# MOTORCYCLE BRAKING DYNAMICS

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 MOTORCYCLE BRAKING DYNAMICS By Rudy Limpert, Ph.D. PC-BRAKE, Inc

2 1.0 INTRODUCTION In recent issues of Accident Investigation Quarterly motorcycle braking systems as well as braking test data were discussed in detail (Ref. 1 and 2). The objectives of this article are to review theoretical aspects of straight-line level-road motorcycle braking, how to calculate braking forces, and to demonstrate the usefulness of the braking forces diagram in determining braking deceleration in actual braking cases. 2.0 DYNAMIC WHEEL NORMAL FORCES The dynamic normal forces of the front and rear tire of a motorcycle as a function of deceleration are computed by expressions similar to those of the of front and rear axle normal forces of cars (Ref. 3). The dynamic normal forces are: Front: F zf = (l -ψ + χa)w; lb (1) Rear: F zr = (ψ - χa)w; lb (2) Where: ψ = F zrstatic /W χ = h eg /L a = deceleration, g-units F zrstatic = static rear wheel normal force, lb L = wheel base, in. h eg = motorcycle center-of-gravity height, in. W = weight of motorcycle, lb The term χaw represents the dynamic load transfer onto the front wheel (Equation 1), or off the rear wheel (Equation 2). For example, for a 0.7g stop, W = 700 lb, and χ = 0.5, the front wheel normal force increases by (0.5)(0.7)(700) = 245 lb. Equations 1 and 2 are straight lines as a function of deceleration a. For a detailed mathematical analysis of braking dynamics, it becomes convenient to express the normal forces of Equations 1 and 2 per unit weight, or: Front: F zf /W = (1 - ψ + χa) (1a) Rear: F zr /W = (ψ - χa) (2a) 3.0 TRACTION COEFFICIENT When the operator applies control inputs to the brake system, the brake torque on the front or rear brake produces a braking force between tire and ground. The ratio of braking force to normal force existing between wheel and ground is defined as the 2

4 ABS modulation occurs at the same instant, thus eliminating any operator influence. For simplicity, we further assume, that the tire-road friction coefficients are identical for front and rear tires, that is, f F = f R. Consequently, the optimum braking condition can be stated as: µ TF = µ TR = f F = f R = a (5) In different words, Equation 5 states, that the traction coefficients equal each other (meaning simultaneous lockup) and equal the tire road friction coefficient (meaning all the tire road friction is used for braking) and consequently, equal deceleration a. Combining Equations 1 and 3, and solving for the actual front braking force yields: Similarly, the rear braking force is: F xf = (1 - ψ + χa)wµ TF ; lb (6) F xr = (ψ χa)wµ TR ; lb (7) The optimum normalized braking forces of a motorcycle are obtained by using the optimum condition (Equation 5), that is, replacing µ TF and µ TR by deceleration a, resulting in parabolic curves: Optimum front braking force: F xf /W) opt = (1 - ψ + χa)a (8) Optimum rear braking force: F xr /W) opt = (ψ χa)a (9) Using MARC 1 VI- OPTIMUM BRAKING FORCES, the optimum braking forces for a motorcycle are shown in the computer output. The input data for the exemplar motorcycle case are: W = 740 lb, static rear wheel force 481 lb, center-of-gravity height 28 in., wheelbase 4.6 ft. The corresponding dimensionless parameters of the motorcycle are: ψ = 481/740 = 0.65 and χ = 28/((4.6)(12)) = The decelerations in Equations 8 and 9 were varied from zero to 1.2g. Inspection of the results reveals that at a = 1.2g the normalized rear braking force F xr /W = 0.05, that is, the rear braking force is nearly zero due to the fact that the rear wheel normal force is nearly zero (lifting off ground). Substitution into Equation 2 shows: F zr = ( (0.507)(1.2))(740) = 30.8 lb The optimum braking force curve is illustrated in Figure 1. The normalized front braking forces are plotted on the y-axis, the normalized rear braking forces on the x-axis. The inclined 45-degree lines are lines of constant deceleration a. On any point along a given line of constant deceleration the deceleration is constant. For example, for any point on the line connecting F xf /W = 0.6 = F xr /W the deceleration is constant with a = 0.6g. 4

5 5

6 6

7 The optimum braking forces curve intersects each of the lines of constant deceleration. For example, the optimum curve intersects the line of constant deceleration a = 0.6g where F xf /W = 0.4 and F xr /W = 0.2g. That this is correct can be shown easily from Newton's Second Law, namely (with deceleration expressed as a/g): F= Wa or: F/W = F xf /W + F xr /W = a or: = 0.6 Inspection of Figure 1 shows other pairs of front and rear normalized braking forces yielding a = 0.6g. For example, F xf /W = 0.5 and F xr /W = 0. 1 also fall on the constant deceleration line of a = 0.6g line. Any point located on the optimum curve identifies a pair of normalized front and rear braking forces that will result in optimum braking. Inspection of Figure 1 also reveals that the rear braking force for the exemplar motorcycle case becomes zero when the deceleration exceeds 1.2g. We can compute the exact deceleration from Equation 2a by setting F zr /W = 0. Hence, we have: F zr /W = (ψ χa) = 0 or: ψ = χa or: a = ψ/χ = 0.65/0.507 = 1.28g The rear wheel of the motorcycle will lift off the ground at a deceleration of 1.28g. Equation la can be used to compute the acceleration (negative deceleration) required for the front wheel to lift off the ground by setting F zf /W = 0. The result is: a = (ψ - l)/χ = (0.65-1)/(0.507) = g With the motorcycle accelerating at 0.69g, the front wheel will lift of the ground LINES OF CONSTANT TIRE-ROAD FRICTION COEFFICIENTS f conf and f conr As stated earlier, any point on the optimum braking forces curve in Figure 1 represents an optimum point. Consider point 0.8. At that point the tire-road friction coefficients on the front and rear tire are equal to 0.8, and both are equal to the deceleration a = 0.8g. The normalized braking forces are 0.6 for the front, and 0.2 for the rear. We now want to calculate the maximum front wheels-unlocked deceleration of the motorcycle when operating on a road with a tire-road friction coefficient of 0.8 and only the front brake is applied. Although this braking process may require a skilled operator or an ABSequipped motorcycle, it constitutes limit braking performance. 7

9 9

11 11

12 Where: A wcf = front wheel cylinder area, in. 2 BF F = front brake factor n F = number of brake rotors on front wheel P F = front hydraulic brake line pressure, psi P Fo = front brake push-out pressure, psi r F = front brake effective rotor radius, in. R F = front tire radius, in. = efficiency of wheel cylinder η wc The front brake line pressure in case of an independent braking system is a function of the operator's hand application force and brake system parameters, such that P F = (F h )(l mech )(η 1 )/(A mcf ); psi (16) Where: A mcf = front master cylinder cross-sectional area, in. 2 F h = operator's hand application force, lb l mech = mechanical gain between hand force brake lever and master cylinder input pushrod η l = efficiency of apply lever including master cylinder return spring Expressions similar to Equations 15 and 16 can be developed for the rear brake of the motorcycle by replacing front brake subscripts in Equations 15 and 16 by the corresponding rear brake subscripts. In case of an integrated brake system where pushing the rear brake pedal applies both the rear brake and one-half of the front brakes, special expressions can be developed to account for combined braking. The deceleration a of a motorcycle can be computed from Newton's Second Law for a specified front apply force F h and rear brake pedal force F p as: a = F xf /W + F xr /W; g-units (17) MARC 1 V 3 Software was developed to calculate braking forces for automobiles or trucks equipped with hydraulic brakes where the ratio of front braking to rear braking (brake balance) is determined by the manufacturer, and therefore outside the control of the operator. For most motorcycles front-to-rear brake balance is determined by the operator's hand and/or foot force applied to the brake controls. For integrated brake systems the analysis presented earlier will be used to analyze the braking effectiveness of the motorcycle BRAKING FORCES DIAGRAM APPLICATIONS In all applications we will use the same exemplar motorcycle data used in developing the braking forces diagram. The data are: W = 740 Ib, F zrstatic = 481 lb, h cg = 28 in., L = 4.6 ft. The "DNA" data of the example motorcycle are: ψ = 0.65, χ = The tire-road 12

13 coefficients in our exemplar case are different front and rear. Due to excessive wear the front tire only produces f F = 0.5 at lockup or ABS modulation, while the rear tire produces maximum traction of f R = REAR BRAKE ONLY Equation 12 may be used to compute deceleration for a specified rear tire-road friction coefficient. In the braking forces diagram shown in Figure 3 the braking operating point (BOP) starts at the origin and moves along the F xr /W axis until it reaches the line of constant rear tire-coefficient of friction f conr = 0.9 at point A. This cross-over point falls on the 0.4g line of constant deceleration. Checking against Equation 12 yields the same result of 0.4g as maximum deceleration at rear brake lockup or ABS modulation FRONT BRAKE ONLY Consider Figure 3. With only the front brake applied, the BOP moves from the origin along the F xf /W axis until it reaches the line of constant front tire coefficient of friction f conf = 0.5 at point B, a deceleration of approximately 0.23g. Checking with Equation 11 yields a deceleration a = 0.234g. The braking forces diagram shown on the computer screen of MARC 1 V2 can be enlarged to obtain an increased resolution for the diagram area of interest INDEPENDENT FRONT AND REAR BRAKES We use the braking forces diagram shown in Figure 4 to determine the deceleration of the motorcycle at the moment when both the front and rear brake are locked or their ABS system modulates. Assuming the driver applies the front brake first, the BOP reaches point B with a deceleration a = 0.234g when the front brake locks or ABS modulates. Now, while the motorcycle is decelerating at a = 0.234g, the operator applies the rear brake also with the normalized rear brake force F xr /W moving along the x-axis to the right. However, the BOP moves along the front line of constant friction coefficient f conf = 0.5 until it reaches the optimum curve at point C. At this moment the normalized front braking force F xf /W = 0.3, while F xr /W = 0.2, yielding a deceleration a = 0.5g. The rear brake is not locked since the rear tire-road friction coefficient is 0.9 (and not 0.5). As the operator increases rear brake pedal force, the BOP moves along the front line of constant coefficient of friction f conf = 0.5 extended (manually) beyond point C until it reaches the rear line of constant coefficient of friction f conr = 0.9 at point D at a deceleration of approximately 0.63g when the rear brake locks or ABS modulation occurs. The same result would have been achieved had the operator first applied the rear brake followed by front braking. When the operator applies both the front and rear brake simultaneously, the actual BOP is a direct function of how forcefully the operator applies both braking controls. Novice operators tend to apply the rear brake first and more fully, followed by a careful modulation of the front brake as illustrated by the heavy broken BOP line in Figure 4. Regardless of how the operator applies the braking controls, the 13

14 14

15 15

16 maximum deceleration of our exemplar motorcycle cannot exceed 0.63g due to its "DNA" and specified front and rear tire-road friction coefficients. An empirical relationship has been developed (Ref. 4) where deceleration is expressed as a function of time to account for deceleration build-up time during the braking process: a(t) = a max (l e -t/t ); g-units (18) where: a max = maximum deceleration based upon vehicle and roadway parameters, g-units (0.63g in our exemplar case) T = time constant, sec (determined from experiments) t = time of braking, sec T is a function of operator skill level, braking speed, and maximum deceleration. For skilled operators T = 0.15sec, otherwise T = 0.3 sec. Tests conducted with novice operators generally show sustained (not maximum based on tire road friction coefficient) decelerations approximately 40 to 50% lower than those achieved by skilled operators under similar conditions. The novice operators had motorcycle licenses for only four weeks (Ref. 4). Applying Equation 18 to our exemplar case and assuming a novice operator, yields deceleration as a function of time: t(sec) a(t) (g-units) Inspection of the "theoretical" numbers shows that a novice operator requires approximately two seconds to achieve the maximum braking effectiveness of 0.63g. Readers are reminded, that these are calculated results based upon test data without reallife accident threats. As in any operator-vehicle maneuver testing, it is one thing to determine what operators can do in a test under carefully established parameters, versus what real operators will do in a life-threatening accident avoidance maneuver never "practiced" before. In our exemplar motorcycle case the low front tire traction limiting maximum deceleration most likely will affect optimum operator response time. The deceleration a = 0.63g achieved at point D can be computed from the front and rear lines of constant friction coefficients. At point D both lines intersect, and consequently, each line has the same F xf /W and F xr /W values. Following the rules of analytical geometry, the equations (of the form y = mx + b) for the lines of constant friction can be derived as: Front: F xf /W = f F χ/(1 f F χ)f xr /W + (1 - ψ)f F /(1 f F χ) (19) Rear: F xf /W = - (1 + f R χ)/(f R χ)f xr /W + ψ/χ (20) Solving Equations 19 and 20 simultaneously for F xf /W and F xr /W and substituting the exemplar motorcycle case data, as well as f F = 0.5 and f R = 0.9, yields F xf /W = and 16

17 F xr /W = 0.335, or a = = 0.63g (Equation 17), indicating excellent agreement with our graphical solution shown in Figures 4 and INTEGRATED BRAKING For an integrated brake system application (usually) of the rear brake pedal applies onehalf of the front brake (one brake rotor only instead of two) along with full braking of the rear brake. The braking force distribution Φ is defined by the ratio of rear braking force divided by the total braking force: Φ = F xr /(F xf +F xr ) (21) The braking forces are determined with Equation 15 applied for both front and rear brake. For our exemplar motorcycle case we assume that the front dual cylinder brake caliper for one rotor has a wheel cylinder piston diameter of 1 in., an effective rotor radius r F = 6. 1 in., front tire radius R F = 12 in., a rear dual cylinder brake caliper wheel cylinder diameter of 1 in., an effective rear rotor radius of r R = 5.08 in., and rear tire radius R R = 13 in. All other brake components are assumed to be identical front and rear. The front cross-sectional area on both wheel cylinders is (2)(l) 2 (3.14)/(4) = 1.57 in 2. The cross-sectional area of the rear wheel cylinder area is (1) 2 (3. 14)/(4) = in 2. Substitution of the brake parameters usually different front to rear into Equation 21 yields Φ = (0.785)(5.08/13)/[(1.57)(6.1/12) + (0.785)(5.08/13)] = The result indicates the basic brake system layout is such that 27.8% of the total braking force is concentrated on the rear wheel. Plotting F xr /W = on the x-axis of Figure 5 (point A) and drawing a vertical line from there to the line of constant deceleration a = 1.0g yields point B. Drawing a horizontal line through B yields point C, the normalized front braking force F xf /W = = 1 - Φ. The braking operating line for the integrated brake system is obtained by drawing a straight line from the origin to point B (unless hydraulic brake line pressure modulating valves are used). Inspection of the braking forces diagram shows the following: The BOP moves from the origin along the inclined operating line until the BOP reaches the line of constant friction coefficient f conf = 0.5 at point D, where the front brake locks or the ABS system begins to modulate. The deceleration at point D is approximately a = 0.375g. If the driver continues to increase brake pedal force, the BOP moves along the line of front constant coefficient of friction to the right until it reaches point E at a deceleration of approximately 0.63g (same as in Section 7.3). If in our exemplar motorcycle case both front and rear tire-road friction coefficients had been identical, say f F = f R = 0.8, inspection of the braking forces diagram shows that the BOP would move passed point D and the optimum line until it reaches point F, that is, 17

18 18

19 the rear line of constant friction coefficient at f conr = 0.8 at a deceleration of approximately 0.76g. The rear brake would lock before the front slightly below optimum conditions of a = 0.8g. The exact deceleration at point D can be computed from the two straight lines intersecting at point D. One line is the line of constant rear friction coefficient f conr = 0.8 (Equation 20). The other line is the operating line of the form y = mx with its beginning at the origin, that is, b = 0. The slope m is determined from the brake balance as m = 0.722/0.278 = Solving F xf /W = F xr /W and Equation 20 simultaneously yields F xf /W = and F xr /W = 0.211, resulting in a deceleration of 0.76g OPERATOR ERRORS DURING EMERGENCY BRAKING This section is not intended to provide a complete review of test data and accident statistical records. Its objectives are to present some information in reference to the braking analysis discussed. Emergency in this section has reference to the operator and accident avoidance braking maneuvers where maximum braking effectiveness or deceleration is required OPERATOR ERROR The operator is not able to utilize the maximum tire-road friction available. Frequently, this error reveals itself when the operator applies the brakes hesitantly. In case of underbraking of the front brake the deceleration is significantly reduced. Lack of training and practice are often the reason. In many accidents involving motorcycle braking, the accident scene data show only a long rear tire brake mark, some times followed by a short front tire braking skid mark within a few feet of the point of impact. Even motorcycles equipped with ABS brakes are not fully utilized by inexperienced operators FRONT BRAKE LOCKUP PRIOR TO LOAD TRANSFER In the entire braking analysis presented in this article the assumption was made the load transfer from the rear wheel onto the front wheel occurs instantly without any time delay. However, the increase in front wheel normal force experiences a time delay caused by the significant compression of the front springs. Consequently, immediate and full application of the front brake may result in lockup due to a lack of front wheel dynamic normal force. The danger of front brake lockup and capsizing of the motorcycle under these conditions are correspondingly great. ABS braking systems as well as special front suspensions equipped with kinematic pitch adjustment eliminate or minimize the effects of time delay BRAKE SYSTEM FACTORS AFFECTING BRAKING EFFECTIVENESS 9.1 FRONT BRAKE SHIMMY (WOBBLE) Lateral run-out (LOR) greater than approximately 0.1 mm ( in.) of the front rotor causes the brake pad to rub against the high points of the disc when not braking, resulting 19

### FRONTAL OFF SET COLLISION

FRONTAL OFF SET COLLISION MARC1 SOLUTIONS Rudy Limpert Short Paper PCB2 2014 www.pcbrakeinc.com 1 1.0. Introduction A crash-test-on- paper is an analysis using the forward method where impact conditions

### SHORT PAPER PCB OBLIQUE COLLISIONS ENGINEERING EQUATIONS, INPUT DATA AND MARC 1 APPLICATIONS. Dennis F. Andrews, Franco Gamero, Rudy Limpert

SHORT PAPER PCB 5-2006 OBLIQUE COLLISIONS ENGINEERING EQUATIONS, INPUT DATA AND MARC 1 APPLICATIONS By: Dennis F. Andrews, Franco Gamero, Rudy Limpert PC-BRAKE, INC. 2006 www.pcbrakeinc.com 1 PURPOSE OF

### BRAKE SYSTEM DESIGN AND THEORY

RAKE SYSTEM DESIGN AND THEORY Aircraft brake systems perform multiple functions. They must be able to hold the aircraft back at full static engine run-up, provide adequate control during ground taxi operations,

### Low Speed Rear End Crash Analysis

Low Speed Rear End Crash Analysis MARC1 Use in Test Data Analysis and Crash Reconstruction Rudy Limpert, Ph.D. Short Paper PCB2 2015 www.pcbrakeinc.com e mail: prosourc@xmission.com 1 1.0. Introduction

### ISO INTERNATIONAL STANDARD. Road vehicles Brake lining friction materials Friction behaviour assessment for automotive brake systems

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 26867 First edition 2009-07-01 Road vehicles Brake lining friction materials Friction behaviour assessment for automotive brake systems Véhicules routiers Matériaux de friction

### An Introduction to Brake Systems

An Introduction to Brake Systems SAE Brake Colloquium October 6th 2002 DaimlerChrysler This presentation was originally created as a one hour lecture class. This is not intended to be a stand alone text

### Tech Tip: Trackside Tire Data

Using Tire Data On Track Tires are complex and vitally important parts of a race car. The way that they behave depends on a number of parameters, and also on the interaction between these parameters. To

### BRAKE SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS KARAN BHARDIYA ASSISTANT MANAGER -R&D ENDURANCE TECHNOLOGIES PVT.LTD. DISC BRAKES

BRAKE SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS KARAN BHARDIYA ASSISTANT MANAGER -R&D ENDURANCE TECHNOLOGIES PVT.LTD. DISC BRAKES AUTOMOTIVE BRAKING SYSTEMS How brakes manufacturing industry is different then rest of the automotive

### Design and Integration of Suspension, Brake and Steering Systems for a Formula SAE Race Car

Design and Integration of Suspension, Brake and Steering Systems for a Formula SAE Race Car Mark Holveck 01, Rodolphe Poussot 00, Harris Yong 00 Final Report May 5, 2000 MAE 340/440 Advisor: Prof. S. Bogdonoff

### Discussion Paper. Effect of Anti-Squat Adjustment in Solid Axle 4 Link Rear Suspension Systems

Discussion Paper Effect of Anti-Squat Adjustment in Solid Axle 4 Link Rear Suspension Systems Example used is Commodore 1990 VG utility fitted with Whiteline KTA103 adjustable upper trailing arms. Prepared

### Lateral Directional Flight Considerations

Lateral Directional Flight Considerations This section discusses the lateral-directional control requirements for various flight conditions including cross-wind landings, asymmetric thrust, turning flight,

### SIMRET makes Heavy Vehicle Brake Testing easy!

SIMRET makes Heavy Vehicle Brake Testing easy! The traditional way to measure brake performance of a vehicle has been to its measure stopping distance. In other words, the distance travelled between applying

### Analysis of Parametric Studies on the Impact of Piston Velocity Profile On the Performance of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-issn: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 12, Issue 2 Ver. II (Mar - Apr. 2015), PP 81-85 www.iosrjournals.org Analysis of Parametric Studies

### An Adaptive Nonlinear Filter Approach to Vehicle Velocity Estimation for ABS

An Adaptive Nonlinear Filter Approach to Vehicle Velocity Estimation for ABS Fangjun Jiang, Zhiqiang Gao Applied Control Research Lab. Cleveland State University Abstract A novel approach to vehicle velocity

### SAE Baja - Drivetrain

SAE Baja - Drivetrain By Ricardo Inzunza, Brandon Janca, Ryan Worden Team 11 Engineering Analysis Document Submitted towards partial fulfillment of the requirements for Mechanical Engineering Design I

### Transmitted by the expert from the European Commission (EC) Informal Document No. GRRF (62nd GRRF, September 2007, agenda item 3(i))

Transmitted by the expert from the European Commission (EC) Informal Document No. GRRF-62-31 (62nd GRRF, 25-28 September 2007, agenda item 3(i)) Introduction of Brake Assist Systems to Regulation No. 13-H

### Accident Reconstruction & Vehicle Data Recovery Systems and Uses

Research Engineers, Inc. (919) 781-7730 7730 Collision Analysis Engineering Animation Accident Reconstruction & Vehicle Data Recovery Systems and Uses Bill Kluge Thursday, May 21, 2009 Accident Reconstruction

### NEW CAR TIPS. Teaching Guidelines

NEW CAR TIPS Teaching Guidelines Subject: Algebra Topics: Patterns and Functions Grades: 7-12 Concepts: Independent and dependent variables Slope Direct variation (optional) Knowledge and Skills: Can relate

### Application of DSS to Evaluate Performance of Work Equipment of Wheel Loader with Parallel Linkage

Technical Papers Toru Shiina Hirotaka Takahashi The wheel loader with parallel linkage has one remarkable advantage. Namely, it offers a high degree of parallelism to its front attachment. Loaders of this

### SLIP CONTROL AT SMALL SLIP VALUES FOR ROAD VEHICLE BRAKE SYSTEMS

PERIODICA POLYTECHNICA SER MECH ENG VOL 44, NO 1, PP 23 30 (2000) SLIP CONTROL AT SMALL SLIP VALUES FOR ROAD VEHICLE BRAKE SYSTEMS Péter FRANK Knorr-Bremse Research & Development Institute, Budapest Department

### Extracting Tire Model Parameters From Test Data

WP# 2001-4 Extracting Tire Model Parameters From Test Data Wesley D. Grimes, P.E. Eric Hunter Collision Engineering Associates, Inc ABSTRACT Computer models used to study crashes require data describing

### VALVES & ACTUATORS. 20th TECHNOLOGY REPORT. SOLUTIONS for FLUID MOVEMENT, MEASUREMENT & CONTAINMENT. HOW MUCH PRESSURE Can a 150 lb. Flange Withstand?

TOP REASONS to Manage Corrosion PROS & CONS of Volumetric Flowmeters HOW MUCH PRESSURE Can a 150 lb. Flange Withstand? 20th 19 9 5-2 015 SOLUTIONS for FLUID MOVEMENT, MEASUREMENT & CONTAINMENT special

### Suspension systems and components

Suspension systems and components 2of 42 Objectives To provide good ride and handling performance vertical compliance providing chassis isolation ensuring that the wheels follow the road profile very little

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Subject code: ME6601 Subject Name: DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS UNIT-I DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS FOR FLEXIBLE ELEMENTS 1. What is the effect of centre distance

All types of transportation work using trucks require the truck chassis to be supplemented by some form of bodywork. The aim of axle load calculations is to optimise the chassis and bodywork location.

### Components of Hydronic Systems

Valve and Actuator Manual 977 Hydronic System Basics Section Engineering Bulletin H111 Issue Date 0789 Components of Hydronic Systems The performance of a hydronic system depends upon many factors. Because

### INDEX EASY RAIL: THE SOLUTION IS EASY...D4 EXAMPLES OF LOAD CAPACITIES...D5 ORDER CODES...D6 MOUNTING EXAMPLES...D7 TECHNICAL DATA...

INDEX EASY RAIL: THE SOLUTION IS EASY...D4 EXAMPLES OF LOAD CAPACITIES...D5 ORDER CODES...D6 MOUNTING EXAMPLES...D7 TECHNICAL DATA...D8 STANDARD CONFIGURATIONS...D10 VERIFICATION UNDER STATIC LOAD...D12

### Reduction of Self Induced Vibration in Rotary Stirling Cycle Coolers

Reduction of Self Induced Vibration in Rotary Stirling Cycle Coolers U. Bin-Nun FLIR Systems Inc. Boston, MA 01862 ABSTRACT Cryocooler self induced vibration is a major consideration in the design of IR

### 1. INTRODUCTION. Anti-lock Braking System

1. INTRODUCTION Car manufacturers world wide are vying with each other to invent more reliable gadgets there by coming closer to the dream of the Advanced safety vehicle or Ultimate safety vehicle, on

### Technical Report Con Rod Length, Stroke, Piston Pin Offset, Piston Motion and Dwell in the Lotus-Ford Twin Cam Engine. T. L. Duell.

Technical Report - 1 Con Rod Length, Stroke, Piston Pin Offset, Piston Motion and Dwell in the Lotus-Ford Twin Cam Engine by T. L. Duell May 24 Terry Duell consulting 19 Rylandes Drive, Gladstone Park

### A double-wishbone type suspension is used in the front. A multi-link type suspension is used in the rear. Tread* mm (in.) 1560 (61.

CHASSIS SUSPENSION AND AXLE CH-69 SUSPENSION AND AXLE SUSPENSION 1. General A double-wishbone type suspension is used in the front. A multi-link type suspension is used in the rear. 08D0CH111Z Specifications

### COMPACT CYLINDER CYLINDER FORCE AND WEIGHT TABLE BASE WEIGHT EFFECTIVE AREA

CRS COMPACT CYLINDER STROKE TOLERANCE TEMPERATURE LIMITS VELOCITY LIFE EXPECTANCY SERIES CRS 1 psi min to 15 psi max at zero load [.7 bar min to 1 bar max] air.31 inch [.8 mm] -2 to +18 F [-28 to +82 C]

### STUDY OF ROLL CENTER SAURABH SINGH *, SAGAR SAHU ** ABSTRACT

STUDY OF ROLL CENTER SAURABH SINGH *, SAGAR SAHU ** *, ** Mechanical engineering, NIT B ABSTRACT As our solar car aims to bring new green technology to cope up with the greatest challenge of modern era

### Passenger Vehicle Steady-State Directional Stability Analysis Utilizing EDVSM and SIMON

WP# 4-3 Passenger Vehicle Steady-State Directional Stability Analysis Utilizing and Daniel A. Fittanto, M.S.M.E., P.E. and Adam Senalik, M.S.G.E., P.E. Ruhl Forensic, Inc. Copyright 4 by Engineering Dynamics

### ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR WILWOOD FRONT D8-6 CALIPER, BRAKE PAD, AND FLEX LINE REPLACEMENT KIT CHEVROLET CORVETTE

ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR WILWOOD FRONT D8-6 CALIPER, BRAKE PAD, AND FLEX LINE REPLACEMENT KIT 965-98 CHEVROLET CORVETTE PART NUMBER GROUP 40-857 DISC BRAKES SHOULD ONLY BE INSTALLED BY SOMEONE EXPERIENCED

### Remote Control Helicopter. Engineering Analysis Document

Remote Control Helicopter By Abdul Aldulaimi, Travis Cole, David Cosio, Matt Finch, Jacob Ruechel, Randy Van Dusen Team 04 Engineering Analysis Document Submitted towards partial fulfillment of the requirements

### Finite Element Analysis of Clutch Piston Seal

Finite Element Analysis of Clutch Piston Seal T. OYA * F. KASAHARA * *Research & Development Center Tribology Research Department Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to simulate deformation

### The parts of these systems are discussed in greater detail below.

Section 5 Air Brakes This Section Covers Air Brake System Parts Dual Air Brake Systems Inspecting Air Brakes Using Air Brakes This section tells you about air brakes. If you want to drive a truck or bus

### Assignment 4:Rail Analysis and Stopping/Passing Distances

CEE 3604: Introduction to Transportation Engineering Fall 2011 Date Due: September 26, 2011 Assignment 4:Rail Analysis and Stopping/Passing Distances Instructor: Trani Problem 1 The basic resistance of

### ANTI-LOCK BRAKES. Section 9. Fundamental ABS Systems. ABS System Diagram

ANTI-LOCK BRAKES Fundamental ABS Systems Toyota Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) are integrated with the conventional braking system. They use a computer controlled actuator unit, between the brake master

### Laboratory Exercise 12 THERMAL EFFICIENCY

Laboratory Exercise 12 THERMAL EFFICIENCY In part A of this experiment you will be calculating the actual efficiency of an engine and comparing the values to the Carnot efficiency (the maximum efficiency

### ENERGY EXTRACTION FROM CONVENTIONAL BRAKING SYSTEM OF AUTOMOBILE

Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanical Engineering 2009 (ICME2009) 26-28 December 2009, Dhaka, Bangladesh ICME09- ENERGY EXTRACTION FROM CONVENTIONAL BRAKING SYSTEM OF AUTOMOBILE Aktaruzzaman

### Electric Motors and Drives

EML 2322L MAE Design and Manufacturing Laboratory Electric Motors and Drives To calculate the peak power and torque produced by an electric motor, you will need to know the following: Motor supply voltage:

### ECH 4224L Unit Operations Lab I Fluid Flow FLUID FLOW. Introduction. General Description

FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

### On Control Strategies for Wind Turbine Systems

On Control Strategies for Wind Turbine Systems Niall McMahon December 21, 2011 More notes to follow at: http://www.niallmcmahon.com/msc_res_notes.html 1 Calculations for Peak Tip Speed Ratio Assuming that

### YDRAULIC ISC BRAKES VERVIEW

YDRAULIC ISC BRAKES VERVIEW 02 03 03 04 05 07 11 14 16 Introduction The Lever The Brake Hose The Caliper Closed and Open Systems Braking Power Four-Piston Calipers Heat and Fade Care INTRODUCTION FACTORS

DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS AND TRANSPORTATION VIRGINIA TESTING EQUIPMENT CORRELATION RESULTS SKID 1974, 1975, and 1978 N. Runkle Stephen Analyst Research opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this

### a) Calculate the overall aerodynamic coefficient for the same temperature at altitude of 1000 m.

Problem 3.1 The rolling resistance force is reduced on a slope by a cosine factor ( cos ). On the other hand, on a slope the gravitational force is added to the resistive forces. Assume a constant rolling

### MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR MOTOR VEhICLE BRAkE LININGS -SAE J998

Appendix A Appendix MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR MOTOR VEhICLE BRAkE LININGS -SAE J998 SAE Recommended Practice 1. Scope - This specification covers brake linings used on motor vehicles operated on the public

### UNIT -I. Ans: They are specified by the no. of strands & the no. of wires in each strand.

VETRI VINAYAHA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, THOTTIAM, NAMAKKAL-621215. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SIXTH SEMESTER / III YEAR ME6601 DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (Regulation-2013) UNIT

### FADA Certified Technician Exam Specifications

1 Overview This study guide is intended to help students in Florida automotive programs study for the FADA Certified Technician exam. This guide contains test specifications, a task list, and sample questions.

### Vehicle Dynamic Simulation Using A Non-Linear Finite Element Simulation Program (LS-DYNA)

Vehicle Dynamic Simulation Using A Non-Linear Finite Element Simulation Program (LS-DYNA) G. S. Choi and H. K. Min Kia Motors Technical Center 3-61 INTRODUCTION The reason manufacturers invest their time

### Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia CIRP 33 (2015 )

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia CIRP 33 (2015 ) 581 586 9th CIRP Conference on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering - CIRP ICME '14 Magnetic fluid seal

### Parameter Design and Tuning Tool for Electric Power Steering System

TECHNICL REPORT Parameter Design and Tuning Tool for Electric Power Steering System T. TKMTSU T. TOMIT Installation of Electric Power Steering systems (EPS) for automobiles has expanded rapidly in the

### Chapter 7: DC Motors and Transmissions. 7.1: Basic Definitions and Concepts

Chapter 7: DC Motors and Transmissions Electric motors are one of the most common types of actuators found in robotics. Using them effectively will allow your robot to take action based on the direction

### ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM. Seminar by K.JAYAKISHORE GRIET HYDERABAD

ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM Seminar by K.JAYAKISHORE GRIET HYDERABAD INTRODUCTION An anti-lock braking system (ABS) is a safety system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking.

### MECA0492 : Vehicle dynamics

MECA0492 : Vehicle dynamics Pierre Duysinx Research Center in Sustainable Automotive Technologies of University of Liege Academic Year 2017-2018 1 Bibliography T. Gillespie. «Fundamentals of vehicle Dynamics»,

### Motorcycle ATV Braking Data Analysis. Progress Report

Motorcycle ATV Braking Data Analysis Progress Report Mark D. Osborne And Russ G. Alger Keweenaw Research Center Houghton, MI 49931 February 14 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 2. MOTORCYCLE

### Preliminary Study on Quantitative Analysis of Steering System Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulator

TECHNICAL PAPER Preliminary Study on Quantitative Analysis of Steering System Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulator M. SEGAWA M. HIGASHI One of the objectives in developing simulation methods is to

### CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL SHOCK TESTS ON DIP-PCB ASSEMBLY

135 CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL SHOCK TESTS ON DIP-PCB ASSEMBLY 6.1 INTRODUCTION Shock is often defined as a rapid transfer of energy to a mechanical system, which results in a significant increase in the stress,

### University of Wisconsin-Platteville Formula SAE Design Report

2012-2013 University of Wisconsin-Platteville Formula SAE Design Report Introduction The 2012-2013 University of Wisconsin-Platteville Formula SAE Team is competing in Formula SAE, Nebraska, for the second

### BASIC WHEEL ALIGNMENT

BASIC WHEEL ALIGNMENT You have got to know all the angles. Correct wheel alignment plays a huge part in a customer s positive driving experience. Having it dialed in correctly is essential to proper vehicle

### Reconstruction of Low-Speed Crashes using the Quasi-Static Force vs. Deformation Characteristics of the Bumpers Involved in the Crashes

2012-01-0598 Published 04/16/2012 Copyright 2012 SAE International doi:10.4271/2012-01-0598 saepcmech.saejournals.org Reconstruction of Low-Speed Crashes using the Quasi-Static Force vs. Deformation Characteristics

### IMPROVED HIGH PERFORMANCE TRAYS

Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Górak (Editors) All rights reserved by authors as per DA2010 copyright notice IMPROVED HIGH PERFORMANCE TRAYS Stefan Hirsch 1 and Mark Pilling

### White paper: Originally published in ISA InTech Magazine Page 1

Page 1 Improving Differential Pressure Diaphragm Seal System Performance and Installed Cost Tuned-Systems ; Deliver the Best Practice Diaphragm Seal Installation To Compensate Errors Caused by Temperature

### HVE Vehicle Accelerometers: Validation and Sensitivity

WP#-2015-3 HVE Vehicle Accelerometers: Validation and Sensitivity Kent W. McKee, M.E.Sc., P.Eng., Matthew Arbour, B.A.Sc., Roger Bortolin, P.Eng., and James R. Hrycay, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. HRYCAY Consulting

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

### Chapter 15. Inertia Forces in Reciprocating Parts

Chapter 15 Inertia Forces in Reciprocating Parts 2 Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston n = Ratio of length of ConRod to radius of crank = l/r 3 Approximate Analytical

### PREVOST AIR SYSTEMS WHAT THEY DO AND HOW THEY DO IT

PREVOST AIR SYSTEMS WHAT THEY DO AND HOW THEY DO IT Air. In our buses we use air for many purposes. We warm ourselves and cool ourselves with it. We supply it to our engines so they will run. Air is what

### PVP Field Calibration and Accuracy of Torque Wrenches. Proceedings of ASME PVP ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference PVP2011-

Proceedings of ASME PVP2011 2011 ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Pressure Vessels July 17-21, & Piping 2011, Division Baltimore, Conference Maryland PVP2011 July

### ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR WILWOOD FRONT D52 CALIPER KIT GM VEHICLES USING D52 CALIPER AND BRAKE PADS WITH 1.

ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR WILWOOD FRONT D5 CALIPER KIT 1968-1996 GM VEHICLES USING D5 CALIPER AND BRAKE PADS WITH 1.8 THICK ROTORS PART NUMBER GROUP 10-1190 DISC BRAKES SHOULD ONLY BE INSTALLED BY SOMEONE

### Measuring brake pad friction behavior using the TR3 test bench DCT no S.S. van Iersel

Measuring brake pad friction behavior using the TR3 test bench DCT no. 2006.118 S.S. van Iersel Coaches: Dr. Ir. I.J.M. Besselink E. Meinders Ing. K.J.A. van Eersel Eindhoven, September, 2006 Table of

### KISSsys application: Efficiency of a worm gear flap actuator as function of temperature

KISSsys application: KISSsys application: Efficiency of a worm gear flap actuator Efficiency of a worm gear flap actuator as function of temperature 1 Task The SABA Flap-Actuator, a worm gear driven ball

### TMD 2015 Brake Emissions (2) Presentation to 35th UNECE PMP Meeting Brussels TMD Friction - Jürgen Lange

TMD 215 Brake Emissions (2) Presentation to 35th UNECE PMP Meeting Brussels 5.3.215 TMD Friction - Jürgen Lange Summary and recommendation to the UNECE PMP Group Presentation to 35th UNECE PMP Meeting

### SECTION 4A HYDRAULIC BRAKES

SECTION 4A HYDRAULIC BRAKES CAUTION: Disconnect the negative battery cable before removing or installing any electrical unit or when a tool or equipment could easily come in contact with exposed electrical

### Friction Characteristics Analysis for Clamping Force Setup in Metal V-belt Type CVTs

14 Special Issue Basic Analysis Towards Further Development of Continuously Variable Transmissions Research Report Friction Characteristics Analysis for Clamping Force Setup in Metal V-belt Type CVTs Hiroyuki

### Overview. A Study of Lateral Vehicle Motion. 1. Road Evidence

A Study of Lateral Vehicle Motion Presented by: John & Jeremy Daily Jackson Hole Scientific Investigations, Inc Nate Shigemura Traffic Safety Group Overview 1. Road Evidence Spin examples Critical Speed

Purpose Theory Faraday's Law of Induction a. To investigate the emf induced in a coil that is swinging through a magnetic field; b. To investigate the energy conversion from mechanical energy to electrical

### Dynamical systems methods for evaluating aircraft ground manoeuvres

Dynamical systems methods for evaluating aircraft ground manoeuvres Bernd Krauskopf, Etienne B. Coetzee, Mark H. Lowenberg, Simon A. Neild and Sanjiv Sharma Abstract Evaluating the ground-based manoeuvrability

### NEW INNOVATION. Shock Absorber Tester. Model: MAHA-Shock-Diagnostic MSD 3000

Wir im Allgäu. Shock Absorber Tester Model: MAHA-Shock-Diagnostic MSD 3000 NEW INNOVATION For easy and accurate testing of the shock absorbers - Indirect shock absorber test based on the new Theta principle.

### ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM - REAR WHEEL

ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM - REAR WHEEL 1994 Nissan Pickup 1994 BRAKES Nissan - Rear Anti-Lock Pathfinder, Pickup DESCRIPTION In 2WD mode, Rear Anti-Lock Brake System (RABS) helps the driver to maintain steering

### Fig no. 1- Assembly of smart braking system.

Smart Braking System Shubham Muley 1, Rutuja Nirmal 2, Shubham Mali 3, Maruti Khot 4 1234 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University Abstract Now a days, using two wheelers

### Exercise 6. Three-Phase AC Power Control EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Introduction to three-phase ac power control

Exercise 6 Three-Phase AC Power Control EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will know how to perform ac power control in three-phase ac circuits, using thyristors. You will know

### USER MANUAL FOR AREX DIGI+ SYSTEMS

USER MANUAL FOR AREX DIGI+ SYSTEMS Arex Test Systems bv, Vennestraat 4b, 2161 LE Lisse, Holland Property of: Arex Test Systems bv Vennestraat 4b 2161 LE Lisse Tel: +31 (0) 252 419151 Fax: +31 (0) 252 420510

### STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE TYPE OF FUEL USED IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES OVER THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUBRICANTS

Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov Vol. 9 (58) No. 2 - Special Issue 2016 Series I: Engineering Sciences STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE TYPE OF FUEL USED IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES OVER

### ANALYSIS OF BLADES OF AXIAL FLOW FAN USING ANSYS. Mahajan Vandana N.,* Shekhawat Sanjay P.

Research Article ANALYSIS OF BLADES OF AXIAL FLOW FAN USING ANSYS. Mahajan Vandana N.,* Shekhawat Sanjay P. Address for Correspondence Department of Mechanical Engg. S.S.B.T s College of Engg. and Technology,

### Application Note #1013 Measuring the Behavior of Brake Materials More Efficiently: Correlation Between Benchtop and Dynamometer Tests

Deceleration Test Brake Material Screening Tester UMT TriboLab Application Note #1013 Measuring the Behavior of Brake Materials More Efficiently: Correlation Between Benchtop and Dynamometer Tests Testing

### Economic Impact of Derated Climb on Large Commercial Engines

Economic Impact of Derated Climb on Large Commercial Engines Article 8 Rick Donaldson, Dan Fischer, John Gough, Mike Rysz GE This article is presented as part of the 2007 Boeing Performance and Flight

### AIR BRAKES THIS SECTION IS FOR DRIVERS WHO DRIVE VEHICLES WITH AIR BRAKES

Section 5 AIR BRAKES THIS SECTION IS FOR DRIVERS WHO DRIVE VEHICLES WITH AIR BRAKES AIR BRAKES/Section 5 SECTION 5: AIR BRAKES THIS SECTION COVERS Air Brake System Parts Dual Air Brake Systems Inspecting

### 1994 Mazda MX-5 Miata. BRAKE SYSTEM 1994 BRAKES Mazda - Disc & Drum BRAKES Mazda - Disc & Drum

BRAKE PEDAL FREE PLAY 1994 Mazda MX-5 Miata DESCRIPTION & OPERATION BRAKE SYSTEM 1994 BRAKES Mazda - Disc & Drum NOTE: For information on anti-lock brake systems, see ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM article in

### Feature Article. Wheel Slip Simulation for Dynamic Road Load Simulation. Bryce Johnson. Application Reprint of Readout No. 38.

Feature Article Feature Wheel Slip Simulation Article for Dynamic Road Load Simulation Application Application Reprint of Readout No. 38 Wheel Slip Simulation for Dynamic Road Load Simulation Bryce Johnson

### Multi Body Dynamic Analysis of Slider Crank Mechanism to Study the effect of Cylinder Offset

Multi Body Dynamic Analysis of Slider Crank Mechanism to Study the effect of Cylinder Offset Vikas Kumar Agarwal Deputy Manager Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd. MIDC Chinchwad Pune 411019 India Abbreviations:

### To study about various types of braking system.

To study about various types of braking system INTRODUCTION The system is purely mechanical means & is independent of the hydraulic system which controls the brake normally. A brake commonly referred to

### Introduction. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines. Involute profile. 7. Gears

Introduction The kinematic function of gears is to transfer rotational motion from one shaft to another Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines 7. Gears Since these shafts may be parallel, perpendicular, or

### SECTION 4A HYDRAULIC BRAKES

SECTION 4A HYDRAULIC BRAKES Caution: Disconnect the negative battery cable before removing or installing any electrical unit or when a tool or equipment could easily come in contact with exposed electrical

### Maximum Superelevation: Desirable, Allowable, and Absolute

Maximum Superelevation: Desirable, Allowable, and Absolute Nazmul Hasan, M. Eng. SNC-Lavalin Inc. ancouver, ON ABSTRACT The maximum values of superelevation are often qualified as desirable, allowable

### 2 Principles of d.c. machines

2 Principles of d.c. machines D.C. machines are the electro mechanical energy converters which work from a d.c. source and generate mechanical power or convert mechanical power into a d.c. power. These

### Snowmobile Braking Data, Sign Recognition Analysis And Validation. Final Report

Snowmobile Braking Data, Sign Recognition Analysis And Validation Final Report Mark D. Osborne And Russ G. Alger Keweenaw Research Center Houghton, MI 49931 February 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1.0 INTRODUCTION...