Sight Distance. A fundamental principle of good design is that

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1 Session 9 Jack Broz, PE, HR Green May 5-7, 2010 Sight Distance A fundamental principle of good design is that the alignment and cross section should provide adequate sight lines for drivers operating their vehicles. Design guidance provides for five types of sight distance: - Stopping sight distance - Intersection sight distance - Passing sight distance - Non-Striping Passing sight distance - Decision sight distance 8-1

2 Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) Distance required to perceive an object in roadway and bring vehicle to a stop the sight distance at every point along a roadway should be at least that needed for a below-average driver or vehicle to stop. - AASHTO Green Book Chapter 3 SSD Model Human Factors Basis SSD = perception reaction distance + braking distance SSD = 1.47 V t + (1.075 V 2 / a) V = design speed in mph t = percept reaction time (2.5 sec) a = deceleration rate (11.2 ft/sec 2 ) 8-2

3 SSD Historical Perspective Table 1- NCHRP 400 SSD Historical Perspective History of the Object Height (Kahl and Fambro, TRR 1500) 1954 AASHO policy: the 4 object height offered a compromise between the cost of excavation and the ability of the driver to see the road ahead. A 4-in. control was considered the approximate point of diminishing returns. 8-3

4 SSD Historical Perspective History of the Object Height (Kahl and Fambro, TRR 1500) In the 1965 AASHO policy, the object height was increased from 4 to 6 ; however, the rationale used to justify the 6 object was the same rationale used for the 4 object. It has been suggested that the object height was increased to offset a decrease in the driver s eye height and thus keep the required lengths of crest vertical curves relatively constant. SSD Historical Perspective History of the Object Height (Kahl and Fambro, TRR 1500) In 1984, the rationale for using the 6 object changed. The 1984 and 1990 Green Books state that an object height of 6 is largely an arbitrary rationalization of possible hazardous objects and a driver s ability to perceive and react to a hazardous situation. 8-4

5 Object-Related Accident Study only 0.07% 07% of the reportable accidents involved small objects in the roadway. More than 90% of these accidents occurred at night on straight, flat roadways and they did not result in serious injuries. Research performed at the Texas Transportation Institute Change to the SSD Model in 2001 Changes were based on NCHRP 400 study Object height changed from 6 inches to 2 feet Uses a design deceleration rate rather than a friction coefficient Changed to a single design value rather than a minimum and desirable value Current values fall between previous minimum and desirable values 8-5

6 SSD Design Values Consider the effect of steep grades From Exhibit 3-2, AASHTO Green Book SSD on Grades Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) Stopping sight distances exceeding those shown in Exhibit 3-1 should be used as the basis for design wherever practical. Use of longer stopping sight distances increases the margin of safety for all drivers The recommended stopping sight distances are based on passenger car operations and do not explicitly i l consider design for truck operation. - AASHTO Green Book 8-6

7 Insights on AASHTO SSD Model Uses upper percentile values 90 th percentile deceleration rate 90+ percentile eye and object height Uses same design value for a given design speed irrespective of other conditions for moderate reductions in available stopping sight distance, there are no noticeable safety problems NCHRP Report 400 Conceptual Safety Relationship Design policy Past studies that examined the relationship between SSD and safety have been inconsistent and inconclusive NCHRP

8 Risk Assessment Guidelines Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design - AASHTO Assess the risk of a location with SSD below current criteria. Risk is related to traffic volume (exposure) and other features within the sight restriction (intersections, narrow bridges, high-volume driveways, sharp curvature) Where no high-risk features exist within the sight restriction, nominal deficiencies as great as 5-10 mph may not create an undue risk of increased crashes. Risk Management Relative Safety Risk of Various Conditions in Combination with Non-Standard Stopping Sight Distance Geometric Condition Low-volume intersection Y-diverge on road Sharp curvature <1000 ft radius Relative Safety Risk Significant Significant Steep downgrade (>5%) Narrow structure Significant Significant Narrow Pavement Significant Freeway lane drop Significant Exit or entrance downstream Source: FHWA Mitigation Strategies for Design Exceptions Significant 8-8

9 Risk Considerations Situation: Horizontal sight restriction at the end of a downgrade Specific Concern: Truck speeds may be high at the end of a long downgrade and the greater eye height of the truck driver is of little advantage seeing past a horizontal sight obstruction Situation: Intersection within a horizontal sight restriction Risk Considerations Specific Concern: Insufficient sight distance for driver to judge acceptable gaps in traffic approaching from the horizontal sight obstruction 8-9

10 Effect on Horizontal Curve Design Horizontal Sightline Offset Design parameters Design speed SSD Offset to object Curve radius Minimum Values Use HSO equation 8-10

11 Decision Sight Distance Distance allowed for: Dt Detecting ti complex or unexpected conditions Recognizing information difficult to perceive Corroborating advance warning and performing appropriate maneuvers (i.e. path change, speed change) Performing evasive maneuvers Decision Sight Distance DSD design values vary based on location (rural, suburban or urban) and type of avoidance maneuver DSD is substantially greater than SSD Example 50 mph design speed SSD = 425 ft / DSD = 890 ft (speed/path/direction change on suburban road) Appropriate design pp p g criteria when the situation is complex, the driver information load is high, and there is substantial risk for driver error 8-11

12 Decision Sight Distance If over 90% of crashes have a driver component, how might Decision Sight Distance correlate to those crashes? Consider Decision Sight Distance during Project Safety Reviews of the design Design Criteria for Crest Vertical Curves Minimum lengths of crest vertical curves are based on sight distance criteria AASHTO stopping sight distance criteria (3.5 ft eye height and 2 ft object height) 8-12

13 Changes in 2001 AASHTO Policy Crest Vertical Curve Lengths Shorter crest vertical curves Elimination of curve length ranges 2001 AASHTO Policy Model produces shorter vertical curves Design Criteria for Sag Vertical Curves Sag Vertical Curves Based on Headlight Sight Distance Comfort criterion Refer to 2004 Green Book Exhibit 3-75 Safety Sag vertical curves shorter than the lengths computed from Exhibit 3-75 may be justified for economic reasons in cases where an existing feature, such as a structure not ready for replacement, controls the vertical profile. -AASHTO Green Book p

14 Maximum Grades Based on Design Speed and Terrain Context 5% max grade for 70 mph design speed 7% - 12% for 30 mph design speed depending on terrain Interstate Standard 6% max grade for mountainous terrain and 50 mph design speed Critical Length of Grade Combination of grade and length of grade affects speeds of heavy vehicles Critical Length of Grade max length of an upgrade without unreasonable reduction in speed 8-14

15 Operational Considerations Downgrades increase braking distance and vehicle speeds Upgrades increase speed differentials between passenger cars and heavy vehicles Upgrades slow traffic and may create platooning Vertical curvature may limit sight distance Vertical Alignment and Safety Vehicle Speed Differential: a 10 mph differential between free-flowing flowing traffic and a slowed heavy vehicle is a potential safety threshold (especially for two-lane highways) Collision frequency increases with gradient on downgrades Long steep downgrades impact truck braking 8-15

16 Coordination of H&V Alignment Avoid sharp horizontal curves near top of a pronounced crest vertical curve (i.e. make the horizontal curve long enough so that it leads the vertical curvature) Avoid sharp horizontal curves near low point of a pronounced sag curve because driver s view is foreshortened and speeds may be higher at bottom of grade Driver Comfort Basis for Standards Safety Operations Safety (headlights) 8-16

17 Exercise E

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1. When the roads are slippery you should: a. Drive along side other vehicles. b. Make turns as gentle as possible. c. Test traction while going uphill. d. Decrease the distance you look ahead. General