Harsh Environment Sensor Cluster for Infrastructure Monitoring Single-Chip, Self-Powered, Wireless Sensor Systems

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1 for Infrastructure Monitoring Single-Chip, Self-Powered, Wireless Sensor Systems Professor Albert ( Al ) P. Pisano Director, Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center Fanuc Chair for Mechanical Systems Member, National Academy of Engineering University of California at Berkeley

2 Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center The National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center on MEMS BSAC conducts industry-relevant, interdisciplinary research on microand nano-scale sensors, moving mechanical elements, microfluidics, materials, and processes, and systems that take advantage of progress from integrated circuit, networking, bio, and polymer technologies. 2

3 SBL Facebook Blog Site 3

4 SBL Facebook Blog Site 4

5 Cluster Sensor for Energy & Power 5 Harsh environment includes extremes of pressure, temperature, shock, radiation and chemical attack. Real-time sensing within harsh environments enables increased operation lifetimes, improved efficiency and reduced emissions.

6 Geothermal Energy 6

7 Geothermal Resources in Japan 7 Source: s&pp/p_plant/main121.html

8 Sensor Cluster in the Ground Self powered, Wireless, Multi Chip Sensing Module SiC Integrated Circuits SiC/AlN Scavenging Power Source Well Casing Coupling 8 SiC/AlN Harsh Environment Sensors Efficient, Clean & Smart Geothermal Energy Systems AlN RF Telemetry Components

9 Cluster Sensor in the Ground 9

10 Cluster Sensor in the Gas Turbine SiC Materials Development and Characterization Ultra-Stable Temperature Sensor Ultra Low Cross Axis Sensitivity Accelerometer High Accuracy Erosion/Corrosion Sensor High Temperature Bonding and Interconnect 10 Gas Turbine Blade AlN Energy Scavenging Diaphragm

11 Cluster Sensor for Transportation Combustion chamber temperature Combustion chamber pressure Manifold absolute pressure Mass air flow sensor Oxygen sensor Exhaust NO x sensor Pressure sensors Accelerometer array Steering wheel angle sensor Front airbag accelerometer Steering circuit oil pressure Brake circuit oil pressure Transmission torque Halfshaft torque Airbag accelerometers Air quality filtration sensor Rain sensor Passenger temperature Pedal position sensor Angular rate (roll over) Chasses tilt sensor Wheel speed rate (ABS) Wheel torque sensor Active suspension sensor 11

12 Sensor Cluster in the Automobile MEMS Strain Gauge MEMS Strain Gauge 12 COTS RF Transceiver MEMS Sensor on Wheel Communicates via RF to Transceiver on Chassis MEMS Sensor on Shock Tower Measures Vertical Forces On Chassis for DSC Application

13 Sensor Cluster in the Tire Sensor Types: Strain Sensors Pressure Sensors Accelerometers 3-Point Array of Sensors 13

14 Molding & Vulcanization After molding 4 embedded samples 5x5mm2 each Array of SiC Zener diodes Survivability test Embedded samples After samples retrieval Si substrate covered with SiO2/SiC Delamination test Two Si substrates Bare Si Si + Ni (2nm) Sample/rubber adhesion 14

15 Cluster Sensor in the Auto Engine Test Fixture for signal collection. There are two die attachment methods: Die 1) Simultaneous Electrical and Mechanical Attachment via Ni Resbond with Auxiliary Mechanical Attachment via Ceramic Adhesive Center Electrode Ni Resbond 2) Separate Electrical and Mechanical Attachment via Ceramic Adhesive for Mechanical and Aluminum Wire Bonds for Electrical 15

16 Cluster Sensor in the Auto Engine 1 cm 2 fired alumina substrate Ceramic shield to protect wire leads Bias voltage -> leakage current -> ion concentration detection Sintered Pt electrodes (1mm wide, 1mm gap) Controlled flame jet Methane diffusion flame V peak signal (from 120V bias voltage). Expecting < 0.010V resolution. Prototype fabricated and tested: - Platinum ink on alumina substrate - Preliminary tests show geometry has good sensitivity to flames Next steps: - Production via MEMS or microprinting technology - Design and construction of test chamber

17 Cluster Sensor Landslide Prediction 17

18 Cluster Sensor for Infrastructure 18 Figure from The Economist Magazine

19 Sensor Cluster Prototype Temperature sensor is resistive type (resistance changes linearly with temperature) Sensor size can be very small (e.g. 200 µm x 200 µm) Many temperature sensors can be placed on the sensor cluster chip Linearity is very good for Molybdenum in the required temperature range (see graph below) Example of Sensor Design Example of Placement Note: This is a schematic figure. The actual design of the prototype I chip will be submitted later. 19 Source:

20 Pre-Prototype Design 4.93 mm 4.43 mm 2-Axis Accelerometer 20 Integrated components: 2-axis accelerometer Vacuum pressure gauge Strain sensor Temperature sensor

21 Pre-Prototype Results DETF Sensing Elements Silicon Proof Masses 21

22 Pre-Prototype Results 22

23 AlN Pressure Sensor Design Pressure Radius, a Thickness, h Sealed cavity at atmospheric pressure Characteristic Equation for Circular Membrane: Resonance frequency of membrane: a = radius, h = thickness, y = deflection, E = Young s modulus, Ae = effective area of corrugated diaphragm, D = flesural rigidity, μ = Poisson s ratio, =specific weight of membrane material.

24 Cluster Prototype Assembly Sensor Cluster Chip Solder Layer Base Chip 24

25 Cluster Prototype Assembly 25

26 Cluster Prototype Assembly Reference Device Open to Atmosphere on Top and Bottom 26

27 Cluster Prototype Assembly Sealed Cavity of Pressure Sensor 27

28 Conclusion Sensor Cluster for Energy & Power / Gas Turbine Transportation / Automobile Engine Landslide Prediction / Built Infrastructure Common Fabrication Process Many Sensors on One Chip Sensor Signal and Packaging are the Next Challenges Seeking Industrial Collaboration 28

29 Acknowledgements BSAC UC Berkeley Nanolab Prof. Roya Maboudian Dr. Carlo Carraro Dr. Maxime Vincent Dr. Ayden Maralani Dr. Gabriele Vigevani Dr. Debbie G. Senesky Mr. David Rolfe Mr. Matt Chan Ms. Sarah Wodin-Schwartz Mr. Fabian Goericke Ms. Kirti Mansukhani Ms. Yun-Ju Matilda Lai Mr. Wei-Cheng Lien Ms. Nuo Zhang Mr. Ting-Ta Ernest Yen Mr. Chih-Ming Gimmy Lin 29

30 Conclusion Thank You! 30

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