'DDC. (_ *Supersedes Interim Pamphlet o I. ~c r 1. OBJECTIVE. I, ( Brake testing involves not only tests )n straght, level roads

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1 I Materiel Test Procedure January 1971 Aberdeen Proving Ground 'DDC ~c r 1. OBJECTIVE BRAKING, WHEELED VEHICLES UL L j j This Materiel Test Procedure provides Rtandardized tests for' evaluating wheeled vehicle braking systems BACKGROUND Braking is a basic element of all automotive testing and, because of its association with personnel safety, dictates the requirement for particularly thorough testing and evaluation of wheeled vehicle braking oystem to assure dependability and effectiveness under all conditions. Major factors considered in the evaluation of wheeled vehicle braking systems are stopping and holding ability, vehicle control when applying brakes, and individual braking system component endurance under, various operating conditions. I, ( Brake testing involves not only tests )n straght, level roads but tests on mountain highways that have log. grades r.equiring any brake applications as well. F6r such tests a apecific public highway I Pensylvania has been authorized. Brake tests ailso include water Amerssin of the vehicle in a fording basin. 3. REQUIRED E!UIPMENT 3.1 TEST COURSES Required test courses are as follows: Z a. A straight, level, paved road with lane width of not less than 12 feat. b. Longitudinal slopes ranging from 5 to 60 percent grade and of sufficient length to accoiodate military vehidlei of various dimensions. c. A fording basin of sufficient length and depth to completely submerge the service brake assemblies of all sizes of military "heeled vehicles. d. Mountain highway test course (App. A). e. A downhill roadway ranging from 9 to 11 perent grade for a distance of approximately 2 miles with a reasonably level -iiiificte at the bottom of the grade of sufficient length to permit a 40 mph brake stop. (_ *Supersedes Interim Pamphlet o I _ I FRmAc by RVICE p2 - NATIONAL TECHNICAL -1- DistributionUnlimited INFORMATION SERVICE 1k13t6 Swkws".1 =M223

2 15 January TEST INSTRUMERTATIOIN follows: Instrumentation required to colleet brake tzd_ dat& _s as a, A fifth wheel equipped with speedometer and pousometer. tube. b. Hydraulic pressure gauge wtti a bleeder screw in tbe bourdon c. Air pressure gauge. d. Decelerometer (U-tube type). e. Pedal travel gauge. f. Pedal effort gauge. g. Brake application counter. h. Tezperature indicating rotentiometer. i. Thermocouples imbedded in brake friction waterial. 3.3 SPECIALIZED SHOP EQUIPMENT T) Specialized ahop equlpment and instrumentation requixed for vehicle preparation and post-test inspection are as follows: a. Micrometer calipers (inside, outside, and dial typcs). b. Surface finish gusges. c. Torque wrench. 4. REFEENES d. Brake shoe turntable. e. Feeler gauge stock. f. Tire pressure gauge. i.. USATECOM Regulation 385-6, Verification of Safety of Material Duria Testing. B. Brake Sysvnd Road Test Code - Truck and Bus, SAE J786. C. MML Standard S-6-66, Human Factors EngineerLng Design Standard for 'Aheeled Vehicles. D. MP , Durability Testing of Wheeled Vehicles. E. M!P , Safety Evaluatfon (Automotive). -2-

3 5. SCOPE 5.1 SUMMARY F. MTP , High and Low Temperature Tests. G. MTP , Cold Starting and Warmup. H. AR , Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents. MTP January 1971 This MTP describes specific rest phases pertinent to the evaluation of wheeled vehicle braking systems, as follows: 5.2 LIMITATIONS a. Safety evaluation (par ). b. Brake burnish (par ). C. Brake holding ability (par ). d. Brake stopping ability (par ). e. Brake recovery after immersicn in water (par ). f. Trailer breckaway holding ability (par ). g. Maxi mm safe braking speed (par ). h,. Brake actuation and release time (par ). i. Pedal effort (par ). J. Low temperature effects (par ). k. Brake fade on motntain highway (par ). 1. High temperature eiidurance on mountain highway (par ). m. Brake endurance and wear (par ). This MTP is applicable only to wheeled type vehicles designed for highway operation. Vehicles designed specifically for off-highway operation that do not pozass a maximm vehicle speed capability of at least 40 mph will be considered on an individual basis. Specific test parameters and criteria will be provided in plans of test prepared for each peculiar vehicle design. 4qAluation of vehicle retarding systems other than the installed foundation service braking systems will be considered in a separate MTP. -3- "

4 .si MTP January PROCEDURES 6.1 PREPARATION FOR TEST Preparation of Test Vehicle and Instrumentation The vehicle power train, braking, steering, and electrical systems are prepared for optimum operation.. Proper vehicle weight distribution, lubrication, and tire inflation pressures are assred. For mountain nighway.brake tests a yellow and black diagonally striped signboard is mounted at the rear of the vehicle, displaying 6-inchdiameter stoplights and turning signals, All instruments are calibrated before and after a test and, if aecessary, during the test Restrictions Tests are not conducted at night, durin inclement weather, in congested traffic, or when the road surface way intioduqce a L.zatd to the test vehicle or other traffic on the raq4. _Dry, un_-oaxuted surfaces are used unless the test plan introduces a opeciffi requirent. oc&t safety (:1 and operating procedures will be carefully followed. 6 2 TEST CONDUCT Safety Evaluation, - Prior, to the conduct of other wheed vehicle braking syster. tests, tests wili be conducted to accumulate di a on A" c t6ba(_ a recomendation for, the issuance ofa eafety release (USA2ECO Reg ). A safety evaluation of tie vehicle braking yate3 will consist of the following performance tests: a. Brake burnish (par ). b. Holding abillty (par. 6.2Y2.2). c. Stopping ability (par ). d. Brake. recoveri after' "ersioh in wate t r ). e. Trailer bireakaway holdiig ability I(par. 6,2.2.5). f. Dtervinatioa of the ma~iizm safe bed for k pedal effort braking (p r ).s -4-

5 -- 1'TI? January 1971 Tests performed during the safety evaluation usually will not require duplication during the other test phases; safety observations are continued, however, through all phases of brake testing. Criteria for safe performance are described in the following paragraphs devoted to specific performance tent phases Performance Tests Brake performance will be evaluated in terms of adequacy of the vehicle braking system to perform at the required level for each test phase Brake Burnish Friction material burnishing is accompli.'ed by either tbe burnish procedure of SAE J786 or the procedure outlined in Appeno!'x B. The criterion for friccion.material burnishing is that not less than 80 percent of the f7riction material surface area be in contact with the swept area of the kctati4 brake member (drum or disk) Brake lilding A!-ility' The vehicle is parked on dry, paved, longitudinal slopes in both ascending and descending attitudes. Service and parking brake systems are engaged individually to assure their individual capability to hold the vehicle sta~tidnark. The Ic~terion for brake holding ability for both service and parking brake systems of wheeled vehicles is that each system, independent of the other, hold the vehicle stationary in both ascending and descending attitudes on the minm longitudinal slope over which the vehicle is required to operate Brake -St1Pping Ability o) Brake stopping distances are ottained from 20 and 40 mph and from additional road,peeds if sm cifically requested. Stopping distances are measured over the, iip pre range up to the point of wheel locking. Data c6il~ted "iil' include road speed, stopping distance, deceleration rate, iqpt prese, whel lokif$ig d Vehicle slw. Brake drum temperatures should not exceed 250i, or uoher-ise as specified, during these tests. For electrical braking systems, Vltaje and current measurements will be recorded in place of input pressures. These tests will be conducted on a level, hardsurfaced roadway with the vehicle at curb *dight and at its rated payload condition. The criteria for bi]ae stopping ability arei as follows:'

6 H.!TP JanAry 1971 a. Wheeled vehicles of gross vehicle weights up to and including 50,000 pounds will be capable of making a straight line full stop from a road speed of 20 mph within a distance. of 30 feet; they will be capable of making a full stop from a vehicle speed of not less than 40 mph at an average deceleration rate of 14.4 ft/sec 2. b. Wheeled vehicles of gross vehicle weights exceeding 50,000 pounds will be capable of making a straight line full utop from a road speed of 20 mph within a distance of 40 feet; they will be capable of making a full stop from a vehicle speed of not less than 40 mph at an average deceleration rate of 11 ft/sec 2. c. During all brake stops, vehicle slew shall not exceed the limits of a roadway lane width equal to 1-1/2 times the overall width cf the test vehicle Brake Recovery after Immersion in Water Wheeled vehicle braking systems will be completdly submerged in water for a period of 15 to 30 minutes. After immersion, recovery is'ddtermined by making brake applications from a road speed of 20 mph at a Oreselected input pressure at 1-minute intervals. Data requlred will include time, road speed, number of applications, input pressure, de.eliration rate, and distance traveled. Results will be compared to the dry brake performance previously established for the vehkle. The criterion for brake recoiery is t0ai after iiemrsi6n 'in ' water for a period of 15 to 30 minutes, brake stopping ability shall have achieved cozplete recovery after 10 brake applications over a period of 12 minutes. i Trailer Breakaway Wold-ifg Akilty' This test phase will be performed in both ascendigg and descending attitudes on paved, longitudinal slopes. The trailers will be parked on the grade and brake lines disconnected to idtuate the rea Vay feature. Local safety regulations will be followed. Th6 diitrion for traildt brtalis h ldi i ty is that the safety Brake featire '"d dapable of hol ing t avehicle stdtioniry in both asdendi d d iecnding iititdes on the W*Ii slope.er which the vehicle is desiged to operate o" a riodd o! 30 -imtds,' The maxiim -giade will be desijaied in the plan of t6at-u ec f pedifid veiidle Maximum Pedal Effort Brak'.& j Maximur pedal effort brake stops will be made in the forward vehicle direction of a dry, level, paved surface at &-mph road speed increments over a speed range span of 20 mph to v eicle" speed (or to the highest speed where safe maximum pedal effort braking can be achieved) -6-

7 1) 15 January 1971 and in the reverse vehicle direction at a road speed of 5 mph. Data recrrled will include road speed, stopping distance, deceleration rate, wheel locking, and vehicle slew; and data obtained by inspection of wheel, brake, and :iuspension system components. For maximum pedal effort braking, wheeled vehicles must be capa- of making maximum pedal effort brake stops in both forward and reverse directions without damage to the brake, wheel, or suspension systems as follows: ible EI a. Reverse direction - at road speeds up to 5 mph. b. Forward direction - at road speeds up to 50 mph (essential). - at road speeds up to maximum vehicle speed (desirabla). NOTE: If maximum veicle speed is less than 50 mph, a road speed test at maximum vehicle speed will be considered essential. The criterion for maximum safe speed at maximum pedal effort is that vehicle slew shall not exceed the limits of a roadway lane width equal to 1-2 ti6es the overall width of the tast vehicle. ( Brake Actuation and Release Time The time lapse between brake application, actuation, and release will be determined by means of a recording device triggered by switches installed at the application mechanism and at the point where the brake friction material contacts the rotating ninber. Brake input pressure will be measured at the input source and at the brake location farthest from the input source. Data recorded wiil" include It6i and input pressure. The criterion f6r brake actuation and release time will be peculiar to each specific vehicle design and will be dependent upon data collec:ed during stoppi, Aility tests ( aiov e), such as premature wheel locking or ursbailied- brakig Pedal Effort vs Input Pressure Pedal effort and input pressure will be recorded under static conditions over the complete input presure range of Lhe brake actuation supply system. Data till be measured by suitable pedal effort and input pressure -81'48a. The criterion for pedal effort is that vehicle stopping ability be in accordance with the criteria stated in , above, at a pedal force designated in the plan of test for each specific vehicle test program. In the abseace of specific criteria, a uaximm pedal force of 200 pounds will be ----

8 S15 zrtp S January 1971As Low Temperature Effects This test is conducted to assure satisfactory operation ot the moving components of the braking system under extreme cold enviroental conditicns. Testing is accomplished by actuating the braking system while the vehicle is stationary. This test is usually accomplished during other cold tests (KTP and MlT ). The criterion for this test is that braking system components function satisfactorily at ambient air temperatures designated in the plan of test for each specific vehicle without damage to seals, Saskets, or moving parts. In the absence of a specific standard, -50oF will be used funtain Highway Brak SystemTests These tests are designed to be conducted over a 25-ile section of U. S. Route 30 in the Jennerstown area of western Pennsylvania. Test data to be recorded are indicated in Appendixes A, B and C Brake Fade Test Brake fade characteristics will be dleter~ined during repeated braking operation over a downhill roadway of -a-roxisatel' 9 to 11 percent grade ove. a distance of approximately 2 mile-s and a 40-mph full stop at the bottom of the grade. Fade test procedures w'ill vary for vehicles of gross vehicle weight classif ications as shown in Aoyeiidix k,- #eii 15. The criteria for brake fade are. a. Imedstely bai t1i!" dow.z'ide b* gke snubbinig procedure, the test vehilid must d strattiee daiijltyqo 'uki a full stop at the bottom of the grade as indicated in the Soll.oving table: Gross Vehicle "Wdereraton Initial Braking WeiU1it - Lb. PA te-- pt/ et-- Sje -M~ Up to 12, ,000 to 50, Over 50,000 lilp 30 b. Vehicle slew shall not exceed roadway lane width limits equal to 1-1/2 times the overall width of the test vehicle High Temperature Endurance Test A high tezperature highway brake test is conducted for the -8- :1!1

9 f 15 Jan.ary 1971 purpose of evaluating the performance, fade, wear, and endurance characteristics of wheeled vehicle braking systems under conditions where elevated brake system temperatures and braking torques are a factor. The specific test procedure is outlined in Appendix A. t. NOTE: Since the temperatures reached by the brake linings may be as high as 6000 to 800 F, climatic testing in the hot-dry conditions specitied in AR is not necessary because the temperarres produced would be only insignificantly higher than those obtained at standard temperatures. The criteria are: a. After the complete mountain highway brake test, brake component deterioration shall not have reduced vehicle stopping ability to a point below the ninim requirements stated in paragraph b. Dzag e to brake, wheel, and suspension system components, such as bending, twisting, or breakage, shall not occur as a result of test operation Brake Endurance Test wle The mileages mcczlated during tests outlined in -MTP will be used for brake enhurance evaluation as applicable for off-highwmy and general operation. Various components of wheeled vehicle braking systems are subject to failure during these tests due to contamination by foreign abrasives and lubricants. Test operators will report incipient failures during the conduct of these tests for the determination of causes of specific malfunctions. During the tests all failed parts will be labeled and retained along with samples of brake fluids and contaminating elements. The criteria for off-highway braking system endurance are: a. Brake component wear attributable to abrasives accumulated during normal vehicle endurance testing shall not reduce vehicle stopping ability to a point below the minim= requirements stated in paragraph over an accumulated span of 500 miles when test course surfaces are in a wet, muddy condition. b. Damage to brake, wheel, and suspension system components, such as bending, twisting, or breakage, shall not occur as a result %f test operation. 6.3 TEST DATA All pertinent data will be recorded during the conduct of all braking system tests. Data record sheets shown in Appendix C will be used during collection of test data. -9-

10 ri1r Z-Z-o6 15 January DATA REDUCTION AND PRESENTATION Data reduction and presentation requirements depend upon the extent of the test conducted. The following presentations are represertative: a. Graphs: Pedal effort vs input pressure Brake effectiveness vs input pressure. Brake fade vs number of applications. Brake recovery vs number of applications. b. Tabulations: Brake temperature data. Brake component wear MR?4

11 HTP January 1971 APPENDIX A HOWlTAIN HIGHWAY BRAKE TEST OUTLINE 1. DisassEmble brake system completely. 2. Provide all new brake components. 3. Make pertinent initial brake component measure-ments. 4. Install calibrated brake test instrumentation (pars, 3.2 and 6.1.1). 5. Reassemble brake system. 6. Adjust lining material to drum clearances to manufacturer's specifications. 7. Bleed hydraulically actuated brake systems per manufacturer a recommended procedure. 8. Run preburnisheffectiveness teets from 20 mph. 9. Burnish brakes to achieve at least 80 percent contact between the surface areas of the lining and the drum (use either SAE J786 or APG procedure sumarized in, App. B). 10. Readjust brakes tc recommended clearances. 11. Measure pedal ;force requirements over brake input pressure range. 12. Run initial efretttiveness tests from 20 and 40 mph (Ref. Par ), recording data oo form of. Figure C Run initial fade test. (east side of Laurel Mountain, Fig. A-1), operating the vehicle Jowngradd-and accelerating between brake applications as necessary to achieve required number of applications. a. Snubbing and stopping rates per vehicle gro3s weight are as follows: A-1

12 CD cc #54J V C-4 cu -46-2

13 . GVW up to 12,000 lb. GVW 12,000 to 50,000 lb. GVW over 50,000 lb. NHTP January applications from 40 to 20 mph at 8 ft/ sec 2 in highest gear range. One application from 40 to 0 mph at 14.4 ft/ sec 2 at bottom of grade. 36 applications from 30 to 25 mph at 8 ft/ sec 2 in highest gear range. One application from 40 to 0 mph at 14.4 ft/ sec 2 at bottom of grade. 36 applications from 30 to 25 mph at 8 ft/ sec 2 in highest gear range. One aplication from 30 to 0 mph at 11.0 ft/cec' at bottom of grade. b. Data recorded (Fig. C-3) will include road speed, deceleration rates, input pressure, pedal travel, brake friction material temperatures, stopping distance, wheel locking, and vehicle slew. 14. Run cross-country cycle No. 1 - Four round trips starting at 100OF brake lining temperature. a. GVW up to 12,000 - Follow procedure outli-ned in Appendix C, Fig. C-1. b. GVW over 12,000 lb. - Follow procedure outlined in Appendix C, Fig. C Run effectiveness test. 16. Run fade test. 17. a. Inspect brake system b. Readjust brakes. c. Bleed hydraulic system. d. Measure lining thickness at outside of shoes. 18. Run cross-country cycle No. 2 - Four round trips starting at 100 F brake lining temprature. 19. Run effectiveness test. 20. Run fade test. 21, Run cross-country cycle No. 3 - Four round trips starting at 100 F brake lining temperature. 22. Run effectiveness test. 23. Run fade test. A-3

14 rm January Hake pertinent final brake component measitrements. 25. Remove instrumentation. 26. Reassemble brate system. A:-4

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17 APPENDIX C ua y 1 1st IL B.I 20. M. 80.ETO MOI2 AMBTS vbt 10]7 P810M 15 /SI 5 IMtMILW E MT I-~O Z.OF1-2 1WA =-& T o2 i'gure - outin BrkMet r03cuty ortuk pt I12,00 PoILd Iro. Vehcl Weight,0-D STOYSOW2 ZRS 20P40-2

18 MTP January 1971 U.wo RT a - EA F!R~j? ml 2 -MX MA M, ID. - -vm t I ON -m -c - ODSMM -~ O 02 IS -OVM DMT -OAT -S L is% E= 9. P w FEMM- m %W a -3 - wam~~ Em-mT MUMs WW3ig25t. 12,OSTOM Pod Veil I R

19 --- 2r January 1971 Tm Vm MlAm FM. W.' Vo V. =MS, A3 1. -, MD =W= BMAPMJICTI= To _ I MW~. ej 1 3 ~ j j j STOP - sow - TOML_ APNPL, -P.. p -. i.,. PSI-NOTES =, ' _B 6 13 '3 is IsBar= TO mma15 rim 2m6M,?mUL STOPI MUM - p IM I trl immw - 4 F., -C- Y 1c SUSfLM - RMSi - ~ Fig C-. Mountain Brake Fade Test. -C-3

20 DTE: 8STAWT _ ~ IMTP January 1971 ~JmAMDvMM~ MlDMD 8PCUMi N~Af 8~ fla1~2 AUMF - 1I. LO-T -0 - :igure C-4I. Brake Shoe g;rind Radius palloff. C-4.

21 -~ KIP END[I ~T N mw, SSTION, MTD DATE: START _ STCP TOM 7~ 0DCK: START STOP MILES I VEILEUA EmJ. NO. TEST_ WT. LB I. LIRNG I4AM L IMTH - IN., wit - IN., ~IF~ 1. R"JET EMPM 33. AIAI N n z y AVG. MX _ AVMV j _ immin, VIM -Mr., mczc IN., METx'x MM - i. -=IC _ SM- - A Figure C-5. Brake Ling Measurements. C-5

22 ~ -~- ~iut1ie~ '. HTP? Janua-y 1971AY EOflIMf~ J14D MURsr TST CION, it'd, APO, MD. VEHICLE _ MW M_ DATE: START STOP TE ST 011(9: START imp TOTAL STR STP WA Rl O WUH TkR SUOP WEAR s~of mr CENTER FACE PLAT OPENIN FACE PIAT AVERAGE -5_ 6 78 IAfTJIO ISTARTSTO WEAR I STOP IWEAR SATSTOP WWA START STOP WEaR FACE PUTE.- PACE KTATE - -2 STOP L13 1*0-4 6 NOTES: 7 8 j Figure C-6. Brake Drum Measurements C-6

23 15 January 1971,ARD i L0 GROW,,WR, OAI MACKID PA IJLDG MWXY M - IN. DATE: START STOP TOTAL OD4: START STOP MIES BRAKE SYSTM4 SIZE ANCHOR PIN IN. DIAM. IN. RADIUS VEHICLE USA REG. NO. TEST WT. LB. BRAKE ANCHOR PIN LEDGE LOCATION IN DIRECTION OF ROTATION LOCATION DIAM-IN. 12,3 J - 1 START STOP CHANGE 2 START STOP CHANGE M.,4 I, STOP 3START CHANGE 47 START STOP CHANGE 5 START STOP CHANG _ 6 START j STOP ~~~~CHANGE 7 START STOP CHANEG 8 START STCM _ CHANGE Figure C-7. Backing Plate Ledge Measurements C-7

24 09 0 C4 I * I C-8

25 - == -. -._ -I1,-$4 in i-- I C-9 I I I I I I IJ I i

26 UN4CLASSU1eED DOCUMENT CON4TROL IDATA It&D (sociffity classaification olf fil* be* of abetract and4 hyej***jftuigate anhl be GoR white M*1 *vws -gwt to ef**8ift4) 1. ORIGINATING ACTIVITY (C.Epecto sghn~ae) &&. REPORT SECURITY CLAgSFICATON U.S. Army Test & Evaluation Conand UNCLASSI71ED Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland b.* GROUP Z O REIM U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command Materiel Test Procedure Common Engineering Test Procedure "Braking, Wheeled Vehicles" 4. OZSCRIPTIVEK NOTES (T7p4 of lepal and Ancoloi. date) Final - j S~~~. AU THORIS) (Pdn iro! d. nta&fc ae W. RIMPORT DATE 74. TOTAL 00. OF PAES0*.N. OF REPS8 15 January L CONTRACT OR GRANT NO. Sa& ORIGINATORS REPORT NW*StKRCS) 6PROJECT NO. MT AMCR THERREORT NO00) (Aw' fat M1n~ So A 10. OISTRIOUTION STATEMENT Distribution of this document is unlimited 1I:. SPOHOORMIS UILITARY ACTIVITY Headquartere I U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Coand 4 ~SR~ Aberdeen Priyviig Ground., Maryand II-1 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Procedures are described f or.valuating the braking ability of wheeled vehicles fromi at gross weights up to, and in excess of 50,000 lbs. Water imrsion, high and low temperature operation, and breaking effectiveness are described.e) DDF Irmoe473 02L~aEs u~ n~a D-1 -~ QASjE

27 Ui1CLASsIFlED - LSUK A LINK 0 L I Pk. Z S o W * "a~ n O L E Z V Braking ability Brake burnish Brake i=ersion Brake Fade j a II It Dm... D-2 Socwft Closactm

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