Future Power Technologies

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1 Future Power Technologies Program 1, Project: R1.115 Program Leader: Michael Charles (SCU) Project Leader: Mohammad Rasul (CQU) Project Chair: Tony Godber (Rio Tinto)

2 Background Which kind of locomotive technologies have the potential to make rail environmentally and economically more efficient? What are the energy benefits and benefits of existing and emerging technologies and what train configurations would emerge as efficient options? What technical and economic barriers have the potential to stop or limit the uptake of these technologies and how these could be ameliorated? What should be done to enable the Australian rail industry to take advantage of the technological advancement?

3 Expected Outcomes Report and analysis on the existing and emerging (new) locomotive technologies Models and criteria for assessing hybrid technologies. Recommendation on energy efficient, environmentally friendly and economically more efficient technologies

4 What is Being Presented Evaluation of existing and emerging (hybrid) locomotive technologies Analysis of energy storage system Analysis of locomotive energy usage Method of locomotive hybridization Design of concept hybrid locomotive Conclusions

5 Existing Locomotive Technologies Diesel traction Advantages Does not require overhead supply Low infrastructure costs Well suited for routes with less traffic Disadvantages Massive diesel engine needed Very difficult to obtain good energy efficiency on all running conditions Produce greenhouse emissions and noise pollution Kinetic energy during braking is wasted and overall energy efficiency reduced Electric traction Advantages Produce less greenhouse emissions ( depends on type of power generation) More efficient for track with ascending gradients Low fuel and operating costs Regenerative braking is possible Disadvantages Involves high infrastructure costs and maintenance costs

6 Energy Storage Devises (ESD) Used to store braking energy Selected based on energy density, power density, size, life cycles, weight and cost Batteries, Super capacitors and Flywheel used

7 ESD: Different Batteries High energy density but less power density High discharge time Reduce life

8 ESD: Characteristics of Batteries

9 ESD: Capacitors High power density but less energy density Higher cycle life than batteries Higher cost per kwh than batteries

10 Batteries and Capacitors

11 ESD: Flywheels Discharge high power at high rate compare to battery and capacitors Continuously variable transmission (CVT) flywheel and Magnetically loaded composite (MLC) flywheel CVT flywheel well suited for hybrid car and buses MLC flywheel well suited for hybrid rail applications Electric circuits are simpler and smaller Additional challenges required such as safety, reliability and compact packaging Flywheels are expensive

12 Emerging Traction Technologies Emerging traction technologies Hybrid traction, optimized design of rail vehicle, energy management control system, more efficient design of diesel motor power pack and traction motor technologies What is Hybrid traction technology? Traction with two or more power source Types of hybrid Series, parallel and complex hybrid Why hybrid traction for rail application? Energy saving Supports during periods of high power demand Reduce fuel consumption Reduce pollution and noise pollution Hybrid traction according to primary power source Diesel based hybrid Fuel cell based hybrid

13 Locomotive Energy Usage Analysis Difficulty to obtain an optimal efficiency on all the running conditions (depending on track topography, loco tasks, signalling condition, traffic, and driver skill, etc.) Opportunity to use the electric energy currently wasted in the dynamic braking systems (The energy generated by dynamic braking is about 10 ~ 30% of total loco energy usage) Hybrid traction systems could provide a modern technology solution for rail locomotives. E.g., A diesel-electric based hybrid loco with energy storage devices (i.e. batteries, flywheel, super-capacitors etc.) is an option Computer simulation (CRE-LTS) techniques have been used to investigate the hybrid locomotive applications. For heavy haul operations on two typical track routes

14 Train-Track Modelling & Simulation Longitudinal Train Simulation (CRE-LTS) software was developed at the Centre for Railway Engineering, CQUniversity. The input parameters the train configuration data, the locomotive, wagon and coupler data, the track data (track curvature, cant and grade) and the control data (a fuzzy logic controller). The output parameters the train operation speeds, the coupler forces, resistance forces, the locomotive traction forces, and the locomotive energy usage, etc. Two typical heavy haul track line has been modelled and simulated using CRE-LTS

15 Train-Track Modelling V n F ci (x i+1,x i,v i+1,v i ) V i F c1 (x 2,x 1,v 2,v 1 ) V 1 m n m i m 1 F rn F gn F bn F ri F gi F bi F r1 F g1 F db1 F t1

16 Track Data (a) Track # 1 (b) Track # 2

17 Operation Data

18 Simulation Results

19 Simulation Results

20 Energy From Dynamic Braking

21 Energy Hybridisation Potential

22 Locomotive Hybridization

23 Locomotive Hybridisation

24 Locomotive Hybridisation

25 Locomotive Hybridisation

26 Sizing ESS

27 Sizing ESS

28 Sizing ESS

29 Design AC Hybrid Loco DC-DC Inverter L AC-DC Inverter DC-AC Inverter C L L 1 C L 2 L L L L C L Energy Management System M 3 3 = DC Bus = 3 M 3 Diesel Engine Generator = = = = = = M 3 AC Traction Motors 3 = Batteries Supercapacitors Flywheel = 3 M 3 M 3 = = = = = = M 3

30 Design DC Hybrid Loco DC-DC Inverter AC-DC Inverter C 1 L DC-DC Inverter C 1 L C 2 L C 2 L L C Energy Management System M = DC Bus 3 = = = M = Diesel Engine Generator = = = = = = Batteries Supercapacitors Flywheel 3 = = M = DC Traction Motors = M = M = = = = = = = M =

31 Hybrid Locomotives Battery Tank Diesel Engine Generator Fuel Tank Dynamic Braking Dynamic Braking Flywheel or Battery Tank Smaller Diesel Engine Generator Fuel Tank ESS ESS Providing Energy Dynamic Braking

32 Conclusions Locomotive energy analysis has been done Energy storage system sizing analysis has been done Method of locomotive hybridisation has been developed Concept design has been completed

33 Acknowledgement The authors are grateful to the CRC for Rail Innovation (established and supported under the Australian Government's Cooperative Research Centres program) for the funding of this research. Project No. R1.115 Future Power Technologies. The authors also acknowledge the support of the Centre for Railway Engineering, Central Queensland University and the industry partners that have contributed to this project Rio Tinto and QR National.

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