Newton Scooters TEACHER NOTES. Forces Chapter Project. Materials and Preparation. Chapter Project Overview. Keep Students on Track Section 2

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1 TEACHER NOTES Lab zonetm Newton Scooters The following steps will walk you through the. Use the hints as you guide your students through planning, construction, testing, improvements, and presentations. Overview To introduce the project, perform the following demonstration. Release an inflated balloon into the air, and ask students to consider what makes the balloon move forward. Explain that the balloon moves forward by expelling air backward. Group students so they can brainstorm vehicle designs other than four-wheeled cars and think about how they might power a vehicle without using any form of electricity or the force of gravity. Also, have students think about ways they can keep the vehicle going in a straight line. Distribute the Overview and Chapter Scoring Rubric. Discuss the purpose of the project and your expectations of what the final product should include. Explain that students will be demonstrating their vehicles to the class and that they should test and modify their vehicles before their demonstrations. Review the Rules and Scoring Rubric with the entire class so that students will be clear about your expectations. Set a deadline for the project presentation and interim dates at the end of Section 2, Section 3, and Section 4. Encourage students to copy the dates in the Project Time Line. Distribute copies of Worksheet 1. Have students complete the worksheet, then discuss the answers as a class. Preview Newton s third law of motion with students before they begin their designs. After students have designed their vehicles, distribute Worksheet 2. Have students complete the worksheet and keep it for use in the testing and modification phase of this project. Materials and Preparation Students will need a variety of materials to build their Newton Scooter. Some ideas are recycled materials from home, balloons, springs, toys or building-block sets, fishing lines, paper towel rolls, and straws. Keep Students on Track Section 2 Review students vehicle diagrams and make sure that they have added labeled arrows to the diagrams to show all the forces acting upon the Have students work in groups to discuss ways they can reduce friction in their vehicles, such as sanding rough areas or using a lubricant. Keep Students on Track Section 3 Students have just finished studying Newton s second law of motion. Lead a class discussion in which students think of ways they can apply this concept to their project. Use the chalkboard to list students ideas for increasing the force on their vehicle and decreasing the mass of their Review students vehicle design sketches. Make sure that they are thinking of practical ways in which they can build these vehicles. Make suggestions for materials they can use. Set aside time in class for students to discuss their designs with other students. Peer input can help them to improve their designs and to select the one that they think will work best.

2 Forces TEACHER NOTES Keep Students on Track Section 4 Check students diagrams to make sure that they have added new arrows to show the force exerted by the vehicle and the force exerted on the Also, check that Newton s third law of motion powers the vehicle they plan to build. Set aside time in class for students to meet with a partner to discuss their designs. Do not allow students to begin construction of their vehicles unless they are able to explain how all the forces in their diagram operate. Check once again that students have reasonable plans for building their vehicles and that they are sure that all of the materials they need are available to them. After students have built their vehicles, have them use Worksheet 2, which they completed earlier, to test and modify their vehicles. Performance Assessment Allow each student to present his or her vehicle, and encourage class members to ask questions about features on the Be sensitive to students whose vehicles fail to operate properly. Encourage these students to think about what might have gone wrong with their demonstration. After all the presentations have been made, discuss with the class different ways in which students could have improved their vehicles. Allow them to think freely and to include ideas that might be possible if unlimited materials were available. Extensions The vehicles could be tested on different surfaces to demonstrate how friction affects the performance of vehicles. Variations of the 1.5-meter horizontal distance could be used. You might consider a 1.5-meter vertical distance, a requirement that the vehicle make a 90 turn, or an obstacle (such as a stack of books) that the vehicle must maneuver around or over. Also, consider allowing students to choose higher levels of difficulty, such as having their vehicles travel 2.5 meters or travel 1.5 meters, cross the finish line, and then return to the starting line. As an alternative to having vehicles move along the floor, place a chair at either end of the course and tie a string or fishing line between them. Students could use this track to guide their vehicles through the air. Vehicles could be suspended from a paper towel roll or a straw with the track running through it. Vehicles that float on water are another possibility. If time, space, and resources are limited, have students work with a partner on this project. You will have to ensure, however, that both students participate equally in vehicle design and construction. You could require that all of the students build balloon-powered vehicles. In this case, give each student three identical balloons: two for vehicle-testing at home, and one for the class demonstration. This will make your class discussions easier because you will be able to focus on a single type of Keep in mind that this option does, however, restrict the creativity of the students. To encourage students to build vehicles that are not car-like, give extra credit for designs that don t have wheels.

3 Name Date Class Lab zonetm Newton Scooters Imagine what would happen if you and a friend were standing on roller skates and you gave your friend a forward push. What would happen to you? Would you stand still or would you travel backward? The backward motion that you would experience can be explained by Newton s third law of motion, which describes an equal and opposite reaction to every action. In this project, you will use Newton s third law of motion to design a This vehicle must travel forward 1.5 meters by pushing backward on the floor, the air, or some other object. At the close of this project, you will demonstrate your vehicle and explain its features to the class. Project Rules Have your teacher approve your vehicle design plans before you begin construction of your Your vehicle must use Newton s third law of motion to move forward; it must move forward by pushing backward on the floor, the air, or some other object. You must build your vehicle from scrap materials. Don t use a readymade Your vehicle must travel forward 1.5 meters and completely cross the finish line. The path of your vehicle should stay within a width of 1 meter. You are not allowed to interfere with the movement of your You cannot give your vehicle a push as you launch it, and you cannot help it in any way as it travels from the starting line to the finish line. You cannot use any form of electricity or the pull of gravity to move your This means that you cannot use a downhill ramp to get your vehicle started. You may use a track such as a toy car track or a string running from the starting line to the finish line to guide your Not only will this help reduce friction, but it may also help you to keep your vehicle within the boundaries. Your vehicle does not have to move along the ground. If your vehicle moves through the air, you could use a string stretched between two chairs as a track to guide your For the class presentation, you must have diagrams of your vehicle that illustrate the forces that act upon it. You should also be able to explain any modifications that you made to improve the performance of your

4 Name Date Class Forces Suggested Materials Here are some ideas for materials to build your vehicle: recycled materials from home, toys or building-block sets, balloons, springs, straws, fishing lines, paper towel rolls Overview Project Hints Be creative! Don t limit yourself to vehicles that have wheels. Think about other ways that you could get your vehicle to move a distance of 1.5 meters. The rules state that the vehicle has to stay within a width of 1 meter, but it is allowed to leave the ground! What happens if you inflate a balloon and release it into the air? Can you use Newton s third law of motion to explain this movement? How could you use the balloon s movement to push your vehicle? Can you think of any other objects like this that you could use to push your vehicle? Project Time Line Task Due Date 1. Sketches of possible vehicles completed. 2. Forces of friction and gravity applied to sketches. 3. Newton s third law applied to sketches. 4. One sketch chosen as design for 5. Vehicle construction completed. 6. All improvements completed. 7. Class presentation completed.

5 Name Date Class Forces Worksheet 1 Thinking About Newton s Third Law of Motion Everyday Examples Newton s third law of motion can be seen in action in many places. In the space provided, describe how this concept explains the following events. 1. An inflated balloon zooms around the classroom when released. 2. A squid squirts through the water without using its fins or tentacles. 3. A salmon swims upstream. 4. A hummingbird stays motionless in the air while flapping its wings. Power Sources In designing your vehicle, you will need to apply Newton s third law of motion. List three different ways to power your The first one is done for you. 1. An inflated balloon 2. 3.

6 Name Date Class Forces Worksheet 2 Improving Your Vehicle New cars aren t released to the public until after they have been tested and modified. Often, this stage of development can take months as the engineers and designers change features on the car to improve performance and safety. After you complete your vehicle, you too will need to spend time modifying your vehicle to ensure that it will travel straight down the course and cross the finish line. The Spring-Loaded Design Jeremy decided to use a spring-loaded launcher to power his His vehicle will soar off an uphill ramp so there would be less time for friction to act between the vehicle s wheels and the floor of the classroom. The Spring-Loaded Design Jeremy thought about different variables that would affect the movement of his vehicle and made a table of these. Can you think of any variables Jeremy left out? Variable Angle of ramp Mass of vehicle Ways to Test or Improve Vehicle Test different ramp angles. Consider different materials for Make the vehicle smaller. Don t use wheels. Type of spring Smoothness of ramp Experiment with different springs. Sand ramp to reduce friction. Your Own Vehicle By now you should have sketched a design of your Use a table similar to the one above to think of all of the variables that might affect the performance of your Indicate experiments that you will want to conduct in order to improve your vehicle s performance.

7 Newton Scooters In evaluating how well you complete the, your teacher will judge your work in four categories. In each, a 4 is the best rating. Planning Student thoroughly considers the forces that would affect the Sketch of the vehicle is useful and includes measurements. Vehicle Building Student follows all Project Rules, and work shows evidence of having thoroughly tested and modified the Project Presentation Group Participation Presentation is thorough and well organized. Student communicates all appropriate features of the Student takes a lead in group discussions Student adequately considers the forces that would affect the Sketch of the vehicle is useful. Student follows most of the Project Rules, and work shows evidence of having adequately tested and modified the Presentation is adequate. Student communicates most of the appropriate features of the Student participates in all aspects of group discussions. Student considers some of the forces that would affect the Sketch of the vehicle is rough. Student follows some of the Project Rules, and work shows evidence of having tested or modified the Presentation is appropriate but is hard to follow. Student communicates some of the features of the Student participates in some aspects of group discussions. Student minimally considers the forces that would affect the Sketch of the vehicle not made. Student did not follow many of the Project Rules, and work shows little evidence of having tested or modified the Presentation is inappropriate and hard to follow. Student communicates a few features of the Student minimally participates in group discussions. Name Date Class Forces Scoring Rubric Lab zone TM

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