1 2015 Company Powertrain Strategy Information This document is designed to outline the major automotive manufacturers in the United States and their current engine lineup. It provides important information about the engine displacements, EPA MPG rating, engine type/vehicle model, North American engine production and future directions for each manufacturer. Note: These engine volumes are NOT the number of engines a manufacturer sells but is the number of engines the manufacturer produces for the entire North American Market. *Data is taken from Ward s 2016 Light Vehicle Engines Report *Note: Data for adjusted fuel economy, adjusted CO2 emissions, and footprint were taken from the EPA s Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: Report for the 2015 preliminary values.
2 FCA GROUP LLC Brands: FIAT, Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep, Ram Cars Trucks Total Engine Type Percentage of Production Volume 4 Cylinder 30.7% 6 Cylinder 51.3% 8+ Cylinder 17.7% Hybrids/Electrics 0.22% North American Production* Engine Volume (units) 1.4 L Fiat , L Turbo Dodge Dart; Fiat 500, Fiat 500 Abarth, 38,000 Fiat 500L, Fiat 500X; Jeep Renegade 1.7 L Turbo Alfa Romeo C L Dodge Dart Jeep Compass, Patriot 65, , L Ram ProMaster City Dodge Journey; Jeep Compass, Patriot Chrysler 200; Dodge Dart; Jeep Cherokee, Renegade 8, , ,000 6 Cylinder (Liters of 3.0 L Turbo Ram Promaster Ram Pickup 21,183 81, L Jeep Cherokee 54, L Chrysler 200, 300, Town & Country; Dodge Challenger, Charger, Durango, Grand Caravan; Jeep Grand Cherokee, Wrangler, Wrangler Unlimited; Ram Pickup, Ram Promaster 1,134, L Turbo Ram HD Pickup 121,035 8 Cylinder (Liters of 5.7 L Chrysler 300; Dodge Challenger, Charger, Durango; Jeep Grand Cherokee; Ram Pickup 341,000
3 Ram HD Pickup 100, L Supercharged Dodge Challenger SRT Hellcat, Charger 4,100 SRT Hellcat 6.4 L Ram HD Pickup Dodge Challenger R/T Scat Pack & SRT 392, Charger R/T Scat Pack & SRT 392; Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT 27,300 14, Cylinder (Liters of 8.4 L Dodge Viper 550 Plug-in Hybrid Plus 24 kwh Li-Ion heated and cooled battery pack. Fiat 500e 6,000 Notice: The large number of small displacement engines that are turbocharged in FCA s lineup. Future: With the merger of Chrysler and Fiat, we expect to see the sharing of engine technologies. The trend will likely be that Fiat s small engine will be integrated into Chrysler vehicles, while the larger SUV based engines from Chrysler will be integrated into Fiat vehicles. FCA expects to start the global roll out of a new gasoline engine family. The electrification market continues to be driven by regulatory requirements. FCA plans to launch a PHEV minivan in 2016 to comply with ZEV requirements. Also, we expect several mild hybrid applications will come to the market shortly thereafter.
4 FORD MOTOR COMPANY Brands: Ford, Lincoln Cars Trucks Total Engine Type Percentage of Production Volume 4 Cylinder 37.6% 6 Cylinder 40.9% 8+ Cylinder 19.5% Hybrids/Electrics 1.95% North American Production* Engine Volume (units) 1.0 L Turbo Fiesta, Focus 24, L Turbo Fusion 49, L Fiesta 100, L Turbo Escape, Transit Connect Fiesta ST 113,000 2, L Focus 216, L Turbo Escape, Focus ST, Fusion, Taurus; Lincoln MKC Edge 248,000 20, L Turbo Explorer Mustang; Lincoln MKC Focus RS 29,100 30,500 1, L Escape, Transit Connect 365,000 6 Cylinder (Liters of 2.7 L Turbo F-150 Edge Sport; Lincoln MKX 3.5 L Taurus PPV Sedan F-150 Edge, Explorer, Taurus Flex 3.5 L Turbo Transit Expedition, Explorer, Explorer Sport, Flex, PPV Sedan, Taurus SHO; Lincoln MKT, Navigator F L Mustang, PPV Utility, Transit; Lincoln MKS, MKT, MKZ, 75, ,000 10,000 98, ,000 81,200 47,300 67, , ,000
5 MKX 8 Cylinder (Liters of 5.0 L F-150 Mustang 175,000 84, L Mustang L E-Series Cutaway, Chassis 36, L F-Super Duty 73, L Turbo F-Super Duty 189, Cylinder (Liters of 6.8 L E-Series Cutaway, Chassis 65,500 Hybrids 2.0 L Fusion Hybrid, Fusion Energi Hybrid; Lincoln MKZ Hybrid C-Max Hybrid, C-Max Energi 36,500 24,000 Electric Plus 240 volt Li-ion liquidcooled/heated battery pack. Hybrid Focus EV 1,600 Notice: The large number of small displacement engines that are turbocharged in Ford s lineup. Future: Ford s current plan is to offer an EcoBoosted engine in every model. Engines with EcoBoost technology are designed to deliver the power and torque of larger engines while achieving better fuel efficiency. This is achieved through a combination of engine technologies such as turbocharging and direct injection on small displacement engines.
6 GENERAL MOTOR CORPORATION Brands: Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, Cadillac Cars Trucks Total Engine Type Percentage of Production Volume 4 Cylinder 35.7% 6 Cylinder 25.7% 8 Cylinder 37.8% Hybrids/Electrics 0.86% North American Production* Engine Volume (units) 1.4 L Chevrolet Cruze, Sonic, Trax 195, L Turbo Chevrolet Cruze Chevrolet Spark 47,200 33, L Chevrolet Malibu 59, L Buick Cascada 2, L Turbo Chevrolet Cruze, Sonic 170, L Turbo Buick Verano Buick Envision, Regal; Cadillac ATS, CTS, CT6; Chevrolet Camaro, Malibu 2.4 L Buick Regal, Verano; Chevrolet Equinox, Orlando (Canada); GMC Terrain 2.5 L Cadillac ATS; Chevrolet Colorado, Impala, Malibu; GMC Canyon 2.8 L Turbo Chevrolet Colorado; GMC Canyon 6 Cylinder (Liters of 9,600 49, , ,200 18, L Cadillac CT6 8, L Cadillac ATS, CTS, CT6, Chevrolet Camaro Chevrolet Impala Buick LaCrosse; Cadillac SRX, XTS; Chevrolet Caprice PPV,Colorado, Equinox, Impala, Impala Limited PPV; GMC 23,000 1, ,800
7 Canyon, Terrain Buick Enclave; Chevrolet 291,000 Traverse; GMC Acadia 3.6 L Turbo Cadillac ATS-V, CTS, XTS 22, L Chevrolet Silverado; GMC Sierra 123,100 8 Cylinder (Liters of 4.8 L Chevrolet Express; GMC Savana 51, L Chevrolet Silverado, Suburban, Tahoe; GMC Sierra, Yukon, Yukon XL 764, L Chevrolet Express, Silverado HD; GMC Savana, Sierra HD Chevrolet Caprice PPV Chevrolet Express, Silverado HD; GMC Savana, Sierra HD 6.2 L Chevrolet Camaro, Corvette Cadillac Escalade, Escalade ESV; Chevrolet Silverado; GMC Sierra, Yukon, Yukon XL Chevrolet SS sedan Cadillac CTS-V; Chevrolet Corvette 6.6 L Turbo Chevrolet Silverado HD; GMC Sierra HD Chevrolet Express; GMC Savana Hybrids 2.4 L Buick LaCrosse e-assist, Regal e-assist 1,000 2, ,500 63, ,500 3,000 5, ,500 4,000 17,500 Extended Range Vehicle 1.4 L Cadillac ELR L Chevrolet Volt 7,600 Electric Plus 400-volt 19 kwh Li-ion battery pack. Chevrolet Spark EV 3,000 Notice: The large number of 4 cylinder engines that are turbocharged in GM s lineup and the large amount of 8 cylinder engines. Future: GM has invested $233 million to produce new Ecotec engines. These will consist of 3 and 4 cylinder engines with small displacements. There will also be a push to integrate more hybridization in vehicles. These vehicles will likely have technology shared with the Chevy Volt. GM announced that in late 2016, it will add a fleet of 2017 Chevrolet Volts designed to drive autonomously within its renovated Warren Technical Center campus. Also, GM has confirmed its plants to jointly develop commercially viable fuel cell technologies with Honda in the 2020 timeframe. In addition, the Chevrolet Bolt EV is an all-electric subcompact vehicle with a 150 kw permanent magnet motor/generator and scheduled to start production in October 2016.
8 HONDA MOTOR COMPANY Ltd. Brands: Honda, Acura Cars Trucks Total Engine Type Percentage of Production Volume 4 Cylinder 72.8% 6 Cylinder 28.0% Hybrids/Electrics 0.17% North American Production* Engine Volume (units) 1.5 L Fit 48, L Turbo Civic 182, L HR-V 356, L Accord, CRV Acura ILX, TLX 583,000 66,000 6 Cylinder (Liters of 3.5 L Accord, Odyssey; Acura RDX Pilot; Acura MDX, TLX Acura RLX 262, ,000 2,500 Hybrids 1.5 L CR-Z 2, L Acura RLX Hybrid 500 Notice: The lack of 8 cylinder engines in Honda s lineup. Also notice the lack of turbo charged engines. Future: Honda introduced its first-ever turbocharged engine as an optional upgrade in the new 2016 Civic. It is expected that Honda continues to roll out the family of turbocharged four-cylinder engines. The new NSX is a hybrid sports car that is powered by a 3.5 L twin turbo V6 engine.
9 HYUNDAI MOTOR COMPANY Brands: HYUNDAI/KIA HYUNDAI Cars Trucks Total KIA Cars Trucks Total Engine Type Percentage of Production Volume 4 Cylinder 75.8% 6 Cylinder 21.3% 8 Cylinder 0.63 % Hybrids/Electrics 2.24% 1.6 L Hyundai: Accent, Veloster Kia: Rio, Soul 1.6 L Turbo Hyundai: Sonata Hyundai: Veloster Turbo Kia: Optima Kia: Forte5, Forte Koup 1.8 L Hyundai: Elantra Kia: Forte 2.0 L Hyundai: Elantra Sport & GT, Tucson Kia: Forte, Forte5, Soul 2.0 L Turbo Hyundai: Sonata Turbo Hyundai: Santa Fe Sport Turbo Kia: Optima, Sorrento Kia: Sportage 2.4 L Hyundai: Santa Fe Sport, Sonata Kia: Optima, Sorento, Sportage 6 Cylinder (Liters of North American Production* Engine Volume (units) 72, ,000 18,000 10, ,000 85,000 87,000 24,000 45,000 28,000 64,000 73,000 60,000 8, ,000 86,000
10 3.3 L Hyundai: Azera, Santa Fe Kia: Cadenza, Sedona, Sorento 3.8 L Hyundai: Genesis Kia: K900 8 Cylinder (Liters of 5.0 L Hyundai: Equus Hyundai: Genesis Kia: K , ,000 28,000 3,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 Hybrids 2.0 L Hyundai: Sonata Hybrid 19, L Kia: Optima Hybrid 12,500 Plus Hydrogen-fueled 100-kW proton membrane fuel cell. Electric Plus 360-volt, 127 kwh Li-ion polymer battery pack. Hyundai: Tucson FCV 100 Kia: Soul EV 500 Notice: The blend of all sorts of engines in Hyundai s lineup. Most of the engines are used twice, once for a Hyundai branded vehicle and another time for a Kia branded vehicle. Future: Hyundai, like many other automakers, is embracing the idea of turbocharging, and direct injection for small displacement engines. They also have plans to introduce more hybrids over the next few years. Hyundai introduced the Ioniq hybrid which pairs a 1.6-liter four-cylinder petrol engine with an electric motor. It contains a 1.56 kwh lithium-ion polymer battery pack.
11 MAZDA MOTOR CORPORATION Brands: Mazda Cars Trucks Total North American Production* Engine Volume (units) 2.0 L CX-5 [M6], Mazda3, MX5 Miata 118, L CX-5 [A6], Mazda3, Mazda6 175, L Turbo CX-9 15,000 Notice: The lack of 6 and 8 cylinder engines and lack of turbocharging in Mazda s lineup. However, Mazda incorporates their household Skyactiv technology to the 2.0L and 2.5L engines. This raises engine efficiency by increasing the compression ratio and decreasing engine friction. Future: Mazda plans to debut engines dubbed Skyactiv 2 that will boost fuel economy by 30% by pairing direct injection with higher compression ratio. Mazda aims to increase the engine s compression ratio to 18:1, from the current level of 14:1.
12 NISSAN MOTOR COMPANY LTD. Brands: Nissan, Infiniti Cars Trucks Total Engine Type Percentage of Production Volume 4 Cylinder 70.9% 6 Cylinder 23.6% 8 Cylinder 4.53% Hybrids/Electrics 1.07% 1.6 L Tsuru (Mexico), Versa, Versa Note North American Production* Engine Volume (units) 295, L Turbo Juke 16, L Sentra, Tida (Mexico), Versa 300,000 (Mexico) 2.0 L NV200; Chevrolet City Express 28, L Turbo Infiniti Q50 5, L Rogue Frontier, NP300 (Mexico) Altima 241, , ,000 6 Cylinder (Liters of 3.0 L Turbo Q50 5, L Altima, Murano, Pathfinder, Quest; Infiniti QX60 Maxima 250,000 53, L 370Z; Infiniti Q70, QX50, QX70 45, L Twin Turbo GT-R, GT-R NISMO 1, L Frontier, NV 98,000 8 Cylinder (Liters of 5.0 L Titan XD 3, L NV Infiniti QX80 75,500 8,000 Hybrids 3.5 L Infiniti Q50 Hybrid 600 Electric
13 Plus 24 kwh Li-ion battery pack. Leaf 20,000 Notice: The blend of all sorts of engines in Nissan s lineup Future: Nissan has a sound investment in electric technology. In 2011, Nissan was the first automaker with a modern electric car for the mass market. The 100% electric Leaf motor is powered exclusively by an advanced lithium-ion battery. The 2016 Leaf has a range of 84 to 107 miles.
14 TOYOTA MOTOR COMPANY Brands: Toyota, Lexus, Scion Cars Trucks Total Engine Type Percentage of Production Volume 4 Cylinder 49.0% 6 Cylinder 29.8% 8 Cylinder 8.51% Hybrids/Electrics 12.7% 1.5 L Yaris Scion ia 1.8 L Corolla Corolla Eco Scion im 2.0 L Turbo Lexus GS 200t, IS 200t, RC 200t, NX 200t North American Production* Engine Volume (units) 17,000 8, ,000 4,000 6,000 26, L Camry, RAV4; Scion tc 651, L Highlander Tacoma 21,000 58,000 6 Cylinder (Liters of 3.5 L Avalon, Camry, Highlander, Sienna; Lexus ES 350 Tacoma RAV4; Lexus GS 350, RX 350 Lexus IS 300, IS 350, RC 300, RC ,000 72,000 7,000 61, L 4Runner 101,000 8 Cylinder (Liters of 4.6 L Tundra; Lexus GX 460 Lexus LS ,000 8, L Lexus RC F L Land Cruiser, Tundra; Lexus LX 570 Sequoia 125,000 23,500 Hybrids
15 1.5 L Prius c 36, L Prius, Prius Plug-in, Prius v; 205,000 Lexus 200CT h 2.5 L Avalon Hybrid, Camry Hybrid; Lexus ES 300h, NX 300h RAV4 Hybrid 64,000 2, L Highlander Hybrid Lexus RX450h Lexus GS 450h 5,000 8, L Lexus LS 600h 100 Notice: The strong influence of hybridization and the lack of turbocharging in Toyota s lineup. Future: Toyota is betting heavily on hydrogen electric as being the primary fuel for the future. Toyota introduced the Mirai which is a hydrogen powered vehicle. One of the largest constraints of owning a hydrogen-powered vehicle in the U.S is the lack of fueling places. Hydrogen fuel stations are relatively non-existent outside of California. As of now, the company has set up partnerships to create these stations in the northeastern U.S. Toyota is also pushing towards plug-in hybrids. The Prius Prime was introduced by Toyota as one of the most efficient plug-in hybrids on the market.
16 VOLKSWAGEN GROUP Brands: VOLKSWAGEN, AUDI, BENTLEY *Note: Volkswagen does not contain a data measuring adjusted fuel economy, adjusted CO2 emissions, and footprint due to an ongoing investigation. Based on the original compliance data, Volkswagen value for adjusted fuel economy is 27.6 mpg and 329 g/mi for adjusted CO2 emissions. Volkswagen s footprint for cars is 45.0 square feet, 48.5 square feet for trucks, and a total of 45.5 square feet. Engine Type Percentage of Production Volume 4 Cylinder 86.0% 6 Cylinder 8.6% 8+ Cylinder 1.55% Hybrids/Electrics 3.87% 1.8 L Turbo Beetle, Golf, Jetta, Passat; Audi A3 2.0 L Turbo Beetle TDI, Golf TDI, Jetta TDI, Jetta Sportwagen TDI, Passat TDI; Audi A3 TDI Beetle, CC, EOS, Jetta GLI, Tiguan; Audi Allroad, A3, Q3, Q5 Golf GTi, Golf R; A4, A5, A6, TT Audi S3, TTS 6 Cylinder (Liters of 3.0 L Turbo Touareg TDI; Audi A6 TDI, A8 TDI, Q5 TDI A7 TDI, A8 TDI 3.0 L Audi A6, A7, A8, Q5, S4, S5, SQ5 3.6 L CC, Passat Touareg 8 Cylinder (Liters of 4.0 L Turbo Audi S6, S7, RS7, A8 Audi S8 4.0 L Twin Turbo Bentley Continental GT/GTC V8, Flying Spur V8 Bentley GT/GTC V8 S, GT3-R North American Production* Engine Volume (units) 134,000 40, ,000 85,000 8,000 3,500 5,000 41,000 3,000 2,000 4,000 1, L Audi R8 V8 1, L Bentley Mulsanne, Mulsane Speed 500
17 10 Cylinder (Liters of 5.2 L Audi R8 V Cylinder (Liters of 6.0 L Bentley Continental Flying Spur, 900 GT/GTC, GT/GTC Speed 6.3 L Audi A8 400 Hybrids 1.4 L Jetta Hybrid 16, L Audi Q5 Hybrid 400 Electric Plus a 24.3 kwh, 3233-volt Liion battery pack. E-Golf 8, L Audi A3 e-tron 0 Notice: The large amount of small displacement engines that are turbocharged in VW s lineup. Also, the broad range of powertrains. Future: Started from 2014 to 2018, VW plans to invest a total $85.6 billion euros in new models, innovative technologies and its global presence. Also, Volkswagen released 1.8-liter turbocharged fourcylinder Golf. After the diesel-emissions scandal, Volkswagen decided to embrace battery-electric technology instead. Its new BUDD-e concept includes better range for electrics. Due to the larger range, the battery size increased. Therefore, new models were produced rather than models based off of existing ones. Ward s Production Data: 2016 Light Vehicle Engines North American Availability and Specifications EPA: "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: " EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 17 July
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Eligible List updated January 22 nd, 2018 2016 Audi 2017 Audi 2018 Audi 2016 BMW i3 2016 BMW i3 Battery Size: 22 kwh Battery Size: 22kWh Month $833.00 $1668.00 $2500.00 $39,200 $833.00 $1668.00 $2500.00
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LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL Identification and Application Chart For use in all clutch-type limited slip differentials Eliminate differential chatter and noise Reduce differential oil temperatures Extend