A solenoid actuator has some merits, such as a long actuation displacement, a strong attraction force and a long durability, but also has some weak points, such as an attraction force that depends on the operating temperature and a very high power consumption. The drop off in attraction force in a color sorter is a very core parameter for the user or consumer because the color sorter is used in tropical and temperate regions. High power consumption also leads to more and more energy consumption to use the color sorter. This paper presents a new mechanism for the color sorter and discusses the flow characteristics of a piezoelectric driven pneumatic valve, which has a multilayered piezoelectric actuator and two ports for air flow. In order to design the piezoelectric driven pneumatic valve, we analyzed the flow dynamics theoretically, and we researched the processes for fabrication of the multilayered piezoelectric actuator. Finally, we manufactured a pneumatic valve with a multilayered piezoelectric actuator, and based on experiment, we discuss the characteristics of the displacement and the blocking force of the piezoelectric actuator and the flow capability of the manufactured pneumatic valve. PACS numbers: Ed Keywords: Color sorter, Grain sorter, Piezoelectric actuator, Multilayered PZT, CFD DOI: /jkps I. INTRODUCTION A color sorter is a kind of high-tech product which is integrated with optics, machinery and electronics and which combines an embedded system with a digital image technique perfectly. The product adopts a highspeed digitalized module and digital image processing to get high- precision sorting and can detect yellowish and speckled rice effectively. The machinery of a color sorter also consists of a feeder, a shoot, a sensor with a lamp and an ejector with a solenoid actuator driven pneumatic valve. The ejector is very important equipment, and 32 sets, 64 sets or 128 sets are installed in one color sorter. A solenoid actuator has some merits, such as a long actuation displacement, a strong attraction force and a long durability but has also some weak points, such as an attraction force that depends on the operating temperature and a very high power consumption [1 3]. The drop off in attraction force in a color sorter is a very important core parameter for user or consumer because the color Fax: sorter is used in tropical and temperate regions. High power consumption also leads to more and more energy consumption to use the color sorter [4,5]. In order to design the piezoelectrically-driven pneumatic valve, the flow dynamics are analyzed theoretically and the processes for fabrication of the multilayered piezoelectric actuator are researched. Finally, pneumatic valve with a multilayered piezoelectric actuator is manufactured, and the characteristics of the displacement, the blocking force of the piezoelectric actuator and the flow capability of the manufactured pneumatic valve are also experimentally discussed. II. ANALYSIS CONDITIONS Figure 1 shows a color sorter with an air ejector, and Fig. 2 shows external and internal views of the analysis model with a piezoelectric actuator for the color sorter. The size of the used piezoelectric actuator is 31 mm 9.5 mm 0.8 mm, and the maximum displacement of the piezoelectric actuator is 300 µm. The orifice sizes of the -913-

2 -914- Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 57, No. 4, October 2010 Fig. 1. (Color online) Structure of the color sorter. Fig. 3. (Color online) Eddy flow distribution and flow velocity characteristics at an input pressure of 0.3 MPa and Fig. 2. (Color online) CFD model of the piezoelectric valve. (a) External view of the piezoelectric valve and (b) Internal view of the piezoelectric valve. analysis model are 1.2 mm and 1.5 mm, and the analysis of the computational fluid dynamics was conducted under the condition of 0.3 MPa, 0.4 MPa, and 0.5 MPa. The used fluid was air, and the air flow between the inlet and the outlet port was under atmospheric condition. III. ANALYSIS RESULTS Figure 3 shows the result of eddy flow characteristics for 0.3 MPa and The maximum flow velocity is m/s, and the mass flow Fig. 4. (Color online) Pressure distribution characteristics around the orifice. is e-4 kg/s. Figure 4 shows the results of the pressure distribution for 0.3 MPa and an orifice diameter of 1.2 mm. The positive pressure parts are the inlet, and the negative pressure parts are the outlet one. A maximum pressure of MPa occurred at the wall face of the piezoelectric actuator in front of the orifice. A minimum pressure of MPa occurred at the backside of the part that experimented maximum pressure. Figure 5 shows the eddy flow distribution results for an input pressure of 0.4 MPa and The calculated maximum flow velocity is m/s, and the mass flow is 4.789e-4 kg/s. From these results, we know that the output flow rose 15% for a 33% increase in the pressure. We also know that the flow variation between the piezoelectric actuator and the orifice is very

3 Design Strategy of a Piezoelectric Valve for a Color Sorter So-Nam Yun et al Fig. 5. (Color online) Eddy flow distribution and flow velocity characteristics at an input pressure of 0.4 MPa and Fig. 7. (Color online) Eddy flow distribution and flow velocity characteristics at an input pressure of 0.5 MPa and Fig. 6. (Color online) Pressure distribution characteristics around the orifice at 0.4 MPa input pressure and a 1.2 mm orifice diameter. severe. Figure 6 shows the pressure variation when the input pressure is 0.4 MPa and the orifice diameter is 1.2 mm. The maximum pressure is MPa, and the minimum pressure is MPa. From these results, we can conclude that this valve system is very noisy because of the very big pressure difference. An optimal design for reducing the pressure difference is needed for actual operation in an industrial field. Figures 7 and 8 show the eddy flow distribution, the flow velocity variation, the mass flow characteristics and the pressure difference for an input pressure of 0.5 MPa, and The maximum flow velocity and the mass flow capability are 896 m/s and 5.34e-4 kg/s, respectively. Figure 9 shows the eddy flow distribution, the pressure variation and the flow characteristics for an input pressure of 0.5 MPa and an orifice diameter of 1.5 mm. A m/s flow velocity and a mass flow of 5.793e-4 kg/s were calculated by using sim- Fig. 8. (Color online) Pressure distribution characteristics around an orifice at a 0.5 MPa input pressure and a 1.2 mm orifice diameter. ulation software under the condition of an input pressure of 0.4 MPa. If we compare the values for an input pressure of 0.4 MPa and orifice diameters of 1.2 mm and 1.5 mm, the difference in the velocity is about 15%, which means that an orifice diameter of 1.5 mm is better than one of 1.2 mm. For an input pressure of 0.5 MPa, the flow velocity is m/s, and the mass flow is 6.472e-4 kg/s. Figure 10 shows the pressure difference between piezoelectric actuator s front side and back side under the same conditions as in of Fig. 9. We know that the performance for an orifice diameter of 1.5 mm was improved by about 68% compared to that for an orifice diameter of 1.2 mm. From these results, we must consider not only a larger orifice diameter and a bigger piezoelectric blocking force for a fast piezoelectric valve and the best color sorter but also optimal design tuning.

4 -916- Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 57, No. 4, October 2010 Table 1. Simulation results for a piezoelectric valve. Orifice Diameter 0.3 Mpa 0.4 Mpa 0.5 Mpa 1.2[mm] Velocity [m/s] Mass flow [kg/s] e e e-4 1.5[mm] Velocity [m/s] Mass flow [kg/s] e e e-4 Fig. 11. (Color online) Multilayered bender type PZT actuator. Fig. 12. (Color online) Displacement analysis result. Fig. 9. (Color online) Eddy flow distribution and flow velocity characteristics at an input pressure of 0.5 MPa and an orifice diameter of 1.5 mm. Fig. 13. (Color online) Photo view of the manufactured PZT actuator. Fig. 14. (Color online) Photo view of the piezoelectric valve. blocking force of the piezoelectric actuator. Fig. 10. (Color online) Pressure distribution characteristics around an orifice at a 0.5 MPa input pressure and a 1.5 mm orifice diameter. Table 1 presents the values of the simulation results at input pressures of 0.3 MPa, 0.4 MPa, and 0.5 MPa and orifice diameters of 1.2 mm and 1.5 mm. For the grain sorter, the design parameters are the rated pressure and flow, the cavitations and noise, and the displacement and IV. DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF THE PIEZOELECTRIC VALVE Figure 11 shows the appearance and inner structure of a piezoelectric actuator designed for use as a grain sorter. A final model based on the simulation results and trial and error method was designed and fabricated. Figure

5 Design Strategy of a Piezoelectric Valve for a Color Sorter So-Nam Yun et al shows the displacement results which were calculated using Atila Software. Figure 13 shows the manufactured PZT actuator. In this study, the manufactured PZT actuator had a 20-layered structure, and dimensions are 31.0 mm (L) 9.5 mm (W) 0.8 mm (t) with a constant of 220e-12 m/v. Figure 14 shows the inner structure and the assembled appearance of the piezoelectric valve using the designed and manufactured piezoelectric actuator. The ejector (air gun) is very important equipment, and 32 sets, 64 sets or 128 sets are installed in one color sorter. These parameters, such as the dynamic response characteristics, the flow force and the energy consumption, must be discussed for optimal design [6,7]. V. CONCLUSION In this paper, a new mechanism for the color sorter was suggested, and the flow characteristics of a piezoelectrically driven pneumatic valve with a multilayered piezoelectric actuator and two ports for air flow were discussed. In order to design the piezoelectrically driven pneumatic valve, we analyzed the flow dynamics theoretically, and we researched the processes for fabrication of the multilayered piezoelectric actuator. If we compare the performance value for an input pressure of 0.4 MPa and orifice diameters of 1.2 mm and 1.5 mm, the difference in flow velocity is about 15%, which means that an orifice diameter of 1.5 mm is better than one of 1.2 mm. For an input pressure of 0.5 MPa, the performance for that an orifice diameter of 1.5 mm was improved by about 68% compared to that for an orifice diameter of 1.2 mm. From these results, we must consider not only a larger orifice diameter and a bigger piezoelectric blocking force for a fast piezoelectric valve and the best color sorter but also optimal design tuning, such as the low energy consumption characteristics and the flow force degradation. REFERENCES [1] L. Nohos, in Proceedings of the 49th National Conference on Fluid Power (Nevada, USA, March 19-21, 2002), p [2] M. Weinmann, M. Muth, M. Giousouf, C. Hanisch and P. Post, in 8th International Conference on New Actuators & 2nd International Exhibition on Smart Actuators and Drive Systems (Bremen, Germany, 2002), p [3] M. Weinmann, A. J. Schmid and M. Fuss, in 10th International Conference on New Actuators & 4th International Exhibition on Smart Actuators and Drive Systems (Bremen, Germany, 2006), p [4] P. Mandurino and P. M. Weaver, in 9th International Conference on New Actuators & 3rd International Exhibition on Smart Actuators and Drive Systems (Bremen, Germany, 2004), p [5] H. Murrenhoff, in Proceedings of the 49th National Conference on Fluid Power (Nevada, USA, 2002), p [6] S.-N. Yun, K.-W. Lee, H.-H. Kim and H.-J. So, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 1 (2006). [7] S.-N. Yun, Y.-B. Ham, J.-H. Park, W.-S. Seo and K.-W. Lee, in International Conference on Advanced Technology in Experimental Mechanics (Fukuoka, Japan, 2007), p. 208.

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