TREAD and TRACTION. Tread- The grooved surface of a tire that grips the road.

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1 1 NAME: HOUR: DATE: NO: Chapter 5: Natural Laws and Car Control GRAVITY- Is the force that pulls all things to Earth. UPHILL DRIVING- Gravity will decrease your car down when going uphill, unless you use extra power. DOWNHILL DRIVING- Gravity will increase your speed going downhill unless you control it. TREAD and TRACTION Tread- The grooved surface of a tire that grips the road. Allows water to flow through the grooves and away from the tire. This action allows the tire tread to cut through the water and grip the road.

2 STOPPING DISTANCE 2 PERCEPTION TIME TIME- The length of time you take to identify, predict, and decide to slow for hazard. DISTANCE- Time will vary depending on the visibility, the hazard, and your ability at the time. TIME-The length of time is takes for you to execute your action REACTION TIME *Average person reaction time is three- fourths of a second. DISTANCE- How far your car travels while you react BREAKING DISTANCE The distance your vehicle travels from the time you apply the brake until you stop

3 Chapter 6: Performing Basic Vehicle Maneuvers STEERING YOUR VEHCILE 3 Steering Straight Backwards When moving backward involves knowing where to look and how to control direction and speed. Before backing, make sure your rear zones are clear. Follow these steps: 1. Hold the brake pedal down and shift to REVERSE. 2. Turn your body to the right, and put your right arm over the back of the passenger seat, Look back through the rear window. 3. Put your left hand at the top of the steering wheel at the 12 o clock position. 4. Release pressure on the brake just enough to allow the vehicle to creep backward slowly. 5. While looking back through the rear window, move top of the steering wheel toward the direction you want the back of the vehicle to go. 6. Keep your foot over the brake pedal while your vehicle is moving backward. Glance quickly to the front and sides to check traffic. Continue to look back through the rear window as you brae and stop.

4 CHANGING LANES 4 *When might you change lanes when following another vehicle? Following a large truck on a multilane highway. Making Lane Changes Before changing lanes, check all zones for possible hazards. Make sure you can see far ahead in the lane of your intended path of travel and that there are no obstructions in either lane. Follow these steps when making a lane change to the left: 1. Check traffic in the front and left-front zones. Check rear zones through the rearview mirrors. 2. Signal and make a blind-spot check over your left shoulder to see if any vehicle is about to pass you. 3. Increase your speed slightly as you steer smoothly into the next lane if it is clear. 4. Cancel your signal and adjust your speed.

5 Making Left and Right Turns 5 Making Turns Make sure to only make a left or right turn only after checking all traffic. Take these precautions when executing turns: Look for pedestrians and oncoming vehicles, Check rear zones for vehicles about to pass you. Plan turns well in advance. Be in the correct lane about a block before your turn. Obey all traffic signs, singles, and roadway markings. Remember you must yield to oncoming traffic when you are turning left.

6 Steps or making a right turn 6 Rewrite the steps for making a right turn below:

7 Steps for making a left turn: 7 Rewrite the steps for completing a left turn below: 1. 2.

8 Backing Left and Right 8 LEFT RIGHT BOTH When backing left you look over your left shoulder Look through the left side windows Allow a wide space on the right side, because the front of your vehicle will swing wide to the right. When backing right you look over your right shoulder Look through the right side windows Allow a wide space on the left side. Use hand over hand steering The back of your vehicle will go in the direction you turn the wheel Back slowly as you enter the turn. Make quick glances to the front and sides to be sure no one is near.

9 Turning the Vehicle 9 Turnabouts: Turning your vehicle around to go in the opposite direction. This is a high risk maneuver. Take these precautions when making a turnabout: Be sure local laws permit the turnabout. ( legal) Select a site with at least 500 feet of visibility in each direction. Do not make a turnabout near hills or curves or within 200 feet of intersections. Never attempt a turnabout in heavy high-speed traffic. Check continually with all zones for traffic and pedestrians. Midblock U-Turn: Make sure state laws permit this type of turn. You need a wide space to make a U-Turn. This is risky because you have to cross several lanes of traffic to execute it.

10 10 Check traffic to the rear, and then the right. Pull to the far right of the road and stop. Signal left and move back out into the lane. Check your front and left-rear zones. Check your left blind spot. Turn sharply left while moving and do not stop if you can complete the turn. Straighten the wheel and accelerate slowly into the proper lane. Take these precautions when making a midblock U-turn:

11 Three- Point Turns 11 Backing Into Driveway on Right Side: Check all traffic to the rear. Begin to slow as you proceed beyond the driveway. Stop about three feet from the curb and with your rear bumper just beyond the driveway. Check traffic and back slowly to the right. Stop when your vehicle is completely off the street. Signal a left turn. Pulling into driveway on the left side.

12 12 Pull into Driveway on Left Side Check in front and rear zones. Signal a left turn and stay close to the right side as much as possible. Check traffic again, especially from the right. Back slowly to the right. Look to the right rear and side while backing up. Accelerate gently, scanning all zones, as you drive forward.

13 Parking 13 Fill in the vocabulary words below using your book. These words can be found on page 119 in your book. VOCABULARY Reference Point Standard Reference Point Personal Reference Point DEFINITION Part of the outside or inside of the vehicle, as viewed from the driver s seat that relates to some part of the roadway. Reference points help you know where your vehicle is located in the roadway. Point on the vehicle that is typical for most drivers. This could be a side view mirror, a hood ornament, or the center of the hood. An adaptation of a standard reference point for one s own vehicle. Angel Parking Where do you think angle parking is often used? In parking lots and shopping centers

14 Steps to follow in completing Angle Parking: Check for traffic and pedestrians Position vehicle at least six feet from the row of parked cars. Signal a right turn, check traffic to the rear, and begin braking. 2. Check your right blind spot and continue braking. 3. Creep forward until you can see the center of the space without your line of sight cutting across the parking line. Turn your wheel sharply to the right and slowly enter the parking spot. 4. Straighten the wheels when you are centered in the space. Make sure your front bumper is even with the curb or parking line. Perpendicular Parking You use this type of parking to park your vehicle at a right angle to the curb.

15 15 Steps to follow when completing perpendicular parking: 1. Position your vehicle at least eight feet from the row of parked vehicles, or as far left of the lane as possible. 2. Signal a right turn, check your right blind spot, and begin to brake. 3. Check traffic to the rear, and continue braking. 4. When your front bumper of your vehicle passes the left rear taillight of the parking space turn your wheel sharply to the right. 5. Straighten your wheel when you are centered in the space.

16 16 Parallel Parking You use parallel parking to park your vehicle parallel to the curb. You want to select a space that is five to six feet longer than your vehicle. During your maneuver, the front of your vehicle will swing far to the left. Check over your left shoulder to be sure this needed space is clear.

17 Parallel Parking 17 Steps to Follow When Completing Parallel Parking: 1. Flash brake lights, and signal a right turn. Stop two to three feet away from the front of the vehicle with the two rear bumper even. Shift to Reverse, look back over your right shoulder, and back slowly as you turn right. 2. When the back of your seat is even with the rear bumper of the front vehicle, straighten the wheels. 3. When your front bumper is even with the front vehicle s back bumper, turn your wheels sharply left. 4. When your vehicle is parallel to the curb, straighten wheels and stop. Steps to Follow When Leaving a Parallel Parking Space: 1. Back straight slowly until your rear bumper almost touches the vehicle behind. Turn wheel sharply to the left. 2. Signal left turn. Check your left blind spot. 3. Check the right-front corner of your vehicle for clearance. 4. Turn your wheels to the right when you are halfway out of the parking space. Scan zones and then proceed into traffic lanes.

18 18 Uphill Parking with a Curb 1. Position your vehicle close to the curb. Just before stopping, turn the steering wheel to the left. 2. Shift to neutral; let the vehicle creep back until the back of the right-front tires gently touches the curb. 3. Shift to park, and set the parking brake. 4. When leaving the parking space signal, check traffic, and accelerate into the lane of traffic. Uphill Parking With No Curb 1. Pull as far off the roadway as possible. Turn the wheel to the right. 2. Shift to park, and set the parking brake. 3. When leaving the parking space, let the vehicle creep backward while straightening the wheels. Signal and check traffic. Shift to drive, and accelerate into traffic.

19 19 2. Let the vehicle creep forward slowly while turning the steering wheel the Downhill Parking With a Curb 1. Position your vehicle close to the curb and stop. right. Let the front-right tire rest gently against the curb. 3. Shift to park, and set the parking brake. 4. When leaving check traffic and back short distance while straightening the wheels. Signal, check traffic again, and shift into drive. Downhill Parking Without a Curb You follow the same procedures as downhill parking with a curb. Turn the wheels sharply to the right when parking.

20 20 Chapter 12: Driving in Adverse Conditions Reduced Visibility Whenever visibility is reduced drivers need more time to use the IPDE Process. You can maintain a safe intend path or travel by o Slowing down to give yourself more time. o Scanning in and around your path of travel to the target area to identify hazards o Predicting others will make maneuvers into your intended path of travel. o Deciding to position your vehicle ahead of time with extra space around it. o Executing driving actions gently to maintain control so others know what you are doing. Moisture Can form in the inside of your windshield and cause you to collide with other drivers. Take these steps when moistures start to build up: Turn on front window defrosters. Switch on your rear defogger. Use air conditioning and/or heat if it will help. Open window as needed and clean all windows and lights.

21 21 Can create severe and blinding conditions. Sun glasses and a sun visor can help. The brightest day will create the darkest shadow, with severe glare situations behind you, so be prepared for other drivers to miss seeing your signal or even seeing your vehicle. Sun Glare Driving with lowbeam head lights on all the time will help other drivers see you. Headlights Use high beam headlights to look beyond your headlights for important information. Only use high beam headlights when vehicles are more than one-half mile in front of you. Use low-beam headlights in snow, heavy rain, or fog.

22 Using high-beam headlights will reflect more light back into your 22 eyes, as a result, you will see less. Make sure to use your low-beam headlight when you are driving in the rain. (Most states require your low-bema headlights to be when on using your wipers). During snow use your low-beam headlights day or night. Reduced Traction RAIN WHILE DRIVING: When rain starts to fall, it mixes with dust and oil on the road. This mix can make the road very slippery. HYDROPLANING: When a tire loses road contact by rising up on top of water and no longer had contact with the road. How to Avoid Hydroplaning Reduce Speed Use properly inflated tires with good tread. When driving at a low speed through water, apply a light brake pressure with your left foot to build friction and create heat on your brake pads.

23 SNOW and ICE 23 SNOW Rocking a Vehicle Often you can move your vehicle out of deep snow, mud, or sand by driving forward a little and then back a little. By doing this sequence, you can work your way out. This is called Rocking a Vehicle. 1. Straighten front wheels. 2. Gently accelerate forward. Do not spin your wheels. 3. Let up on your accelerator. Shift to reverse and gently move backwards. Let up on your accelerator and shift into drive. 4. Continue backward-and-forward movement until your vehicle has cleared long enough to drive out.

24 24 ICE Ice on Bridges: Bridge roadways tend to freeze before other roadways surfaces. Cold air circulates above and below the roadway on bridges and overpasses. Black ice This forms in thin sheets. Be extra careful for this type of ice in winter situations. Ice in tire tracks Snow can pack down into ice in the normal driving tracks. Avoid this by moving a little to the right in lane position Remember breaking distance will always increase in low-traction situations. Slow early and then be ready to slow even more. Can you think of other road types that might interfere with traction while driving? Gravel Roads Leaves Construction areas

25 25 SKIDDING In extreme traction situations, your tires may lose all or part of their grip on the road. Over- Braking Skid If your vehicle doesn t have an antilock brake system (ABS) and your over-brake the wheels may stop while you are still moving. To correct this release your brake pedal enough to get your wheels rolling. Front-Wheel Skid When your steering wheel and your vehicle want to slide straight ahead. To correct this you need to regain traction for steering. You do this by: 1. Releasing the accelerator or brake pedal pressure 2. Quickly apply and release the brake pedal to slow if your vehicle does not have ABS 3. Continue to look and steer at the path of travel you want to follow.

26 OTHER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDISTIONS 26 HOT WEATHER Your temperature light gauge indicates when your engine is too hot. When this happens turn off your air conditioner. You can also cool your engine by turning on your heater. Never remove the radiator cap on a hot engine because the hot liquid inside can scald you. COLD WEATHER Carbon monoxide gas is created when your engine runs. Ice or slush stuck to the underside of your vehicle can freeze your parking brake when you park your vehicle. If you are stuck in snow with your engine running, make sure your exhaust pipe is not blocked.

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