# Newton Scooters TEACHER NOTES. Forces Chapter Project. Materials and Preparation. Chapter Project Overview. Keep Students on Track Section 2

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2 Forces TEACHER NOTES Keep Students on Track Section 4 Check students diagrams to make sure that they have added new arrows to show the force exerted by the vehicle and the force exerted on the Also, check that Newton s third law of motion powers the vehicle they plan to build. Set aside time in class for students to meet with a partner to discuss their designs. Do not allow students to begin construction of their vehicles unless they are able to explain how all the forces in their diagram operate. Check once again that students have reasonable plans for building their vehicles and that they are sure that all of the materials they need are available to them. After students have built their vehicles, have them use Worksheet 2, which they completed earlier, to test and modify their vehicles. Performance Assessment Allow each student to present his or her vehicle, and encourage class members to ask questions about features on the Be sensitive to students whose vehicles fail to operate properly. Encourage these students to think about what might have gone wrong with their demonstration. After all the presentations have been made, discuss with the class different ways in which students could have improved their vehicles. Allow them to think freely and to include ideas that might be possible if unlimited materials were available. Extensions The vehicles could be tested on different surfaces to demonstrate how friction affects the performance of vehicles. Variations of the 1.5-meter horizontal distance could be used. You might consider a 1.5-meter vertical distance, a requirement that the vehicle make a 90 turn, or an obstacle (such as a stack of books) that the vehicle must maneuver around or over. Also, consider allowing students to choose higher levels of difficulty, such as having their vehicles travel 2.5 meters or travel 1.5 meters, cross the finish line, and then return to the starting line. As an alternative to having vehicles move along the floor, place a chair at either end of the course and tie a string or fishing line between them. Students could use this track to guide their vehicles through the air. Vehicles could be suspended from a paper towel roll or a straw with the track running through it. Vehicles that float on water are another possibility. If time, space, and resources are limited, have students work with a partner on this project. You will have to ensure, however, that both students participate equally in vehicle design and construction. You could require that all of the students build balloon-powered vehicles. In this case, give each student three identical balloons: two for vehicle-testing at home, and one for the class demonstration. This will make your class discussions easier because you will be able to focus on a single type of Keep in mind that this option does, however, restrict the creativity of the students. To encourage students to build vehicles that are not car-like, give extra credit for designs that don t have wheels.

4 Name Date Class Forces Suggested Materials Here are some ideas for materials to build your vehicle: recycled materials from home, toys or building-block sets, balloons, springs, straws, fishing lines, paper towel rolls Overview Project Hints Be creative! Don t limit yourself to vehicles that have wheels. Think about other ways that you could get your vehicle to move a distance of 1.5 meters. The rules state that the vehicle has to stay within a width of 1 meter, but it is allowed to leave the ground! What happens if you inflate a balloon and release it into the air? Can you use Newton s third law of motion to explain this movement? How could you use the balloon s movement to push your vehicle? Can you think of any other objects like this that you could use to push your vehicle? Project Time Line Task Due Date 1. Sketches of possible vehicles completed. 2. Forces of friction and gravity applied to sketches. 3. Newton s third law applied to sketches. 4. One sketch chosen as design for 5. Vehicle construction completed. 6. All improvements completed. 7. Class presentation completed.

5 Name Date Class Forces Worksheet 1 Thinking About Newton s Third Law of Motion Everyday Examples Newton s third law of motion can be seen in action in many places. In the space provided, describe how this concept explains the following events. 1. An inflated balloon zooms around the classroom when released. 2. A squid squirts through the water without using its fins or tentacles. 3. A salmon swims upstream. 4. A hummingbird stays motionless in the air while flapping its wings. Power Sources In designing your vehicle, you will need to apply Newton s third law of motion. List three different ways to power your The first one is done for you. 1. An inflated balloon 2. 3.

7 Newton Scooters In evaluating how well you complete the, your teacher will judge your work in four categories. In each, a 4 is the best rating. Planning Student thoroughly considers the forces that would affect the Sketch of the vehicle is useful and includes measurements. Vehicle Building Student follows all Project Rules, and work shows evidence of having thoroughly tested and modified the Project Presentation Group Participation Presentation is thorough and well organized. Student communicates all appropriate features of the Student takes a lead in group discussions Student adequately considers the forces that would affect the Sketch of the vehicle is useful. Student follows most of the Project Rules, and work shows evidence of having adequately tested and modified the Presentation is adequate. Student communicates most of the appropriate features of the Student participates in all aspects of group discussions. Student considers some of the forces that would affect the Sketch of the vehicle is rough. Student follows some of the Project Rules, and work shows evidence of having tested or modified the Presentation is appropriate but is hard to follow. Student communicates some of the features of the Student participates in some aspects of group discussions. Student minimally considers the forces that would affect the Sketch of the vehicle not made. Student did not follow many of the Project Rules, and work shows little evidence of having tested or modified the Presentation is inappropriate and hard to follow. Student communicates a few features of the Student minimally participates in group discussions. Name Date Class Forces Scoring Rubric Lab zone TM

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