English Report. The stop & Start System. By RIGOUR Sophie. & NOCQUET Cécile

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1 English Report The stop & Start System By & NOCQUET Cécile The STOP&START System 1/14

2 SUMMARY SUMMARY 2 INTRODUCTION 3 I. DEFINITION OF THE SYSTEM 4 I.1. A CAR WITHOUT THE STOP AND START S SYSTEM 4 I.2. A CAR WITH THE STOP & START S SYSTEM 6 II. STOP & START S ADVANTAGES 9 II.1. POLLUTION 9 II.2. CONSUMPTION 10 II.3. COMFORT 10 II.4. EASY INTEGRATING 11 III. CARMAKERS AND MODELS 12 CONCLUSION 13 REFERENCES 14 The STOP&START System 2/14

3 Introduction Since the last century, the car's evolution provides some problems because of the pollution. New cars need more and more options and functions, so they become bigger and they pollute more than old cars. Nowadays, it's very important to reduce this consumption. This is why some engineers' teams of different car's manufacturers designed an electronic system which is called STOP & START. This system allows us to stop the engine during short stops of the car, for example, in the traffic jam or at a red light. Thus, during common stops of an urban car, the engine is stopped and doesn't pollute. The first part of this report will introduce this system. Then, we will explain the reasons why this invention has been developed. In the third part we will see how the STOP & START works from a technical point of view. The STOP&START System 3/14

4 I. Definition of the system I.1. A Car without the STOP and START s System Under the bonnet s car, there are many elements. Among these elements we can cite: The engine The starter The alternator The calculator In a classic car, when the user switches on the ignition, the battery provides an electrical power to the starter which will crank up the engine. In fact the starter has to convert the electrical power from the battery in mechanical power for the engine. Once the engine cranked up, the alternator recharges the battery. Contrary to the starter, the alternator has to convert mechanical power from the engine in electrical power for recharge the battery. The calculator is the electronic part. This element supervises the engine, the starter and the alternator. It calculates when the engine must start up and when it must stop the vehicle. So, we can differentiate 3 phases: 1. The driver starts up the engine: the calculator gives an order to start up the engine. The battery provides an electrical energy and the starter helps the engine to crank up. During this first step, the alternator doesn t run. 2. The car runs normally: the battery receives an electrical energy from the alternator. The calculator surveys the engine. As the engine doesn t need the starter, this one doesn t work. 3. The driver stops his car: the calculator gives an order to stop the engine. The STOP&START System 4/14

5 This picture illustrates the first phase: The second phase is illustrated as follow: In a classic car, it is the user who controls the state of the engine by starting up or switching off it. We will see in the second part that, with the STOP&START system, a car can know by itself when start up or switch off the engine. The STOP&START System 5/14

6 I.2. A car with the STOP & START s System The first difference between a classic car and a car which is equipped with the STOP & START system is that there is only a reversible alternator instead of both alternator and starter. Thus, the reversible alternator provides the function of alternator and starter. This new element is able to convert an electrical energy into a mechanical energy and to convert a mechanical energy into an electrical energy. The advantages of this new configuration are: The engine is cranked up more rapidly The engine s consumption at the starting up is reduced The second important difference is that there is a calculator specific of the STOP & START option. This new calculator supervises the reversible alternator and the engine: when the user slows down, the calculator surveys the speed of the car and if this speed falls under 6 km/h the calculator switches off the engine. As soon as the user stops to push on brake pedal, the calculator gives an order to start again the engine. There are five phases: 1. The driver starts up his car, the vehicle s calculator will start up the engine. So the battery provides electrical energy and the reversible alternator plays the part of the starter and helps the engine to crank up. Here is how this first phase can be illustrated: The STOP&START System 6/14

7 2. The driver drives normally and doesn t slow down: the engine is cranked up and the reversible alternator plays the part of the alternator. It converts a mechanical energy from the engine into an electrical energy for the battery. This picture illustrates this step: 3. The driver slows down and the speed of the car reaches 6 km/h: The STOP and START s calculator gives an order to stop the engine. This third phase is illustrated as follow: The STOP&START System 7/14

8 4. The driver stops to push on the brake pedal: the STOP & START s calculator gives an order to start again the engine, so the battery provides electrical energy and the reversible alternator plays the part of the starter and helps the engine to crank up. This picture illustrates this step: 5. The driver stops his car: the vehicle s calculator will stop the engine. This picture illustrates this step: To sum up this part, the STOP & START system allows us to use a car engine in a different way using two new elements: the reversible alternator and the STOP & START s calculator. Now we are going to see the advantages of this system. The STOP&START System 8/14

9 II. STOP & START s advantages II.1. Pollution Nowadays the pollution is a real obstacle for the development of the car. In fact, the customers want to have more comfort, more options and innovations in their car. However, the integration of these new inventions loads down the car. Consequently, the emission of CO2 increases because of the weight of the vehicle. With the new option STOP&START, the emission of CO2 is reduced. For, instance in the traffic jam, a car without this option will consume constantly. This picture illustrates this phenomenon: We can see that the pollution in this case is really important. Whereas, with the option STOP&START, a car in the traffic jam won't pollute because its engine will be stopped. The picture below shows us this event: To sum up this part, the option START&STOP, is favourable for the environment. The STOP&START System 9/14

10 II.2. Consumption In this economic context, the consumption of a vehicle becomes really important when a customer wants to buy a car. In fact, the fuel is more and more expensive and the average consumption of cars has increased in the last few years. For instance, the average consumption of Peugeot 306, which was built in 1993, is about 6,2L/100km whereas the consumption of Peugeot 307, which was built in 2008, is about 6,4L/100km. Furthermore, according to the traffic jam density, the fuel used during stop phases can reach 15% of the global consumption of the vehicle. It is the reason why the STOP&START system allows us to save money. Indeed, to stop the engine during stop phases of the vehicle allows us to reduce it consumption. II.3. Comfort When a classic car is stopped and the engine is in idle state, the driver feels vibrations of the engine. These vibrations are exhausting and annoying for the driver. Another inconvenient is the noise. In fact, the driver can hear more than 50 db when a classic car is stopped. This picture illustrates these drawbacks: The STOP&START System 10/14

11 With a car which is equipped with the STOP & START s system, the engine doesn t run during short stops. So, the driver doesn t feel any vibrations and hears only 10 db. This picture illustrates these advantages: II.4. Integration with the vehicle We saw advantages for the customer but this system has also advantages for carmakers. In fact, this system allows to reduce consumption and emission of CO2 for an investment negligible. The power at the start up is high (2.5 kw for 14 Volts) and the performance of this system is better than a normal alternator. Furthermore, the installation of the reversible alternator and the electric integration are easy. Thus, carmakers can manufacture STOP & START vehicles which don t cost so many more than an usual car. And, with all advantages that this system gives, they can gain more customers because as we said previously, ecology, consumption and comfort are today really important. The STOP&START System 11/14

12 III. Carmakers and models Contrary to what one might think, the STOP & START has not been developed by Citroen with its partnership VALEO, but by Fiat on its Ritmo ES (Energy Saving) models of the 1980s. However, the carmaker and the French equipment manufacturer developed this technology since The first car which enjoyed great success was the Citroën C3 1.4i 16V equipped with the STOP & START system of VALEO in The ingenuity of this project allowed to VALEO to win the PACE Award 2006, the Grand Prix du Jury EPCOS/SIA and the Engineer of the year award In March 2008, the French group PSA Peugeot Citroën announced that this system will equip all its vehicles as soon as possible. It plans to sell 1 million of vehicles equipped with the system in 2011 and more than 1,6 million in In the same way, the French carmaker Renault promises to popularize this system for all its models until But its choice of equipment manufacturer is not yet known. We present in this report the STOP & START system developed by Citroen and VALEO because we both work in one of these companies. But, in fact, there are others equipment manufacturers which developed the same kind of system. The principle is a little bit different but the aim is still the same. In Europe, for example, Daimler and PSA Peugeot Citroën use the STOP & START system of VALEO for the Smart Fortwo Micro Hybrid Drive (MHD) and the Citroën C2 and C3. BMW group employs the Start-Stop system developed by Bosch for the BMW series 1, series 3 and for the Mini. At last, Fiat pitches on the start-stop system of the Italian equipment manufacturer Magneti Marelli for its Panda and Punto models. All these car models are equipped with manually gearbox. A Start-Stop system is difficult to install on vehicles with automatically gearbox. Equipment manufacturers which propose this technology are rare. Though it allows to reduce considerably the consumption of automatically transmission models. The first car with automatically gearbox which has been equipped with a STOP & START system is the Porsche Panamera. So Bosch and VALEO try now to adapt their system on automatically gearboxes. Then, Audi propose its A3 1.4 TFSI 125 and 1.6 TDI 105 which integer this system since November The STOP&START System 12/14

13 Conclusion To conclude, it has to be said that the STOP & START system is a great innovation. Since Citroën developed it STOP & START system, we see appeared many system like this. The entire equipment manufacturers developed now their own system. Completely transparent for the driver, these systems allow us to have cars better for the environment, more comfortable and noiseless in the traffic jam. Furthermore, the STOP & START system tends to equip others kind of vehicles. For example, in Paris, the RATP is testing a Microbus Gruau which is equipped with a VALEO STOP&START system. The RATP, VALEO and the constructor Gruau contributed to this research project which has been validated in 2006 by the ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche) and the PREDIT (Programme de Recherche et d'innovation dans les Transports) with the financial backing of the ADEME for the national program "clean and thrifty vehicles". Thus this system has good future prospects and we can be sure that in few years it will flood the whole world! The STOP&START System 13/14

14 References The major part of our information comes from an intern website of PSA Peugeot Citroën company, which is confidential and only available with a login. But we used also these different websites: (for the vocabulary) htm The STOP&START System 14/14

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