Delhi s ambient noise levels

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1 CONTROL OF URBAN POLLUTION SERIES CUPS/87/ Delhi s ambient noise levels influenced by traffic flow - Case studies (Includes odd even traffic experiment) Delhi s BRTS experiment, movement of CNG vehicles also contribute to ambient noise levels September, 2017 Central Pollution Control Board Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change Website :

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3 CONTROL OF URBAN POLLUTION SERIES CUPS/86/ Delhi s ambient noise levels influenced by traffic flow - Case studies (Includes odd even traffic experiment) September, 2017 Central Pollution Control Board Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change Website :

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6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CPCB s Team Report preparation Mita Sharma P K Selvi Vishal Gandhi Ankur Tiwary Kedarnath Dash Rajesh Debroy Supported by Project staff Dr Kanika Sharma, RA Dr Soumya Chatterji,RA Ramakrishna Chintapalli, JRF Jagdeep, Sct. Assistant Report formatting Prem Raj, Sr. IT Assistant, ENVIS Report reviewed by CSIR National Physical Laboratory (NPL) Delhi : Dr. Mahavir Singh, Sr Principal Scientist, Acoustics, Ultrasonics & Vibrations Standards Laboratory Dr. Naveen Garg, Sr Scientist Physico Mechanical Meteorology Note: All PHOTOGRAPHS have been taken from the internet to highlight impacts on environment due to traffic related issues

7 INDEX OF CONTENTS 1. Chapter I Objectives, scope and methodology of the Study 1. Traffic noise & acoustic discomfort 2. Four reasons that spurred analyses of noise levels of Delhi 3. WHO rating Delhi as 2 nd noisiest city - a global survey 4. CSE study on 13 arterial roads in Delhi in June The 1 st Odd even traffic experiment conducted in India - Delhi in year Key observations on Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in year J-PAL South Asia 7. Key observations on Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment (Phase I) - IIT Delhi 8. Other salient observations on Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in Odd even traffic experiment - Opportunity to examine NOISE LEVELS 10. Objectives, scope and methodology 11. Noise basics 1 2. Chapter II Urban sprawl : Delhi NCR move toward seamless urban continuum 1. Planning indicators of Master Plans of Delhi (MPD) 2. MASTER PLAN FOR DELHI (MPD) 2021 : Vision 3. Demography - Population increase as per census 4. Planned land-use in focus in MPDs 5. Urbanising glimpse of India and its capital Delhi 6. Landuse Policy - Delhi 7. ZONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS - Urban areas zones 8. Governing principles for MIXED LAND-USE 9. Generation of urbanisable land - Physical potential within the NCT is reducing 10. Urbanization at Delhi s fringe - Landuse NCR 11. NCR - Delhi - towards a seamless urban growth 12. Urban sprawl strengthened by MRTS Chapter III Delhi s transport sector s key concerns - reduce road congestion, promote mass transport, improve ambient air quality 1. White Paper on Pollution in Delhi (1997) highlighted pollution due to traffic 2. Delhi s Transport Policy - promotes mass transit modes 3. Transportation demand MPD Focus on road de-congestion MPD Strategies for Delhi s Transport Policy : promoting mass transport & de-congestion measures curbs traffic noise 6. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) proposed for Delhi - decongestion measure 7. Report of the HPC on De-congesting Traffic in Delhi (MoUD 2016) 8. MASS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM (MRTS) popular public transport 9. PARKING contributes to congestion and a stress on shrinking urban landuse 10. Public transport - RAIL 11. National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) promotes seamless transport facilities 22

8 4. Chapter IV Rapid increase in automobiles with population in Delhi - Signs of a noisy city De-congest NCT Delhi echoes in MPD Vehicle population on the rise 3. Vehicle composition in Delhi 4. 2W vehicle population dominate vehicle population 5. Vehicle ownership 6. Vehicle ownership per 1000 persons 7. Projection for year 2025 : Vehicle ownership & GDP 8. Growth of Road network 9. Road length per 100 sq.kms 10. Road length per 1000 population 11. Road length per 1000 vehicles 12. Population density 13. Population and vehicle number grow over the years 14. Comparisons of vehicle growth, road length and vehicular speed 15. CLEAN FUEL - CNG for road transport in Delhi 16. Registrations of CNG vehicles 17. Mass transport - The Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) 18. Inter State Bus Terminus (ISBTs) 19. Delhi s MRTS network expanding 20. Mass transport - RAIL network 21. Airport increases vehicle movement services 5. Chapter V Case study Noise levels during Diwali ( Deepawali ) Diwali festival of light & SOUND 2. Standards - Ambient noise level based on area zones 3. Objective & Methodology 4. Compliance w.r.t. LAeq day during Diwali period ( 2014, 2015, 2016 ) - SILENCE area zones 5. Compliance w.r.t. LAeq day during Diwali period ( 2014, 2015, 2016 ) RESIDENTAIL area zones 6. Compliance w.r.t. LAeq NIGHT during Diwali period ( 2014, 2015, 2016 ) SILENCE & RESIDENTAIL area zones 7. LAeq (day & night) w.r.t. noise limits ( 2014, 2015, 2016 ) - CPCB HQ ( Commercial zone area) 8. LAeq (day & night) w.r.t. noise limits ( 2014, 2015, 2016 ) - ITO ( Commercial zone area ) 9. LAeq (day & night) w.r.t. noise limits ( 2014, 2015, 2016 ) - Anand Vihar and Civil Lines 10. Comparison of noise levels at LAeq NIGHT time - Diwali days Vs BAU weekdays 11. Overall observations

9 6. Chapter VI Case study Noise levels during Republic Day (January 26) and Independence Day (August 15) 1. National holidays - Republic Days (January 26) & Independence Days (August 15) 2. Objective & Methodology, 3. Standards - Ambient noise levels for commercial area zones 4. Status of compliance LAeq day 65 dba 5. Background noise levels - L90 (6am to 10pm) 6. Background noise levels - L90 forenoon (6am to noon) 7. LAeq, L90 day on BAU weekdays Vs BAU weekdays Monday, Tuesday & Saturday 8. Noise level distribution (% exceedance) day time 9. Overview - Salient observations 10. Graphical presentation Chapter VII How quiet are Sundays in Delhi? 1. Typical traffic related activities on Sundays 2. Standards - Ambient noise level based on area zones 3. Objective & Methodology 4. Status of compliance on Sunday w.r.t. noise limits LAeq day in Delhi 5. Background noise levels L90 (day) on Sundays in Delhi 6. Overall observations Chapter VIII Case study : Noise levels during Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in year Objective & Methodology 2. Delhi s odd even traffic experiment in year salient features 3. Status of compliance Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) MONDAYs 4. Status of compliance Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) TUESDAYs 5. Status of compliance Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) WEDNESDAYs 6. Status of compliance Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) THURSDAYs 7. Status of compliance Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) FRIDAYs 8. Status of compliance Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) SATURDAYs 9. Status of compliance with noise limits LAeq (day-time) Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU weekdays 10. Background noise L90 (day-time) : Odd-even traffic experiment 11. Background noise L90 (day-time) : Odd-even traffic experiment Vs BAU week 12. Background noise levels L90 (forenoon : 8am to noon) - Odd-even traffic experiment 13. Overview - Salient observations 14. Constraint 15. Graphical presentations 71

10 9. Chapter IX Findings & Challenges in traffic noise abatement 1. Adverse health effects of noise 2. Unsustainable trends in noise pollution future policy planning (OECD (1991) 3. Key findings - Case studies on noise levels in Delhi 4. Vehicle ownership 5. Urban sprawl : Delhi NCR move toward seamless urban continuum 6. De-congest NCT Delhi echoes in MPD Factors contributing to traffic noise 8. Traffic noise link between speed and road traffic noise (Case study by UKNA) 9. Limitations & constraints Chapter X Audible Warning Devices (horns & sirens) and vehicle noise 1. HORN an Audible Warning Device 2. World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) 3. Some global perspectives on horns / sirens 4. Six certified testing agencies authorised by MoRTH vehicle noise 5. Specifications for vehicle HORN as a COMPONENT - BIS & AIS 6. Specifications for SIRENS as a COMPONENT - AIS 7. Ban on noise from 2W ( motorcycles) - removal of silencers 8. Ban of use of multi-toned and pressure horns in Delhi 9. Noise limits on AWDs by MoRTH : multi-tone horns and pressure horns 10. Bureau of Indian Standard BIS : standards for horns 11. Horn noise in manufacturing stage in line with UN Regulation Bureau of Indian Standard BIS : standards for vehicle noise 13. Vehicle noise in manufacturing stage MoEF&CC 14. Vehicle noise in manufacturing stage MoRTH 15. Modified format Form 22 includes vehicle noise 16. Vehicular noise under Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, Challenges in noise measurement from vehicles Chapter XI Strategies for vehicular air pollution abatement are also applicable to reduction of traffic noise 1. White Paper on Pollution in Delhi (1997) highlighted TRAFFIC NOISE 2. Relationship between traffic congestion, traffic speed & air pollution in Delhi (CSE) 3. # Road Rationing Policies in cities : also opportunities for traffic noise reduction 4. Delhi s Transport needs directly proportional to urban population (MoUD 2016) 5. DELHI is dependent on road transport - a snap shot 6. Initiatives to de-congest Delhi modal shift to public transport 7. Survey & Metro rail users - Noise abatement is an additional benefit 8. Multi-Modal Integration at Railway Stations / ISBT issue - long distance travel 9. National Environment Policy (NEP) urban noise an environmental quality parameter 10. Traffic Noise awareness initiatives & campaigns 11. Provisions under Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, MoUD approves Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Policy for Delhi 13. Funds & HPC to De-congest Traffic in DELHI - benefits traffic noise abatement 14. Synchronize public transport services with Feeder Services, Taxis & auto-rickshaws 119

11 15. Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) 16. Improving Regional Connectivity Issue 17. Road Safety and Traffic Management also reduce traffic noise 18. Other De-congestion measures Delhi government 19. Installation of Synchronized traffic signaling 20. Launch of intelligent traffic management measures by Delhi Police 21. Flyovers under PWD, Delhi - de-congestion measure 22. Hon ble Supreme Court s directions on goods vehicles opportunity for vehicle noise reduction 23. Hon ble Supreme Court creates funds (ECC & EPC) for abatement of vehicular pollution in Delhi 24. MoRTH s VAHAN - database of polluting vehicles (emissions & noise) 25. Speed reduction and traffic noise management 26. Low-noise road pavements 27. Traffic noise abatement installation of noise barriers 28. Green cover 12. Chapter XII Way forward 1. The Source-Path-Receiver framework is central to all environmental noise studies 2. Noise Measurement & Mitigation strategies 3. Noise management (EEA 1995) 4. Precautionary measures (OECD 1991 & OECD-ECMT 1995). 5. Traffic Impact Assessment (Tia) 6. Promotion of noise assessment & control as part of environmental health programmes - Utilisation of EPC funds ANNEXURE - Abatement of ambient noise levels from other sources 1. Ambient noise an environmental quality parameter 2. Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, Definition of day time and night time 4. Ambient Air Quality Standards w.r.t. NOISE 5. Restrictions in SILENCE area zones 6. Restrictions in residential areas 7. Restrictions on the use of loud speakers / public address system and sound producing instruments 8. Restrictions on the use of horns, sound emitting construction equipment and bursting of fire crackers 9. National noise monitoring network 10. Protocol for Ambient Noise Monitoring 11. Noise related issues : Noise from Construction equipment 12. Noise related issues Metro tail 13. Noise related issues : Airport noise levels 14. Noise related issues : GENSET operations 15. Noise abatement measures - Building design and sound proofing 16. Noise related issues : bursting FIRECRACKERS 17. International Noise Awareness Day (INAD)

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13 Chapter I Objectives, scope and methodology of the Study Traffic noise & acoustic discomfort Hearing impairment is typically defined as an increase in the threshold of hearing. Hearing deficits may be accompanied by tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Noise-induced hearing impairment occurs predominantly in the higher frequency range of Hz, with the largest effect at Hz. But with increasing LAeq,8h and increasing exposure time, noise-induced hearing impairment occurs even at frequencies as low as 2000 Hz. In the European Union countries about 40% of the population are exposed to road traffic noise with an equivalent sound pressure level exceeding 55 db(a) daytime and 20% are exposed to levels exceeding 65 db(a). Taking all exposure to transportation noise together about half of the European Union citizens are estimated to live in zones which do not ensure acoustical comfort to residents. More than 30% are exposed at night to equivalent sound pressure levels exceeding 55 db(a) which are disturbing to sleep. Data collected alongside densely travelled roads were found to have equivalent sound pressure levels for 24 hours of 75 to 80 db(a). The degree to which noise leads to disturbance, annoyance and stress depends partly on individual characteristics, in particular a person s attitude and sensitivity to noise. Four reasons that spurred analyses of noise levels of Delhi The four key issues that spurred analyses of noise levels of Delhi are given below and the same are briefly discussed in the following sections here. 1. WHO rating Delhi as 2 nd noisiest city ( World Economic Forum 2017) 2. CSE s survey on 13 arterial roads in June No honking drive by Times of India (ToI) between August 15 22, st Odd even traffic experiment conducted in Delhi in year

14 WHO rating Delhi as 2 nd noisiest city - a global survey The Worldwide Hearing Index was created by digital hearing app founders Mimi Hearing Technologies GmbH. They analysed the hearing test results of 200,000 of their users and combined their results with data on noise pollution from the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as from SINTEF, a Norwegian-based research organization, and used it to plot noise pollution in 50 different cities. Key findings: As per the survey, DELHI was the second worst city for noise pollution, followed by Cairo, MUMBAI, Istanbul and Beijing. The study highlighted that typical sources of noise pollution are TRANSPORT (such as road, rail and air traffic), construction and industry and radios and televisions blaring in shops, restaurants and bars. The Mimi study found that the average city dweller has a hearing loss equivalent to years older than their actual age. Citizens of Delhi, India have the most, with a hearing age of 20 years older. (Ref. World Economic Forum, 27 th March 2017, 2

15 CPCB, September, 2017 Figure : Severity of health effects of noise and number of people affected CSE study on 13 arterial roads in Delhi in June A study by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) found that non-peak hours have almost disappeared on Delhi s main arterial roads, i.e., there is virtually no difference in travel time between peak and nonpeak hours. The Delh s typical peak hour rush evenings survey based on month-long CSE study in June 2017 on travel time and traffic speed monitored 13 arterial roads for 12 hours daily (8am to 8 pm). The 13 arterial roads that were part of the study included heavily congested ones such as Outer Ring Road; Swaroop Nagar to

16 CPCB, September, 2017 Wazirabad, Mahatma Gandhi Road (Ring Road); Indira Gandhi Stadium Complex to Majnu Ka Tilla and Sri Aurobindo Marg; Lado Sarai to Kidwai Nagar West. Arterial roads are primary networks that provide long-distance travel through multi-modal transport system connecting all major city-level land uses. They also facilitate inter-city and regional trips by connecting with highways and expressway networks. These roads have been designed to achieve a driving speed of km/hr as per the Unified Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure (Planning & Engineering) Centre (UTTIPEC) street design guidelines as well as Indian Road Congress guidelines for urban roads. Key findings : The analysis, which is based on data from Google Maps, showed that roads in Delhi are more congested on weekends, with an average peak speed of 25kmph, less than the weekday figure of 26kmph. It was found that vehicles are plying 50% - 60% slower than the speed these roads were built for. While the average morning and evening peak speeds were recorded at 28kmph and 25kmph, the off-peak speed remained restricted to 27kmph. (Ref Hindustan Times - July 17, 2017) Photo Traffic flow in DELHI at peak times in some routes No honking drive August 15 22, 2016 by ToI Recognising indiscriminate honking is a nuisance, the NO HONKING DRIVE poll was conducted by Times of India (TOI) between August 15 22, 2016, in eight major urban agglomerations in India include Mumbai, DELHI, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengluru, Hyderabad, Pune and Lucknow. These cities are also covered under CPCB s National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network. The queries raised to the citizens are : How often do you use your horn? Are you aware that excessive honking invites a fine? Are you aware that there are silence zones in your city where you cannot honk? Do you know that noise can lead to ailments like early loss of hearing and increase in blood pressure and stress levels? 5. Who do you feel honks most? 6. What do you feel is the most actionable measure that can be taken to reduce honking? Key findings : As per the ToI survey 78% of Delhi residents covered are aware that excessive honking invites a fine, 87% aware that that honking is banned in silence zones in the city, 43% say that of the total traffic composition the 2W (two wheelers) honk the most. The poll responses to abovementioned queries raised to citizens of Delhi are summarized below in TABLE

17 CPCB, September, 2017 The 1st Odd even traffic experiment conducted in India - Delhi in year 2016 Delhi s Transport Policy objective: One of the seven primary objectives of the Transport Policy is Reduction in vehicular emissions to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Like elsewhere in the other cities also, traffic related issues generally focus on the impacts of air pollution (particulate matter) w.r.t. emissions arising from increased vehicular movement and less to do with noise associated with vehicle movement. Delhi government launched the Odd-even traffic experiment w.e.f New Year from January 1, 2016 (Friday) at 8 am. Cars with odd numbered registration plates would be allowed to ply on odd dates and those with even numbered registration plates allowed on the other days. The INCREASING AIR POLLUTION was the driving force for conducting the odd even traffic experiment in DELHI by curbing number of vehicles on the roads. CPCB s air quality data indicated that there was no major reduction in air quality. Table : Snapshot of Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment Issues Effective period Duration Period Days applicable Sundays Phase I January 1-15, days 8 am to 8 pm Monday to Saturday No restrictions Phase II April 15 30, days 8 am to 8 pm Monday to Saturday Key observations on Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in year J-PAL South Asia 1. Public support the first round of the Odd-Even policy in Delhi in January was a success in reducing traffic congestion, seems to be the consensus about Delhi s policy experiment to reduce traffic flows and pollution. Compliance with the policy was high, yet many drivers bypassed it legally by using other private vehicles 2. Compliance: Compliance was generally high, and higher in April (2nd phase). Less than half of drivers actually used their usual 4-wheeler. This number was precisely 34% in January, and 33% in April. The key question is what these drivers did instead of using their 4-wheelers. Did they mostly switch to other cars as critics feared, or to public transport as the policy intended? In fact, over half of those who changed their behaviour or 18.5 percentage points of all drivers switched to other private modes of transport, such as other cars, 2-wheelers, taxis and autos such responses to reduce the effectiveness of the policy. 3. Public transport & car pooling use: Between a quarter and a third switched to public transport, in decreasing order to the Delhi Metro, carpool and buses. Specifically, 5-6% of all 5 Key observations of the survey by J-PAL South Asia and supported by the International Growth Centre (IGC)

18 drivers switched to the Metro, 2-3% to carpool, and 1-2% to buses. Hence the policy was at least partly effective, which is consistent with the observed impact on traffic congestions. 4. Traffic congestion :Odd-Even led to a reasonable reduction in traffic congestion, which was remarkably stable across the two rounds. Odd-Even had remarkably consistent impacts over the two rounds. The impact on traffic congestion measured using Google Maps data was very similar in January and April. Moreover, fewer drivers switched to 2-wheelers or public transport in April, compared to January. 5. Average travel time excess delay : Results point to a precise decrease of 9-10% in average travel time excess delay. Excess delay is the time it takes to travel on a certain route, above and beyond what it would take in the absence of congestion. There was an average 10% reduction in excess delay in January, and 9% in April. This result is not wishful thinking from supporters, but real gains perceived widely by drivers in Delhi. 6. Use of 2 nd car : A MIT report said that 18.8 % of the people said they used a second car as opposed to nearly 7% during phase one. So there appeared to be an increase in people using second cars. 7. Suggestions from readers : a. The consistent impact on traffic congestion over both rounds and the lack of major disruptions, recommend it strongly as a short-term or emergency measure in the future. However, suggestive warning signs in terms of driver adaptation and disrupted economic activity imply that the Delhi government should proactively explore other policies to improve traffic congestion, both in the short and medium run. b. Delhi government could also explore and rigorously evaluate traffic policies tailored to specific corridors and areas in Delhi, and focus specifically on the rush hour intervals. Compared to the sweeping Odd-Even policy, which applied across Delhi and throughout the day, these design tweaks will allow drivers more options to avoid congestion for example, by changing their routes or travel times. Ref. Economist Gabriel Kreindler of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Study organised by J-PAL South Asia and supported by the International Growth Centre (IGC) - collected detailed data on traffic congestion on 150 routes (average travel time collected every 20 minutes between 8 am to 8 pm from Google Maps) across Delhi. Key observations on Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment (Phase I) - IIT Delhi Surveys were based on videography for traffic volume, manual observation for odd and even numbered cars (200 cars at each of the four locations), and manual observations for occupancy of cars (100 cars at each location). For the survey roads were classified into four groups arterial roads, intercity roads, commercial roads, and ring roads, the key observations are listed below : (Ref. Evaluation of the Effects of the 15-day Odd-Even Scheme in Delhi: A Preliminary Report under Transportation Research & Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi) 1. The survey was done to asses air pollution load due to vehicular emissions 6

19 CPCB, September, 2017 Other salient observations on Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in Survey by CSIR-CRRI regarding Traffic Reduction: An animated map showed the effect of odd-even rule on Delhi's traffic. According to a report by the Central Road Research of India, traffic congestion in Delhi reduced by 35%. A lot of people tweeted that there average commuting time reduced by 50-60%. In the first 6 days of odd-even scheme, only 3 times were ambulances stuck in the traffic. An ambulance from Fortis Hospitals told NDTV that 10-kilometre stretch that earlier took 35 minutes took 18 minutes. 2. During the odd-even period (Phase I ), the use of cars fells by 30 per cent while those carpooling went up by a whopping per cent, indicating the success of the government s push towards that option. Delhi-ites using private auto-rickshaws went up by per cent compared to the period before odd-even, while Metro use went up by 58.4 per cent. On 7 2. The surveys were done before, during, and after the odd-even experiment to examine the following : a. Traffic speed data b. Proportion of odd and even cars on the roads (four locations) c. Car occupancy (four locations) d. Traffic volume (four locations) cars & two-wheeler traffic. e. Delhi Metro ridership 3. Observations on traffic speed data : Average speeds decreased by a small amount during the experiment period between 08:00-11:00 period in most locations. There was a slight increase in average speeds between 11:00-17:00 during the experiment period. The maximum increase in average speeds was 9 per cent during the experiment as compared to the before period in a few locations. However, in most locations the change in speeds was less than 5%. The effect on the experiment was less on the intercity roads Details indicate that the effect of increase in speeds was slightly more on South Delhi roads during the experiment. 4. Observations on Proportion of odd and even cars: On both odd and even days about 30% of the vehicles not with the appropriate number were on the roads probably due to exemptions and partly due noncompliance (the 30% value is equivalent in numbers to 24% presence of wrong numbered cars). Data showed that the odd-even policy did not reduce car use by 50% but by 35% 5. Observations on Car occupancy at the four locations: The above data show that car occupancy change varied from no change at one location to a maximum of 12 % increase at one location. 6. Observations on traffic volume : a) car flow rates per hour on different roads decreased by 9%-17% in parallel with approximately similar increases in bus flow and auto rickshaw rates and significant increases in motorised two wheeler flow rates (b) Significant increase in motorised two-wheeler flow 7. Delhi Metro ridership: Ridership in early January in 2015 was higher than December 2104 by a similar amount as the increase in early January 2016 as compared to late December This indicates the increase in the ridership of metro during the first week of January 2016 can be independent of odd-even implementation.

20 average, the respondents took 12 minutes less to commute from home to work during the odd-even period. Car and bus users reached their workplaces 13 and 14 minutes faster during the 15-day period (Ref. THE HINDU Metro/article ece (January 2015 survey) 3. TERI : TERI observed that the scheme has brought considerable additional benefits including reducing on road congestion, increase of average car speeds, reduced fuel usage and made significant impact on public awareness levels on air pollution and its impacts on human health. The survey found that in the second phase, there was a 17% decrease in car numbers and 13% increase in vehicle speed. In contrast, the first phase saw a 21% reduction in cars and 18% increase in speed. 4. CSE on Congestion : While CSE found that the drop in number of vehicles did have a positive impact on the quality of air, Dr A Roychowdhury pointed to a study by the School of Planning and Architecture that monitored 11 sites in Delhi and found that car journeys decreased by 30-35%. 5. Safe Road Foundation NGO : Reported that reduction in traffic congestion was marginal compared to previous time, there was a 30-35% of reduction in congestion on roads last time (phase I) while this time it was just 10-15%. 6. Two wheelers stood out : Campaigners highlighted that motorbikes were responsible for up to 31% of pollution from vehicles 7. Mass transport and Car pooling a) Mass transport was over loaded local rail services and metro rail b) The public transport system, especially buses indicated higher daily travel, according to the government, buses that had a target to cover 200 kilometres a day would manage just 160 kilometres due to traffic congestion, however in January 1-15, 2016 fortnight, however it was reported that the service covered 220 kilometres a day. 8. Public support & response : a) After the completion of the scheme during the first phase, the experiment drew major support from the citizens with 81% of them voting in favour of its return according to a large-scale referendum that was conducted more than 60% said the formula should be made permanent. b) Compliance Delhi s odd-even plan sets the template for citizen engagement with a public policy reform experiment the following salient issues : heightened awareness mass participation intense public scrutiny and data-driven discourse (Ref. Live Mint, January 15, 2016 ) 8

21 Odd even traffic experiment - Opportunity to examine NOISE LEVELS URBANISATION has been mainly responsible for growing demand on transportation. The main reason for experimenting with various permutation and combination of odd-even traffic features was to de-congest city ROADS from growing vehicular traffic and thereby reducing air pollution (tail pipe emissions), contributed mainly from growing vehicle numbers in cities. The reports from various surveys as given above on Delhi s odd even traffic experiment conducted in year 2016 highlight the following: Traffic congestion is a major problem Traffic speeds get reduced Public awareness on harmful impacts from vehicular pollution Rising AIR POLLUTION due to increased vehicle numbers Noise is generated from a variety of sources stationary ex. Genset operations and mobile sources ex. vehicle movement. In the odd even traffic experiments conducted in Delhi in year 2016, the restrictions were imposed on certain segment of VEHICLES while there were no restrictions for other noise emitting sources. Hence any noise reduction (if any) observed can be attributed to the restrictions applied to vehicles (odd-even number plates private vehicles ) during the TRAFFIC (vehicular) experiments only. In view of the above, the odd even traffic movement the Odd-Even traffic experiment conducted in Delhi in year 2016 offers not only an opportunity to assess impact not only on air quality (mainly PM 2.5 particulate matter measuring less than 2.5 micrometres) but also offers an opportunity to assess reduction (if any) in NOISE LEVELS due to the restrictions on license plate number ( odd / even). Objectives, scope and methodology The following scenarios are studied to ascertain that traffic flow is the main contributor to ambient noise levels: i. On Sundays ii. On National holidays -Republic day & Independence day iii. Odd even traffic experiment conducted in Delhi during year Phase I & Phase II iv. Besides Diwali period ( particularly nights) The city DELHI has been identified as this is the only city which conducted the odd even traffic experiment in the country. The noise levels reported from CPCB s real time noise monitoring network were analysed for LAeq day for compliance with noise limits and background noise levels L 90 day. As focus is on traffic noise, the data of the FOUR noise monitoring stations located in commercial area zones (traffic prone areas) were studied as these locations should reflect reduction in traffic volume effectively (if any). 9

22 Table : National Noise Monitoring Network - DELHI Name of location Area Zone type Latitude Longitude 1. IBHAS Dilshad Garden Silence 28º40' 53.76'' N 77º19' 6.2'' E 2. DCE Silence 28º45' 00.54'' N 77º7' 3.61'' E 3. Mandir Marg Silence 28º38' 11.41'' N 77º12' 2.36'' E 4. NSIT Silence 28º36' 14.46'' N 77º2' 28.78'' E 5. R.K. Puram Residential 28º33' 46.23'' N 77º11' 12.4'' E 6. Punjabi Bagh Residential 28º40' 12.83'' N 77º7' 54.14'' E 7. Anand Vihar Commercial 28º38' 51.22'' N 77º18' 57.02'' E 8. CPCB, HQ Commercial 28º39' 20.99'' N 77º17' 39.91'' E 9. Civil Lines Commercial 28º40' 55.97'' N 77º13' 25.75'' E 10. ITO Commercial 28º37' 23.06'' N 77º14' 28.57'' E Noise basics Some common features on noise are listed below : i. Sound produced from any source is stimuli and it can be measured as sound pressure. ii. Frequency : Sound is a fluctuation of air pressure. The number of times the fluctuation occurs in one second is called its frequency. Acoustical scientists measured and developed frequency response functions that characterize the way people respond to different frequencies, these are the so-called A, B and C-weighted curves,. Environmental noise generally falls into the normal category so that the A weighted sound level is considered best to represent the human response iii. A-weighted Sound Level: The "dba" denotes the way A-weighted Sound Levels are typically written example 80 dba. iv. A sound level meter (SLM) or a microphone & data acquisition system is used to measure sound pressure levels v. People react to the duration of noise events, judging longer events to be more annoying than shorter ones, assuming equal maximum A-Levels. vi. Noise from different sources can be measured or described in different ways. This is why different countries have adopted different noise descriptors for assessment of different community noise sources. vii. Noise descriptors : It is possible to describe fluctuating noises in the environment using SINGLE-NUMBER DESCRIPTORS. To do this allows manageable measurements, computations, and impact assessment. a. LAeq,T should be used to measure continuing sounds, such as road traffic noise or types of more-or-less continuous. If day defined between 6am to 10 pm = 16 hours), LAeq(day) descriptor for cumulative day, is the 16-hour exposure accounts for the moment-to-moment fluctuations in A-weighted sound levels due to all sound sources during that period. When noise or sound is measured in db(a), it is customary to denote the equivalent continuous sound pressure level as L Aeq 10

23 CPCB, September, 2017 b. Noise descriptor Ln, is the sound pressure level exceeded for n percent of the time. Ln can be obtained by analysing a given noise by statistical means. c. L10 is the noise level exceeded for 10% of the time of the measurement duration. This is often used to give an indication of the upper limit of fluctuating noise, such as that from road traffic. d. L90 level is an indicator of the background noise level viii. Duration of noise L : Need to state the period of time when noise measurements were taken, for example 65 dba L10(16-hour) emphasizes that the measurements were more extensive and statistically more reliable than a 65 dba L10 (5-minutes) sample run. ix. The speed of sound in air varies with temperature, but at standard conditions is approximately 1000 feet per second. x. Low frequencies are associated with long wavelengths of sound. Conversely, high frequencies are the result of short wavelengths. The way in which frequency and wavelength of sound waves are related is the speed of sound. xi. The relationship is: fλ = c, xii. where f = frequency in cycles per second (Hz) λ = wavelength in feet, and c = speed of sound in feet per second. xiii. Transit noise : The Source-Path-Receiver framework is central to all environmental noise studies. xiv. In a large number of community attitudinal surveys, transportation noise has been ranked among the most significant causes of community dissatisfaction. Precious urban land used for PARKING vehicles 11

24 12 Table : Responses by DELHI citizens to NO HONKING DRIVE conducted by Times of India (TOI) between August 15 22, 2016 Note : EIGHT major urban agglomerations in India include Mumbai, DELHI, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengluru, Hyderabad, Pune and Lucknow were surveyed Query Responses in percentage ( % ) How often do you use your horn? Are you aware that excessive honking invites a fine? Are you aware that there are silence zones in your city where you cannot honk? Do you know that noise can lead to ailments like early loss of hearing and increase in blood pressure and stress levels? Who do you feel honks most? What do you feel is the most actionable measure that can be taken to reduce honking? Response Only in case of emergency More than 10 times a day Less than 10 times a day Never Don't know/ Can't say Overall DELHI Response YES NO Overall DELHI Response YES NO Don't know/ Can't say Overall DELHI Response YES NO Don't know/ Can't say Overall DELHI Response 2W drivers Auto drivers Bus drivers Truck drivers Cab drivers Pvt small & mid size cars Big / luxury car owners Overall Improve road condition DELHI Response Cars not allowed to park Lane Strict better in middle of the roads driving fines for pedestrian ways or no parking areas strictly offenders Overall DELHI

25 Chapter II Urban sprawl : Delhi NCR move toward seamless urban continuum Planning indicators of Master Plans of Delhi (MPD) The growth of Delhi has been documented in the following Master Plans of Delhi (MPD) editions incorporating the Gazette notifications of amendments / modifications: Master Plan of Delhi in 1962 (MPD-62). Master Plan for Delhi 2001 (MPD-2001) MASTER PLAN FOR DELHI (MPD) 2021 The planning indicators of physical and socio-economic changes are: i. DEMOGRAPHIC: Population size, population distribution in relation to holding capacity, age sex structure, household size, rate of migration, causes of migration etc. ii. LANDUSE : land-use pattern, development / layout plans etc. iii. TRANSPORT highlights from MPD discussed in a separate chapter MASTER PLAN FOR DELHI (MPD) 2021 : Vision The Master Plan envisages vision and policy guidelines for the perspective period upto VISION : To make Delhi a global metropolis and a world-class city, where all the people would be engaged in productive work with a better quality of life, living in a sustainable environment. Extensive modifications which the Central Government proposed to make in the Master Plan for Delhi was in keeping in view the perspective for Delhi for the year 2021 and growing new dimensions in URBAN DEVELOPMENT 13

26 Demography - Population increase as per census The population estimates for NCTD at five year intervals are given in the following table: (Source: Census of India and projections by DDA Sub-Group (MPD- 2021) Table: Monitoring Framework for Development Components Components Phase I Upto 2011 Phase II Upto Phase III Upto Target Upto 2021 Population (in lakhs ) Five Yearly estimates of Projected Population in Delhi Year Population (in lakhs) Delhi, the capital of India, is experiencing a rapid population increase from 0.4 million in 1911 to 13.8 million in The Delhi Development Authority (DDA) is projecting a population of 23 million in Planned land-use in focus in MPDs 1. Past MPDs : The process of planned development of the National Capital began with enactment of the Delhi Development Act 1957, and then was followed by the promulgation of the Master Plan of Delhi in 1962 (MPD-62). The Master Plan for Delhi 2001 (MPD-2001) also substantially reiterated the planning process, which was outlined in MPD-62. These plans were mainly land-use plans with a three level hierarchy i.e. Master Plan, Zonal Plans and Layout Plans for specific development schemes within each zone The thrust areas on development of Delhi in MPD 2021 are: a) Mixed land-use b) Urbanizing landuse c) Transportation d) NCR- Delhi s virtual urban continuum 2. MPD 2021: MPD-2021 emphasized on re-development and densification of the existing urban areas and city improvement. The approach is a comprehensive re-development strategy for accommodating a larger population, strengthening of infrastructure facilities accompanied by creation of more open spaces at the local level by undertaking measures for re-development of congested areas. Key features of re-development: 14

27 a. Incentivized re-development with additional FAR has been envisaged as a major element of city development covering all the areas; b. Planned Areas: Influence Zone along MRTS and Major Transport Corridor; under-utilised / low-density areas; Special Area; shopping / commercial centres; Industrial areas / clusters and resettlement colonies. c. Unplanned Areas: Villages; unauthorized colonies and JJ Clusters Urbanising glimpse of India and its capital Delhi Table: Urbanising glimpse of India and its capital Delhi India India is urbanizing at a rapid pace with urban population rising much faster than its total population. Level of urbanisation has increased from 17.29% in 1951 to 31.6 % in The urban population in India, which is nearly 377 million is poised to grow to 600 million by The urban population of India contributes 65% of country s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which is expected to grow to 75% in the next 15 years. Land use Policy - Delhi Delhi (NCT) As per 2011 Census, NCT of Delhi had a population of lakh. NCT Delhi is highly urbanized with 93.18% of its population living in urban areas as against the national average of 27.81%. Delhi has a limited area of 1483 sq. kms. out of which about half of the area is already urbanized. During , the urban population of Delhi increased at 21.2% decadal growth rate. With the continuation of the present population trend, the total population of National Capital Territory Delhi (NCTD) by the year 2011 and 2021 would be 182 lakh and 225 lakh respectively. Delhi has a limited area of 1483 sq. kms., out of which about half of the area is already urbanized. For the remaining area, optimum utilization of land is required so that while providing for the urbanization requirements, the natural features like the ridge and other major green areas, defined water bodies and areas of ecological importance could be conserved. In order to control the development the following have been adopted: i. The areas have been designated into 27 use zones identified in the Development Code (DC), development would be carried out in accordance with the regulations as laid down in the Development Code ii. These use zones have been classified broadly in nine categories of land uses namely Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Recreational, Transportation, Utility, Government, Public & Semi - Public Facilities and Agriculture & Water Body. 15

28 Table : Delhi LAND USE ZONES DESIGNATED MAIN LANDUSE CATEGORIES Sub-divisions for zone-use 1. RESIDENTIAL RD Residential area RF Foreign Mission C1 Retail Shopping, General Business and Commerce, 2. COMMERCIAL District Centre, Community Centre, Non Hierarchical Commercial Centre. C2 Wholesale, Warehousing, Cold Storage and Oil Depot C3 Hotels 3. INDUSTRIAL M1 Manufacturing, Service and Repair Industry. 4. RECREATIONAL P1 Regional Park P2 City Park, District Park, Community Park. P3 Historical Monuments TRANSPORTATION T1 Airport T2 Terminal / Depot - Rail / MRTS / Bus / Truck T3 Circulation - Rail / MRTS / Road U1 Water (Treatment Plant etc.), U2 Sewerage (Treatment 6. UTILITY Plant etc.), U3 Electricity (Power House, Sub-Station etc.) U4 Solid Waste (Sanitary landfill etc.) U5 Drain G1 President Estate and Parliament House G2 7. GOVERNMENT Government Office / Courts G3 Government Land (use undetermined) PS1 Hospital, Education and Research University / University centre, College, Social - Cultural, Socio Cultural Complex / Centre, Police / Police Headquarter / Police 8. PUBLIC AND Lines, Fire Stations / Disaster Management Centres, SEMIPUBLIC FACILITES Religious, Burial Ground / Cremation. PS2 Transmission Site / Centre PS3 Sports Facilities / Complex / Stadium / Sports Centre. 9. GREEN BELT / AND WATER BODY ZONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS - Urban areas zones A1 Plant Nursery A2 Green Belt / Agricultural Green A3 River and Water body Mixed Use Zone A use zone in the Land Use Plan could be indicated as consisting of more than one use zones. CLA The NCTD has been divided in 15 Zones (Divisions) designated 'A' to 'P' (except Zone 'I') in the Master Plan The NCT of Delhi has been divided into 15 Zones from A to H and J to P, of which 8 Zones are in the URBAN AREA, one in Riverbed and remaining 6 in the rural area. The Zonal Plans of eleven zones (including sub cities of Dwaraka, Rohini and Narela) have been approved and notified with the approval of the Government of India the Zonal Plans for the zones 'N (North West Delhi-III)', 'K' (part) between Dwarka & Rohini, 'J' (South Delhi- II), L (West Delhi -III), O (River Yamuna), P- II (North Delhi) are at various stages of preparation and process. 16

29 Table : Urban zones of Delhi (Note : * The above areas are approximate and the re-delineation and re-zoning of the zones can be done with the approval of the Authority.) Sl Zone Name of Zone Area (Ha.) 1. A Old City B City Extn. (Karol Bagh) C Civil Line D New Delhi E Trans Yamuna F South Delhi-I G West Delhi-I H North West Delhi-I J South Delhi-II K K-I West Delhi-II K-II Dwarka 6408 L West Delhi-III M North West Delhi-II N North West Delhi-III *O River Yamuna / River Front 8070 P P-I Narela P-II North Delhi 8534 Governing principles for MIXED LAND-USE In MPD 2021 to meet the growing demand of commercial activities and overcome the shortfall of available commercial space, a liberalized provision of Mixed Use in residential areas has been adopted adhering to the requisites of the environment, while achieving better synergy between workplace, residence and transportation. i streets have been notified by the GNCTD vide notification dated for local commercial and mixed-use activities. ii. Small shops of daily needs have been permitted on ground floor, in residential areas. A key governing principle for mixed use (means the provision for non-residential activity in residential premises) is to allow access to commercial activities in the proximity of the residences and reduces the need for commuting across zones in the city. However, at the same time, it needs to be regulated in order to manage and mitigate the associated adverse impact related to congestion, increased traffic and increased pressure on civic amenities. 17

30 Generation of urbanisable land - Physical potential within the NCT is reducing In 2001, about 702 sq km of area was estimated to have been built up, accommodating about 138 lakh population. To accommodate the projected population of 230 lakh by the year 2021, a three-pronged strategy is recommended: i. To encourage the population to deflect to NCR towns; ii. To increase the population holding capacity of the area within existing urban limits through re-development; and iii. Extension of the present urban limits to the extent necessary Delhi has a limited area of 1483 sq. kms., out of which about half of the area is already urbanized. NCR Plan-2021 has proposed the availability of urbanisable land in NCT-Delhi for a. Total Urbanisable area in 2021 (including built up area 1999) = ha b. Percentage of total area ( ha) = % The area within the existing urbanisable limits of Delhi Urban Area-2001 consists of the planning zones A to H and the Dwarka, Rohini, Narela Sub-city projects. Population holding capacity of A to H zones is to be enhanced through a re-development strategy and modified development norms. The holding capacity of year 2021 is 153 lakhs. Out of the remaining 77 lakh (230 lakhs minus 153 lakh) population for year 2021 to be accommodated in the planned new urban extensions : 29 lakh already exist in villages, census towns, unauthorized colonies and JJ clusters in the present rural areas The remaining 48 lakh additional population to be accommodated in the future urban extensions. It is envisaged that major rural areas would be absorbed as urban extension from time to time with due regard to balanced city development. To accommodate the projected additional pph (persons per hectare) average city level density, the requirement for urban extension would be 20,000-22,000 ha. Due to land constraint in the NCTD, the areas earmarked as rural / agricultural in the previous Master Plans have always been under pressure for utilization for various urban activities and have virtually lost their original character. Thus future urbanization has to be in the areas that have development pressure / potential like the areas ex. along the major transport corridors and fringes of already urbanised areas. 18

31 Urbanization at Delhi s fringe - Landuse NCR The Allahabad High Court, while going through the various Plan-enabling provisions under the NCRPB Act, 1985, considered the Regional Plan as a major instrument of development. In a judgment dated in the Civil Misc. Petition No of 1998, it observed: The National Capital Region Plan Act, 1985 is a central legislation. The intention of this central legislation is to decongest Delhi, and yet retain the conforming uses of agriculture and greens, and to harmoniously coordinate and monitor industry and urbanization without compromising with the conforming areas and usage. The following density norms, suggested for Regional Plan-2021, are given in Table below Table : Density Norms Regional Plan NCR Density Norms suggested in Regional Plan-2021 Urban Centres Persons per ha Density Norms proposed in Regional Plan Urban Centres Persons per ha Below 50,000 population 60 to 80 Up to 1.0 lakh population 80 50,000 to 1 lakh population 80 to lakh to 5.0 lakhs lakh to 5 lakhs population 110 to 125 population More than 5.0 lakhs lakhs to 10 lakhs population 125 to 150 population Realizing the fast urbanization in the 10 lakhs to 50 lakhs population 150 to 200 region, review of Regional Plan-2001 More than 50 lakh population 200 to 250 suggested for modification in the density norms In case of Delhi, as per the draft Master Plan for Delhi-2021, the entire NCT-Delhi has been proposed as urban sable area except a green belt of one revenue village depth wherever available along the NCT-Delhi boundary. NCR - Delhi - towards a seamless urban growth 1. Delhi as the National Capital has a distinct and unique character, it is expanding and also serving as a hub for the region surrounding it. Planning for a metropolis like Delhi, therefore, cannot be limited within its boundaries. The physical potential for further urbanization within the NCT is reducing although there is a virtual urban continuum between Delhi and the surrounding areas, particularly which lie in the States of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. 2. To ensure Balanced Regional Development, the Central Government enacted the National Capital Region Planning Board Act, The National Capital Region (NCR) Planning 19

32 Board, constituted under the Act, is charged with the responsibility of coordinating the efforts of the adjoining States through the instrumentality of Regional and Sub-Regional Plans. Envisaging a balanced regional development, the population for the NCTD has been projected as under: Table : Population Assignment 2021 Area (Ref. NCR Plan 2021) Population (in lakhs) National Capital Region (NCR) National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) The basic policy of the REGIONAL PLAN 2021 is aimed at accelerated development of the urban and rural areas and has been drawn up with reference to the following FOUR policy zones: Features of FOUR Policy zones NCT of Delhi. Central National Capital Region Central NCR comprises of the notified / controlled development areas of the neighboring towns of Ghaziabad Loni, NOIDA, Gurgaon-Manesar, FaridabadBallabhgarh, Bahadurgarh and Sonepat-Kundli, and the extension of the ridge in Haryana, Highway Corridor Zone Rest of NCR. Area sqkm 1483 sq. kms having an area of about 2000 sq. kms approximately 29,795 sq. kms 4. Central NCR (CNCR) towards seamless urban continuum The present National Capital Region (NCR) comprises of a total area of 33,578 sq. km including: a) areas of Delhi (1483 sq. kms), b) Haryana (13413 sq. kms.), c) Uttar Pradesh (10853 sq. kms.) and d) Rajasthan (7829 sq. kms). The salient features of Central NCR (CNCR) moving towards a seamless urban continuum is given below: a. Ghaziabad-Loni has its built-up area closer to NCT-Delhi and large area has been developed outside the urbanisable area particularly towards NCT-Delhi and Noida, while a large portion of urbanisable area falling in between Ghaziabad- Meerut highway and NH 24 is lying un-built. b. Noida has achieved its physical target and its built-up area has almost covered the entire urbanisable area. In the north, it has reached to the NH 24 bypass and in 20

33 south it has extended beyond the Export Promotion Zone. c. Gurgaon has extended its urban spread up to the NCT-Delhi boundary. It has also covered substantial portion of its urbanisable area earmarked in the Regional Plan d. The urbanized area of Faridabad had already merged with NCT-Delhi. Faridabad has also made good progress in achieving its physical target. It is observed that a substantial area has been developed particularly the areas beyond the Agra canal in the east and the stretch in between Agra canal and NH1 in the south. e. The urbanisable limit of Bahadurgarh has reached NCT-Delhi particularly along the NH 10. Urban sprawl strengthened by MRTS Urbanization has led to horizontal growth of the cities thus creating problems of urban sprawl. This has resulted in increase of trip lengths and higher usage of private vehicles, problems of pollution and increased demand of infrastructure. To address these issues, many cities ex. DELHI have strengthened their public transport by developing mass rapid transit systems (MRTS) such as metro rails and Bus Rapid Transit Systems (BRTS). It is however, important to efficiently use these systems by integrating the land use with the transport infrastructure to make the cities livable, healthy and smart. (Ref. TOD Policy India) Ref. Master Plan for Delhi (Incorporating modifications up to March 2016) Refhttps://dda.org.in/tendernotices_docs/may1/MPD-2021%20March2016BW pdf * * * 21

34 Chapter III Delhi s transport sector s key concerns - reduce road congestion, promote mass transport, and improve ambient air quality White Paper on Pollution in Delhi (1997) highlighted pollution due to traffic A White Paper on Pollution in Delhi with an Action Plan was brought out in year 1997 was also displayed in MoEF&CC s website. Chapter 7 discusses NOISE POLLUTION, and highlights that the main sources of noise pollution are automobiles followed by construction equipments, loudspeakers, bursting of crackers, etc. Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) conducted noise survey in Delhi between August to October, 1996, the findings highlight that increasing traffic was an environmental concern and traffic NOISE is a major nuisance, see Table below. Delhi s Transport Policy - promotes mass transit modes The Vision for Delhi is to have a mobility transition which will deliver a sustainable urban transport system for the city that is equitable, safe, comfortable, affordable, energy efficient and environment-friendly; a system that satisfies the mobility needs of all sections of the population and enhances their quality of life. The Transport policy for Delhi aims to deliver the objectives of NUTP and NMSH through its vision, policies, strategies and standards, the seven primary objectives of the policy are : i. 80:20 modal share, favouring Public Transport excluding walk trips by ii. Reduction in vehicular emissions to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. iii. Achieving Zero fatality through an uncompromising approach to reduction of fatalities of all road and transport users. iv. Safety and accessibility for all through safe, convenient, comfortable and barrier-free movement for all users. 22

35 v. Bringing about a more equitable allocation of road space with people, rather than vehicles, as its main focus. vi. Affordability by providing range of mobility options for all users. vii. Efficiency in movement of people and goods. Transportation demand MPD 2021 Salient features of Delhi s transportation as highlighted in MPD 2021 are given briefed below: 1. The period between 1981 and 2001 and subsequently 2011 has seen a phenomenal increase in the growth of vehicles and hence increased traffic flow in Delhi. 2. Trip rates rising : a. per capita trip rate : There has been a rise in per capita trip rate (excluding walk trips) from 0.72 in 1981 to 0.87 in 2001 and exponentially more in Keeping in view the population growth, this translates into an increase from 45 lakh trips to around 118 lakh trips in 2001 and 144 lakh trips till b. As per the Transport Demand Forecast Study (TDFS) undertaken by GNCTD and approved by the UTTIPEC in 2011, it is seen that between 2001 and 2008, the private motor vehicle trips have increased from 28% to 35% and non-motorized vehicle trips from 9% to 15%, however bus trips have unfortunately decreased from 60% to 42% of the total number of trips. c. Based on the rate of increase in the number of trips between 1981 and 2001/2011, it is estimated that the total trips would rise to 280 lakh by the year 2021, including 257 lakh motorized trips and 23 lakh non-motorized trips. 3. Road space constraint - roads already occupy approx. 21 percent of the total area of the city, which clearly limits the potential for increase in road space. 4. NCR traffic flow & urban continuum : Besides the above, Delhi has developed as a seamless city and an urban continuum comprising of a number of rapidly growing towns in Haryana and UP. This has added to the flow and movement of traffic within Delhi. 5. Congestion : Despite measures by way of increasing the length of the road network and road surface space through widening, construction of a number of flyovers / grade separators and, launching of the Metro, the traffic congestion has continued to increase unabated. Focus on road de-congestion MPD 2021 Key issues on de-congestion highlighted in MPD-2021 w.r.t. transportation is given below: 23

36 Unified Metro Transport Authority Synergy between land-use and transport A new parking policy including private sector development of parking facilities, increase in norms for parking space, multi-level parking and underground parking. Integrated multi-modal public transport system to reduce dependence on personalized vehicles. Road and rail based mass transport system to be a major mode of public transport, optimal use of existing road network and development of missing links. Restructuring of existing network through expressways, elevated roads, arterial roads, distributor roads and relief roads. Provision for introducing cycle tracks, pedestrian and [differently- abled persons] friendly features in arterial and sub-arterial roads. Table Modal Split Projections Mode Modal Split (%) Year 2011 Year 2021 Public Transport (including Rail/ Light Rail/ MRTS/ IRBT/ Bus/ Tram) Personal modes (including Personal Fast Modes / Hired Fast Modes/ Hired Slow Modes/ Bicycle) Strategies for Delhi s Transport Policy: promoting mass transport & de-congestion measures curbs traffic noise The strategies for Delhi s Transport Policy given below promotes mass transport which curbs traffic movement of vehicles ( private 2W & 4W) and thereby reduces noise due to traffic movements. Some of the strategies proposed in order to meet the policy objectives are listed below : i. It is envisaged that the future transport system shall consist of a mix of rail and road based systems which may include Metro Rail, ring rail, dedicated rail corridors for daily commuters, (IRBT / RRTS corridors as identified in NCR Plan 2021), Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS), Bus (both State run and private), other mass transit modes as technologies become available and Intermediate Passenger Transport (IPT) including Feeder Services, Taxis, Autorickshaws and Cycle-rickshaws and private modes. ii. Preparation and operation of an integrated and mutually complementary multi-modal transportation and traffic plan comprising the Road, Rail and Metrorail network, so that work centers / residences are within a walkable distance. iii. Optimal use and utilisation of the existing road network and full development of ROW by removing all impediments and equitable distribution of road space as per National Urban 24

37 Transport Policy. All arterial roads will be restructured to allow for smooth and safe flow of buses non-motorised transport and pedestrians to minimize pollution and congestion. iv. Restructuring of the finer street networks and creating alternate access ways and reducing congestion on the existing roads to the extent possible. v. Planning of new road network in such a manner as to prevent possibilities of future congestion by modifying road sections to promote use of public transport, non-motorized transport and walking, which would reduce use of private transport modes vi. Planned and targeted expansion of the Metro-rail network. vii. Expansion and strengthening / restructuring of the Ring Rail System and suburban rail system. viii. Developing an integrated relationship between the bus, rail and metro-system to provide for seamless multi-modal transport, through provision of additional stations, park and ride facilities, introduction of single multi-modal ticketing, etc. The choice of technology for the multimodal public transport system (Bus Rapid Transit System, Metro, Mono-Rail, Light Rail etc.) be based on comparative cost-effectiveness analysis studies to ensure rapid development of public transport and to ensure judicious use of public funds. Public transport modes be made more reliable and affordable to the end-user to induce shift from private modes. ix. Provision of directional Goods and Passenger Terminals with adequate infrastructure. x. Establishment of a quick and efficient transport network between the NCR and the NCT of Delhi. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) proposed for Delhi - decongestion measure The concept of the Master Plan for Delhi 1962 was based on a poly-nodal, polycentric, distribution of work centres, largely based on road transport nodes. As per MPD 2021 a major fall-out of this has been distortion between infrastructure, transport and land use. To achieve spatial balance, development take place according to new corridors of mass movement. This has implications in terms of land use planning along the Mass Rapid Transport / Transit System, particularly in context the MRTS corridors upto 500 m depth on either side from centre line of MRTS would require selective re-development and re-densification / intensification of existing land uses based on site conditions. The concept of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) needs to be adopted such that maximum number of people can live, work or find means of recreation within walking/ cycling distance of the MRTS corridors/ stations. This proposition is a synergy between transport and land use. Report of the HPC on De-congesting Traffic in Delhi (MoUD 2016) The Report of the High Powered Committee (HPC) on De-congesting Traffic in Delhi (MoUD 2016) highlights concerns of vehicular pollution impacting air quality, and provides recommendations to abate air pollution, the areas highlighted are: i. Decongestion of city roads by addressing different choke points through improvement of road geometry, construction of flyovers or underpasses; 25

38 ii. Dwarka Expressway from UER-II to Northern peripheral road, Haryana with total length of 3.5Km; iii. Balance work of grade separator at Rani Jhansi road (flyover from St. Stephen Hospital, Tees Hazari to Filmistan, Karol Bagh); iv. Tunnel near Bhagya Vihar and Meet Vihar on UER-II with a length of 1.5Km; v. Railway-over-bridge at Narela on UER-I with a length of 860m; and vi. Railway-under-bridge at Holambi for a length of 1Km and Railway-over-bridge at Mundka with a length of 1.4km on UER-II. The High Powered Inter-Ministerial Committee constituted by GoI decided on the FOUR - pronged strategic approach to meet the objectives and to move forward on the path to decongest Delhi, they are : 1. Improving Public Transport and Dis-incentivizing use of private vehicles 2. Road Safety and Traffic Management 3. Enhancing Institutional Capacity 4. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) The MoUD 2016 report also mentions the need to synchronizing public transport services with feeder Services, taxis & auto-rickshaws to facilitate passengers to shift to using the city s MRTS (metro rail), thereby reducing the number private vehicles on city roads. MASS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM (MRTS) popular public transport Mass Rapid Transit System is defined as any system with capacity to carry greater than 10,000 persons per hour per direction. The Metro Rail System in Delhi is the most important component of a Mass Transport System (MTS) in the City. The Metro Rail network for the entire city has been developed in various phases, which comprises of a network of underground, elevated and surface corridors aggregating to more than 300 Kms. and is expected to carry 108 lakh daily passengers with an average trip length of 15 Km by year It is anticipated that about 60% of the urban area will be within 15-minute walking distance from the proposed MRTS stations and that vehicular trips may also progressively shift from road-based transport to MRTS, particularly, with reference to the longer trip lengths (greater than 10 Kms) within the city. PARKING contributes to congestion and a stress on shrinking urban landuse With the phenomenal increase in personalized motor vehicles, one of the major problems being faced is an acute shortage of parking space. In the absence of adequate organized parking space and facilities, valuable road space is being used for vehicular parking. As per MPD 2021 the problem of parking in the city can be broadly divided into the following categories: i. Along streets ii. In planned commercial centres. iii. In residential colonies. 26

39 iv. In the large institutional complexes. The Environment Pollution (Prevention & Control) Authority for the National Capital Region, recommends the approach should be focused more on demand management (restricting vehicle numbers) through enforcement and pricing policy rather than only on increasing supply of parking. The National Mission on Sustainable Habitat (NMSH) on parking informs that parking management strategies should be aimed at encouraging more efficient use of existing parking facilities, reduce parking demand and shift travel to non-private modes. Individual user of personal vehicle should pay for the use of the space for parking. Therefore, the user pays principle should govern the pricing of parking. Parking is a consumer commodity, not a legal right. No subsidized parking is to be provided in public spaces. In areas designated for public parking, short term parking must be prioritized over long-term parking, in order to maximize turnover and enable economic vibrancy. The parking policy for the Delhi aims to deliver the objectives of NMSH, through its vision, policies, following strategies and standards: Private vehicle must be parked on a fully-paid rented or owned space, based on the user pays principle. ; Parking management must be effectively used as a tool to reduce overall demand for parking space. Pricing and enforcement will be key drivers to eliminate or reduce long term on street parking demand for private vehicles. Planning and design of public parking facilities (surface, underground or multi-level) in an area need to provide for all modes and include creation of pedestrianized areas/ public spaces in the area with necessary amenities. Parking is permitted in all use zones except Recreational Open space, which shall not be used or converted for parking. No environmentally sensitive lands shall be used/ converted for parking of any kind. Surface Parking would only be provided to meet the parking requirement of the park premise. Creation of underground parking structures within or under green recreational open spaces is prohibited under all circumstances. Parking spaces will be adequately provided on priority basis for IPT, pick and ride and feeder systems especially non-motorised transport and fully subsidized. Public transport - RAIL In the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) both inter-city and intra-city passenger movements are being catered to by the existing rail network comprising the Regional and Ring Rail Systems respectively. In order to improve the ridership on Ring Rail, the following is proposed: 1. Restructuring land use around the following: i. Anand Parbat ii. INA Colony iii. Pusa Institute iv. Kirti Nagar 2. Accessibility improvement and augmentation of infrastructure on ring rail stations: i. Shivaji Bridge ii. Bhairon Marg iii. Kasturba Nagar (Sewa Nagar) iv. Lajpat Nagar v. Kirti Nagar vi. Shakur Basti vii. Sarai Rohilla 27

40 3. Provision of Halt Stations on ring rail at the following locations: i. Moti Bagh ii. Bhairon Road iii. Hans Bhawan (ITO) iv. Ganesh Nagar v. Preet Vihar vi. Shyamlal College The interchange points of Regional Rail, MRTS, Ring Rail and any other future rail network to be developed as interchange stations/ convergence zone where guidelines for multi-modal integration are to be followed. The change over facilities should integrate ISBTs/ local bus stands/ feeder buses/ Intermediate Public Transport (IPT) modes, wherever feasible, and they should also include approach roads, pedestrian walkways, parking areas for various modes including feeder buses/ IPT modes and adequate public conveniences, etc. National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) promotes seamless transport facilities The National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) prepared the Regional Plan for the National Capital Region (NCR) with the perspective year 2021 for balanced and harmonized development of the region. One of the objectives of the Regional Plan-2021 is to provide efficient and economic rail and road based transportation systems (including mass transport systems) well integrated with the land use patterns for balanced regional sustainable development. As per Regional Plan-2021 for NCR, the total of 625 trains including 253 long distance passenger trains and 176 EMU trains (suburban trains) were handled at the three major railway stations in Delhi viz. Old Delhi, New Delhi and Hazrat Nizamuddin. Apart from this, large number of goods trains move into and out of NCR. The commuter traffic in NCR is about 0.61 million per day. Several directional Metropolitan Passenger Terminals (MPT) have been proposed to decongest the central area. These are: Anand Vihar, East Delhi ii. Bijwasan in Dwarka, South-West Delhi iii. Holumbi Kalan in Narela, North Delhi iv. Tikri Kalan, West Delhi v. Hazrat Nizammudin, South East Delhi vi. Kashmere Gate, North Delhi NCR Planning Board prepared the Functional Plan on Transport for NCR in 2009 with a perspective year 2032 for systematic development of transport system for sustainable development of NCR, with various proposals to enhance the Road / Rail connectivity and mobility in the region. It recommended the following eight Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) corridors in the National Capital Region (NCR) with high speed rail based commuter transit system along with up-gradation of the National Highways from the present level of 4-6 lanes to 8-10 lanes: 28

41 Table: Proposed Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) corridors in the NCR Corridor Length Remarks km Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut 90 Following three RRTS corridors have been Delhi-Gurgaon-Rewari-Alwar 180 prioritized: Delhi-Sonipat-Panipat 110 i) Delhi-Sonipat-Panipat (111 km) Delhi-Faridabad-Ballabgarh- 60 ii)delhi-gurgaon-rewari-alwar (180 km) Palwal iii)delhi-ghaziabad-meerut (90 km) Ghaziabad-Khurja-Aligarh 83 Delhi-Bahadurgarh-Rohtak 70 Ghaziabad-Hapur 57 Delhi-Shahdra-Baraut 56 National Capital Region Transport Corporation (NCRTC) has been registered under the Companies Act to design, develop, implement, finance, operate and maintain RRTS in NCR. * * * 29

42 Chapter IV Rapid increase in automobiles with population in Delhi De-congest NCT Delhi echoes in MPD 2021 The TRANSPORT SECTOR in Delhi is very unique, though passengers avail of the services of mass transport system ex. rail, metro rail and bus however the road traffic comprising of vehicles four wheelers (4W) and 2W (motorbikes, scooters etc) are significant. The report highlights the salient features in the Master Plan for Delhi (MPD) (incorporating modifications up to March 2016) acknowledges that the holding capacity of Delhi is under stress and hence the proposals in the MPD to de-congest the city (includes the TRANSPORT SECTOR) by tapping on the urbanisable areas within it and regions that constitute the National Capital Regions (NCR). A key observation MPD-2021 An important development observed during the period of the last Master Plan is the phenomenal growth of automobiles in Delhi. This has resulted in a variety of problems pertaining to congestion, pollution, safety of travel and parking etc., which need to be addressed. Vehicle population on the rise i. Increase in vehicular traffic ( Vs ) In , the number of vehicles in Delhi was lakhs. In it was lakhs. ii. In , the total numbers of registered motor vehicles in Delhi was lakhs. iii. As on 31 st March, 2015 as per the Delhi Statistical Handbook (released on Dec 9, 2015), a report by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Delhi Government, reveals lakhs registered vehicles in Delhi. iv. Despite the above, in March 2015, a study conducted by IIT Delhi revealed that only 59% of registered cars and 42% of the registered two-wheelers are in use in Delhi. 30

43 v. As on 31 st March, 2016, the total number of motor vehicles on road in Delhi touched to lakhs, showing an increase of 9.94 per cent over previous year (Economic Survey of Delhi, ). vi. Despite there remains a challenges regarding the actual number of vehicles plying on Delhi's roads vis-a-vis number of vehicles registered in Delhi, there are vehicles registered outside Delhi that are plying (temporarily / regularly) Delhi roads or vice versa. Table: Growth of Motor Vehicle Population in Delhi Vehicle Cars & Jeeps Motor Cycles & Scooters Auto Rickshaws Taxies Buses Goods Vehicles Total % increase from previous year Source: Transport Department, Government of NCT of Delhi. Total registered motor vehicles in DELHI ( as on March_ in 000s Year Table: Growth of vehicle population in Delhi Details Number of Vehicles Growth Rate Percent (%) Cars and Jeeps Motorcycles & Scooters (64.13%) (64.35%) Ambulance Auto Rickshaws Taxis Buses Other Passenger Vehicles Tractors Goods Vehicles (All Types) Others Total

44 Vehicle composition in Delhi In : Vehicle composition: 2 Wheelers (scooters & motorcycles) accounted for % of motor cycles/scooters and balance 31.70% accounted for cars & jeeps and rest are used for commercial purposes ex. auto rickshaw, taxis, buses and goods vehicles. As on 31 March, 2015 as per the Delhi Statistical Handbook (released on Dec 9, 2015), a report by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics: Vehicle composition: 2W accounted for 64% (nearly double the number of fourwheelers) of the vehicles plying on Delhi roads, 4W constituted 32.51% of the total vehicles registered with the Transport Department of Delhi which include cars, jeeps and taxis. 2W vehicle population dominate vehicle population The following information shows rise of two wheelers (2W) in Delhi roads: a. Total numbers of registered motor vehicles in Delhi during were lakhs out of which: 2W: % were of motor cycles/scooters. b. The Delhi Statistical Handbook (released on Dec 9, 2015), a report by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Delhi Government, reveals: 2W: two-wheelers far outnumber four-wheelers, accounting for 64% of the vehicles plying on Delhi roads. c. 2W ownership in Delhi (Ref. Economic survey of Delhi, 2012), the figures are based on the census of 2001 and 2011 : 2 wheelers (2W): The number of households with a scooter or motorcycle has gone up by 10% since Scooters and motorcycles, both rural and urban households are on an almost equal footing, with 38.5% rural households having a scooter or motorcycle compared to 38.9% urban households. Table : Increase in 2W population in Delhi Vehicle Motor Cycles & Scooters % increase from previous year

45 Vehicle ownership Vehicle ownership in Delhi (Ref. Economic survey of Delhi, 2012). The figures are based on the census of 2001 and 2011: a. 2 wheelers (2W): The number of households with a scooter or motorcycle has gone up by 10% since Regarding scooters and motorcycles, both rural and urban households are on an almost equal footing, with 38.5% rural households having a scooter or motorcycle compared to 38.9% urban households. b. 4W: I. The number of households with a car, jeep or van has gone up by 7%. II. The increase is more marked in urban households when it comes to fourwheelers; 21% of urban households in Delhi have a car, jeep or van, as opposed to 10.8% rural households. III. In 2001, 13.4% urban households had a four-wheeler as against 7.3% in rural areas. In contrast, 20.7% rural houses had a two-wheeler, while 28.5% urban houses owned one. c. Bicycles: The number of households with a bicycle has come down from 37.6% in 2001 to 30.7% in The share of bicycles has been significantly dented; 44.2% rural households had a bicycle in 2011, down from 48.7% in Similarly, in urban houses the percentage has dipped from 36.8 to 30.3%. The households without any specific mode of transport have come down from 43.1% in 2001 to 37.1% in Delhi s per capita income was almost three times of the national average, both at current and constant prices (Economic Survey of Delhi ), this indicates higher buying power. Vehicle ownership per 1000 persons Besides the above India currently has about 15 million cars, which is equivalent to 13 cars per 1,000 population, that it is a national average. Some cities like Delhi, Chennai, and Coimbatore have more than 100 cars per 1,000 population. Delhi has an ownership level of 157 cars per 1,000 population (GoI 2011; MoRTH 2012, TERI Policy brief June 2014). 33

46 Projection for year 2025 : Vehicle ownership & GDP By year 2025 the number of cars is likely to be in the range of million, which works out to 35 cars per 1,000 population by year 2025 (Ghate and Sundar, 2013). DELHI projected to have about 380 cars per 1,000 population taking the total cars in the city from 2 million in 2011 to about 10 million by (Ref. TERI Policy brief June 2014).) Growth of Road network The road network in Delhi is being developed and maintained by PWD, MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board and DDA. i. The road network in Delhi was 25,949 kms (including 337 kms of NHs) in March ii. The road network of Delhi has increased from 32,131 lane km in to 33,868 lane km in (Economic Survey of Delhi, ). iii. Delhi roads lengths have been growing over the years, implying increase in road space to accommodate more traffic flow. Table : Length of Roads (Km) DELHI Public Work Dept Total Year MCD NDMC DSIIDC I & FC DDA National Highways Other * # 40# 435# Ref. Statistical Abstract of Delhi 2014; Source: Local bodies & PWD, GNCT; *provisional, #as on 31st March 2013; ** including 3208 lane km taken over from MCD till Table : Availability of Roads in Delhi Agency MCD NDMC DCB PWD i) National Highway ii) Other Road Total Source: Delhi Statistical Hand Book / Statistical Abstract , Date. of Eco. & Stat., Government of NCT of Delhi. 34

47 Road length per 100 sq. kms Some available statistics are given below : : Delhi had 1749 km of road length per 100 sq. km area in compared to the national average of 73 km per 100 sq. km area ( ) : The road network has increased from 8380 km in to km in , (three times), while the number of vehicles has increased from 2.14 lakh in to lakh in (thirteen times) : Delhi had km of road length per 100 sq. km area in as compared to national average of km per 100 sq. km area ( ). (Source- Chapter 10 Infrastructure of Economics Review 2007 of Govt. of Kerala). The above statistics indicate that road vehicle numbers are increasing with increase in road lengths Table 9: Delhi Road length per 100 sq. km Item Total length of road Average Length of road per 100 sq. Km Source: Delhi Statistical Hand Book , Date. of Eco. & Stat., Government of NCT of Delhi. Area Road length per 100 sqkm Source Delhi km Chapter 10 Infrastructure of Economics National average km Review 2007 of Govt. of Kerala). Road length per 1000 population Table : Delhi Road length per 1000 persons Item Total length of road Road length per 1000 population Source: Delhi Statistical Hand Book , Date. of Eco. & Stat., Government of NCT of Delhi. Road length per 1000 vehicles Table 11: Delhi Road length per 1000 vehicles Item Total length of road Road length per 1000 vehicles Source: Delhi Statistical Hand Book , Date. of Eco. & Stat., Government of NCT of Delhi. 35

48 CPCB, September, 2017 Population density Organization NCT Delhi MCD EDMC SDMC NDMC Area (in Sq. Km) Population (in Lacs) 2012 census 180 (Approx) URBAN LOCAL BODIES (96%) 40.0 (22%) 56.0 (31%) 84.2 (43%) (94%) (7%) (44%) (43%) Population Density (No. Per sq. km.) Source: East Delhi Municipal Corporation presentation on MSW Management in EDMC with GPS Monitoring on 05th June, 2017 by Arun Kumar, Superintending Engineer, EDMC. Population and vehicle number grow over the years Table 3: Yearly increase of population and vehicles in NCT Delhi Population in Lakhs Delhi: Population and Vehicles growing over years Years 36 Population of Delhi Vehicle Population Years Factors 92 Total No. of Vehicles (in lakhs % increase 5.52 from previous year Population (in lakhs)

49 Lakhs Delhi: Population and Vehicles growing over years Fig. 1: Population and vehicle numbers of NCT Delhi from 1951 to 2011 Population data source: Vehicle data has been taken from different sources. Comparisons of vehicle growth, road length and vehicular speed Delhi megapolis is endowed with one of the most complex road network systems in the country which is used by more than 1/10th of the country's vehicular population. The consequences in terms of heavy traffic congestion and reduced vehicle speed are depicted below: Years Population of Delhi Vehicle Population Fig. : Graph on vehicle growth, road length and vehicular speed in Delhi (Source: port) 37

50 CLEAN FUEL - CNG for road transport in Delhi i. Emergence of clean fuel CNG: Compressed natural gas (CNG) had became available in Delhi first at three filling stations for industrial and domestic users in year In year 1996, Centre for Science & Environment (CSE) published its report on urban air pollution wherein it was estimated that vehicles were responsible for 64% of emissions followed by power sector 17% and industry accounted for 10%. The study concluded that to address urban air pollution there was a need to introduce CLEAN FUELS and introduction of improved quality of conventional transport fuels (diesel & petrol) meeting EURO II standards. In 1998, the Hon ble Supreme Court directed that w.e.f. April 2001 Delhi Govt. to replace / convert commercial fleet i.e. all buses, three-wheelers (3W autorickshaws) and taxis to CNG, in addition necessary infrastructure to be installed for 70 CNG re-fuelling stations had to be made available. In compliance of Hon ble Court s orders, by 1 st December 2002, Delhi s roads had CNG operated buses only, and all taxis and public transport in Delhi are now CNG fuelled ii. Indraprastha Gas Ltd (IGL) in DELHI -Incorporated in 1998, IGL took over Delhi City Gas Distribution Project in 1999 from GAIL (India) Limited (Formerly Gas Authority of India Limited). The project was started to lay the network for the distribution of natural gas in the National Capital Territory of Delhi to consumers in the domestic, transport, and commercial sectors. With the backing of strong promoters GAIL (India) Ltd. and Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL) IGL provides natural gas in the entire capital region. The two main business objectives of the company are - To provide safe, convenient and reliable natural gas supply to it s customers in the domestic and commercial sectors. To provide a cleaner, environment-friendly alternative as auto fuel to Delhi s residents. This will considerably bring down the alarmingly high levels of pollution. IGL continues to augment its infrastructure so as to meet the increasing demand of CNG arising out of growing number of CNG vehicles in Delhi. The growth drivers for increase in demand of CNG are - car manufacturers coming up with CNG variants and Delhi Government s directive making it mandatory for all LCVs operating in Delhi to run on CNG. The company is in the process of enhancing its compression capacity by adding new stations. (content from IGL website) iii. CNG stations by Indraprastha Gas Ltd (IGL) a. Several CNG stations established during the Commonwealth Games preparations in the city. b. In , there were 308 stations in the Delhi and NCR which increased to 324 the next year. It remained almost unchanged over the next two years till the number went up 38

51 to 340 in year Till date there are 414 stations and there is a directive by the Petroleum Ministry to build 90 more stations. Registrations of CNG vehicles 1. CNG private vehicles a. Registrations have fallen for private vehicles: The Delhi transport department divulged that CNG registrations fell from 30,343 in 2011, and then dropped steadily over the next four years to 25,221 in 2012, 17,610 in 2013, 17,067 in 2014 and 11,846 in As compared to 2011, registrations have fallen by 61 per cent in 2015 (last five years). b. Possible reasons for fall in registration: (a) the fall in preference for private cars could be because of the price differential between CNG and diesel narrowing. (b) Converting a petrol fuelled car to CNG is a possibility but converting diesel to CNG is not permitted in Delhi-NCR. (c) Other reasons behind the fall in private CNG vehicles being registered might be attributed to fluctuating prices of CNG kits which are used to convert petrol-fuelled vehicles to CNG. (d) Fluctuations in manufacturing of factory-made CNG car models are a probable reason and long queues at CNG gas stations also act as a deterrent for many buyers. 2. CNG commercial vehicles Transport department data showed the registration of commercial CNG vehicles increased by 54 per cent from 19,227 in 2011 to 41,190 in Data showed the city has seen an increase in the annual registrations of commercial CNG-fuelled vehicles, which include taxis, autorickshaws and light goods vehicles. Mass transport - The Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) Almost all the buses in Delhi are owned either by the Stateowned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) or the private contractors. DTC is the 1 st state transport department in the country to have inducted CNG Buses in its city fleet it has taken a big drive to convert its fleet entirely to CNG (clean fuel). The last major induction of buses in the DTC fleet was done in 2010, during the Commonwealth Games, the government is in the process of DTC bus depot (air conditioned service) 39

52 procuring more such buses. The DTC has the lowest fare among five metro cities. The fuel (CNG) which accounts for nearly 21% of the operating cost of DTC. In the past five years, the corporation s bus strength has fallen by a third and the DTC carries 847,000 fewer passengers than it in PHOTO: DTC fleet bus depot (air conditioned services, generate more noise) a) Bus fleet shrinking : Data shows the share of buses among registered vehicles has shrunk to 0.36% in , almost 80% down from 1.52% in Total no. of DTC buses in the fleet are 5216 in out of which 2506 are of low floor Non AC, 1275 are of Low Floor AC 1435 are Standard buses DTC operates private buses under a cluster scheme to tide over the acute shortage of buses, as well as depot space. b) CNG fleet has advantage in Delhi s odd even traffic experiment The generators of the AC buses generate significant noise when stationary The road rationing project exempted CNG cars from inclusion into the rule which ensured cars (petrol / diesel) with registration numbers ending with odd and even numbers stayed indoors on alternate days however private CNG cars were unaffected by the restrictions (Ref. Indian Express : Delhi: In 5 yrs, sale of CNG vehicles slides by 61 per cent by Sarah Hafeez New Delhi, July 8, 2016) Inter State Bus Terminus (ISBTs) Master Plan Delhi (MPD) suggested five ISBTs for Delhi in Delhi has presently three ISBTs, with the development of two new ISBTs at Sarai Kale Khan and Anand Vihar and the existing ISBT at Kashmere Gate, three ISBTs are functioning at present. These three ISBTs handle on an average 1.54 lakh passengers and 3300 buses/trips per day. Two more ISBTs are proposed to be constructed during the 9 th Five Year Plan at Dwarka and in North Delhi Delhi s MRTS network expanding a. The Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) is an ambitious project that aimed at providing a non- polluting and efficient rail-based transport system, properly integrated with the road transport system. With commencement of MRTS and its expansion in phases, public transport in Delhi witnessed perceptible change as more passenger trips are being covered by Metro Rail services. DMRC is the mass transportation backbone of the National Capital Region (NCR). The average daily ridership has increased by 43 percent in the last five years. Delhi Metro today ranks 10th in terms of ridership among the 34 top Metro systems of the world. 40

53 b. As per Economic Survey of Delhi ) i. The existing network of DMRC will be increased to 325 KM approximately after the completion of phase-iii work of DMRC. ii. Average Daily Ridership on DMRC has increased from lakh during to 26 lakh during iii. Average ridership of Delhi Metro will be increased to 40 lakh with the completion of Phase III. iv. 517 mini buses on 93 metro feeder routes are to be inducted out of which 291 buses are operating on 43 routes to help the commuters in having smooth movement / approach to the nearest metro station. All buses are to be fitted with GPS. v cluster buses are operational in 9 clusters by private sector corporate carriage operators. c. To improve passenger movement the DMRC focused on enrichment of carrying capacity with associated technological feasibility that include: i. Shortening of route in busy lines to increase fast traffic clearance. ii. Increase number of automated ticket vending machine along with security check etc. iii. Increasing connectivity of lines iv. Besides increasing number of coaches and increasing frequency of train services. Table : DMRC passenger handling services popular (Source: Times of India, September 2016) DMRC Network % of Variation DMRC Line DMRC Line DMRC Line-3 / DMRC Line DMRC Line d. Delhi Metro Rail Cumulative Ridership for the financial year crosses one billion (100 crores) Since the 1st of April, 2016, a total of billion ( crores) passengers have traveled by the Delhi Metro, registering a 6.56 percent growth in average daily ridership since the last financial year The Delhi Metro currently operates with a fleet of 227 train sets comprising of 128 six coach, 58 eight coach and 41 four coach trains across all its 41

54 corridors. The process of adding 258 new coaches to the fleet to augment the carrying capacity of the system has been initiated. (ref. DMRC Press release ). Mass transport - RAIL network 1. Local trains consist of one of the cheapest means and modes of transport in Delhi. Both inter-state as well as intra-state trains ply from various railway stations in Delhi. The major railway stations in the capital city are Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin, New Delhi, Okhla, Pragati Maidan, Shahdara, Shakur Basti and Tilak Bridge. There are numerous other small stations in Delhi for local commuting purposes 2. Delhi is a major junction on the rail map of India linked with all the major metropolitan cities directly. There are four main railway stations at New Delhi, Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin and Sarai Rohila, besides Container Depots at Patparganj and Tuglakabad. A new Railway Station has come up by Northern Railway near Anand Vihar ISBT, which will helps in decongestion at New and Old Delhi Railway Stations. 3. Railways Stations : There are 24 Railway stations in the state of Delhi tabulated below Some features highlighting the potential vehciel movement around Delhi stations : a. No. of Passengers dealt with (2014) New DELHI railway Station (a) Per Day 4,00,000 (b) Max. at any time 24,916 (Ref. 9 th Mobility Conference, 2016) b. Traffic decongestion measures by in Old Delhi Railway Station (Ref Indian Express April 5, 2012) : The streamlining of traffic inside the station premises has in turn helped decongest the vehicle congestion on SP Mukherjee Marg. The access point,in front of the main station building,has been closed for vehicular movement. Now,a turnstile located here to facilitate entry for pedestrians. The circulating area revamp top priority for the station s accessibility The previous circulation plan had a number of entry points, leading to congestion. Signage for parking and entry has been provided. The new circulating area also gives passengers the option of getting down at any of the three entrance gates in the terminal building, depending on the location of the platforms. The length of the terminal building is adequate for the movement of vehicles, but the width is constrained. The new arrangement of long lanes, by way of unifying circulating area, is expected to improve the capacity for handling autos,taxis and cycle-rickshaws. Due to width constraint at the station, buses have not been allowed inside the terminal. For pedestrians,four access points have been provided. The process of streamlining the access points is an on-going process. 42

55 Table : 24 Railway stations in the state of Delhi 4. NCR rail services : # Code Delhi - Station Name 1 ANDI Adarsh Nagar 2 ANVR Anand Vihar 3 ANVT Anand Vihar Terminus 4 BHD Badli 5 BWSN Bijwasan 6 DLI Delhi 7 DEC Delhi Cantonment 8 DKZ Delhi Kishanganj 9 DSJ Delhi Safdarjung 10 DEE Delhi Sarai Rohilla 11 DSA Delhi Shahdara 12 NZM Hazrat Nizamuddin 13 MGLP Mangolpuri 14 NNO Nangloi 15 NUR Narela 16 NDLS New Delhi 17 OKA Okhla 18 PM Palam 19 SSB Shakurbasti 20 CSB Shivaji Bridge 21 SZM Subzi Mandi 22 TKJ Tilak Bridge 23 TKD Tuglakabad 24 VVB Viveka Vihar a. There are 8 rail corridors in the National Capital Territory, which bring in more than 350 passenger trains and 40 goods trains every day. b. Delhi Suburban Railway is a suburban rail service operated by Northern Railway for the National Capital Region. This railway service covers Delhi, along with the adjoining districts of Faridabad, Ghaziabad and other adjoining places in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. These services are mostly run using EMU and MEMU rakes. This also includes passenger trains and DMU services up to Rewari in Haryana, which is also considered part of the National Capital Region. It not only runs through Delhi, but also offers its services to parts of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh like Rewari, Faridabad, Ghaziabad and many others. Passenger and DMU services not only operate in Delhi, but it extends up to Rewari district in Haryana. c. Delhi Suburban Railway uses the same tracks that are also used for long distance trains. In 2009, Ladies Special trains were introduced between New Delhi and Palwal and from New Delhi to Ghaziabad and Panipat. is a suburban rail service operated by Northern Railway for the National Capital Region. This railway service covers Delhi, along with the adjoining districts of Faridabad, Ghaziabad and other adjoining places in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. These services are mostly run using EMU and MEMU rakes. This also includes passenger trains and DMU services up to Rewari in Haryana, which is also considered part of the National Capital Region. It not 43

56 only runs through Delhi, but also offers its services to parts of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh like Rewari, Faridabad, Ghaziabad and many others. Passenger and DMU services not only operate in Delhi, but it extends up to Rewari district in Haryana. d. Delhi Suburban Railway uses the same tracks that are also used for long distance trains. In 2009, Ladies Special trains were introduced between New Delhi and Palwal and from New Delhi to Ghaziabad and Panipat. Airport increases vehicle movement services There are two airports in DELHI handling departure & arrival of flights viz 1D and T3, the latter handling maximum traffic flow. Domestic airlines, especially budget carriers, are growing at a faster rate. The Delhi s Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA) crossed the 50-million passenger mark in a year, with million passengers in year 2016, almost 10 million more than the previous year. It is the busiest airport in the fastest growing aviation market, has entered the league of 25 busiest airports worldwide. In year It made a record by handling 82 flight movements in an hour. The airport has a major market share of air traffic volume to the Middle East, European, Asian and American regions. It has an annual passenger capacity of over 62 million, including Terminal-3 that can handle 34 million passengers. The airport handles over one lakh passengers every day and aircraft movements have also increased. With traffic growth at almost 20%, airport operator Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) is changing the master plan to increase the capacity of the terminal and the airside. The new ATC tower and fourth runway will help reduce congestion in the air and handle more flights. The Delhi airport, which already has three runways, will become the first airport in the Delhi airport T3 country to have a fourth runway, with construction likely to start this year. Airport officials are expecting to commission the fourth runway by 2018, which will take the per hour capacity of Delhi airport from 75 flights to 105. (Ref HT January 01, 2017). The above passenger handling statistics indicate that movement of automobiles (that are either airport bound / departing ) at these airports will be, mismanagement of traffic flow can lead to congestion and increase ambient noise levels. Though the airports were once located away from the city, however due to the employment generating potential of the areas there has been a steady development of residential areas and commercial areas that have engulfed (urban sprawl phenomenon) the airport areas. * * * 44

57 Chapter V Case study Noise levels during Diwali (Deepawali) Diwali festival of light & SOUND Salient features of outdoor activities during this festival : 1. Diwali, festival of light & SOUND is celebrated across the country with bursting of firecrackers particularly late into the night 2. The celebrations, bursting of firecrackers generally spread over few days immediately before and continue to next day into the night too 3. Diwali is a national holiday, all offices ( govt. and private ), academic institutions ( schools, colleges, etc ) are closed, traffic movement is expected to be low at nights Standards - Ambient noise level based on area zones The Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000 relate to maintaining of ambient air quality standards in respect of noise in different areas/ zones. The Rules were last amended in January 2010 to reduce noise levels at night (by restricting the use of horns, sound emitting construction equipments and bursting of fire crackers. Area code Table 5.1 : Ambient Air Quality Standards w.r.t. NOISE Zones Day Time db(a) Leq A Industrial B Commercial C Residential D Silence Night Time db(a) Leq 1) Day time : 6.00 a.m. to p.m. (16 hours) 2) Night time p.m. to 6.00 a.m. (8 hours) Objective & Methodology The objective of this chapter is to examine compliance of noise levels during Diwali period w.r.t. prescribed standards for the respective area zones as defined under Noise (Regulation & Control) Rules 2000 and to ascertain whether increase in sound levels can be attributed to 45

58 bursting of firecrackers only. The data analysed pertain to periods shown in Table below, note noise levels on day of Diwali and next day were also compared with similar weekdays the immediate previous week. Year Table 5.2 : Monitoring schedule in Delhi during Diwali period (Note : Diwali day dd/mm/yy is underlined) Monitoring period Day of week (pre, post & during Diwali) Duration (days) 15th October to 30th October, 2014 Duration 16 days 22 nd October to 22 nd November 2015 Duration 32 days 23 rd October to 6 th November 2016 Duration 15 days Monitored period Diwali days (two days) October November October Thursday & Friday Wednesday & Thursday Sunday & Monday BAU two days Previous week days dd/mm/yy 16-17/10/ /11/ /10/2016 Presently there are TEN noise monitoring stations, however when the real time noise monitoring was established in FY there were then only five stations in Delhi. The noise levels reported from CPCB s real time noise monitoring network were analysed focus was also on noise due to traffic movement, the data from the FOUR stations located in commercial area zones was also studied as these locations should reflect reduction in traffic volume effectively (if any). Table 5.3 : National Nose monitoring network DELHI Name of location Area Zone type Latitude Longitude 1. IBHAS Dilshad Garden Silence 28º40' 53.76'' N 77º19' 6.2'' E 2. DCE Silence 28º45' 00.54'' N 77º7' 3.61'' E 3. Mandir Marg Silence 28º38' 11.41'' N 77º12' 2.36'' E 4. NSIT Silence 28º36' 14.46'' N 77º2' 28.78'' E 5. R.K. Puram Residential 28º33' 46.23'' N 77º11' 12.4'' E 6. Punjabi Bagh Residential 28º40' 12.83'' N 77º7' 54.14'' E 7. Anand Vihar Commercial 28º38' 51.22'' N 77º18' 57.02'' E 8. CPCB, HQ Commercial 28º39' 20.99'' N 77º17' 39.91'' E 9. Civil Lines Commercial 28º40' 55.97'' N 77º13' 25.75'' E 10. ITO Commercial 28º37' 23.06'' N 77º14' 28.57'' E Compliance w.r.t. LAeq day during Diwali period - SILENCE area zones Noise standards LAeq for day time 50 dba in SILENCE area ZONES at four locations exceeded on almost all days during the monitored period. This observation can be attributed mainly due to traffic movement as there are no other noise generating sources that can impact ambient noise levels significantly at day time TABLE

59 Table 5.4 : LAeq DAY in SILENCE AREA ZONE in DELHI DELHI Noise monitoring station Range DAY LAeq db(a) OBSERVATIONS Standard DAY LAeq = 50 db(a YEAR 2014 (Period - 15th October, 2014 to 30th of October, 2014 (16 days) Delhi College of DAY Sound level data exceed the prescribed limit of 50 db Engineering (DCE) (A) on all days Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT) Sound level data at NSIT always exceed the prescribed limit of day time on all days IHBAS, Dilshad Garden DAY- sound level data less than the prescribed limit of 40 db (A) (day time) on three days. YEAR 2015 (Period - 22 nd October to 22 nd November 2015 (32 days) Delhi College of Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of Engineering (DCE) day time on all days. Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT) Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of day time on all days except on 27/10/15. IHBAS, Dilshad Garden Out of 32 days observations, sound level data exceeded the prescribed limit of 50 db (A) (day time) on 20 days YEAR 2016 (Period - 23 rd October to 6 th November 2016 (15 days) _ Delhi College of Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of Engineering day time on all days. Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology(NSIT) Sound level data exceeded the prescribed limit of day time on all days IHBAS, Dilshad Garden Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of day time on all 15 days Compliance w.r.t. LAeq day during Diwali period RESIDENTAIL area zones Noise standards LAeq for day time 55 dba in RESIDENTIAL area zones at two locations was exceeded on almost all days. This observation can be attributed mainly to traffic movement as there are no other noise generating sources that can impact ambient noise levels significantly TABLE 5.5. Table 5.5 : LAeq DAY in RESIDNETAIL ZONE in DELHI DELHI Noise monitoring station Range DAY LAeq db(a) OBSERVATIONS Standard DAY LAeq = 55 db(a YEAR 2015 (Period - 22 nd October to 22 nd November 2015 (32 days) R.K. Puram Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of day time. Punjabi Bagh Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of day time. YEAR 2016 (Period - 23 rd October to 6 th November 2016 (15 days) _ R.K. Puram Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed noise limit of day time - 55 dba except on one day. Punjabi Bagh Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of day time. 47

60 Compliance w.r.t. LAeq NIGHT during Diwali period ) SILENCE & RESIDENTAIL area zones 1. Though nights are relatively quieter than the day time, the noise standard of 40 dba for night time was exceeded in all the three locations in SILENCE area zones TABLE Though nights are relatively quieter than the day time, the noise standard of 45 dba for night time was exceeded in both the RESIDENTAIL locations in RESIDENTIAL area zones TABLE SILENCE area zones are no more silent mainly due to traffic movement mainly 2W, 3W and 4W. 4. Residential area zones are not quiet areas at night time though vehicle movement may be relatively low there are other sources of noise ex. radio, music systems & TVs. Table5.6: LAeq NIGHT in SILENCE AREA ZONE in DELHI DELHI Noise Range NIGHT OBSERVATIONS monitoring station LAeq db(a) Standard - NIGHT LAeq = 40 db(a YEAR 2014 (Period - 15th October, 2014 to 30th of October, 2014 (16 days) Delhi College of NIGHT sound level always above the prescribe limits Engineering (DCE) of 40 db (A). Netaji Subhas Sound level data at NSIT always exceed the Institute of prescribed limit of night time. Technology (NSIT) IHBAS, Dilshad NIGHT - sound level always above the prescribe limits Garden of 40 db(a) (night time). YEAR 2015 (Period - 22 nd October to 22 nd November 2015 (32 days) Delhi College of Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit Engineering (DCE) of night time. Netaji Subhas Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit Institute of of night time. Technology (NSIT) IHBAS, Dilshad Out of 32 days observations, sound level always Garden exceeded the prescribed limits of 40 db (A) during night time. YEAR 2016 (Period - 23 rd October to 6 th November 2016 (15 days) _ Delhi College of Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit Engineering of night time. Netaji Subhas Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit Institute of of night time. Technology(NSIT) IHBAS, Dilshad Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit Garden of night time. 48

61 Table 5.7 : LAeq NIGHT in RESIDENTIAL area zones in DELHI DELHI Noise monitoring station Range NIGHT LAeq db(a) OBSERVATIONS Standard - NIGHT LAeq = 45 db(a YEAR 2015 (Period - 22 nd October to 22 nd November 2015 (32 days) R.K. Puram Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of night time. Punjabi Bagh Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of night time. YEAR 2016 (Period - 23 rd October to 6 th November 2016 (15 days) _ R.K. Puram Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of night time except on one day. Punjabi Bagh Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of night time. LAeq (day & night) w.r.t. noise limits - CPCB HQ ( Commercial zone area) Though nights were are quieter than the day time, the noise monitoring station at CPCB HQ exceeded noise standards, during the day percent of the monitored periods during night time. The number of days the standards were exceeding prescribed noise limits were increasing implying there was increased vehicle movements both during day & night times. Table 5.8. The noise monitoring station at CPCB HQ (commercial area zone) is located before a busy road stretch which has brisk traffic movement leading to Karkadooma District Court, CPCB HQ, Hegdewar Govt Hospital and Shahdara YEAR Table 5.8 : LAeq (day / night) at CPCB-HQ ( Commercial area zone), DELHI Range DAY LAeq db(a) Range NIGHT LAeq db(a) OBSERVATIONS Standard NIGHT LAeq = 55 db(a Standard DAY LAeq = 65 db(a YEAR 2014 (Period - 15th October, 2014 to 30th of October, 2014 (16 days) DAY Sound level data of CPCB HQ exceeded the prescribed limit of 65 db (A) (day time) for 15 days NIGHT sound level above the prescribe limits of 55 db(a) (night time) for 11 days. YEAR 2015 (Period - 22 nd October to 22 nd November 2015 (32 days) DAY Sound level data of CPCB exceed the prescribed limit of 65 db (A) (day time) on 20 days NIGHT Sound level was above the prescribed limits of 55 db (A) for 16 days during night time. YEAR 2016 (Period - 23 rd October to 6 th November 2016 (15 days) DAY Sound level data of CPCB exceeded the prescribed limit of 65 db (A) (day time) for 11 days out of 15 days NIGHT Sound level was above the prescribed limits of 55 db (A) for 12 days out of 15 days during night time. 49

62 LAeq (day & night) w.r.t. noise limits ( 2014, 2015, 2016 ) - ITO, Anand Vihar and Civil Lines ( Commercial zone area ) The noise monitoring stations at Anand Vihar and Civil Lines were not installed during year ITO : The noise levels reported at ITO (major traffic crossing) exceeded noise standards prescribed for day and night for all the three years during the monitored period.table 5.9 The area ITO area is categorized as COMMERCIAL AREA ZONE, this is a very busy traffic crossing and is has several government offices / institutions in the region. The ambient high noise levels throughout the day can be attributed ONLY to busy traffic movement. The area has briskly developed over the last two decades and there has seen corresponding increase in vehicle movement due to which several traffic de-congestion measures were undertaken in the region to ensure smooth traffic flow i.e. de-congestion. Table 5.9. Nights are quieter than the day time Table 5.9 : LAeq (day / night) w.r.t. noise limits - ITO, DELHI YEAR Range DAY LAeq db(a) Range NIGHT LAeq db(a) OBSERVATIONS Standard NIGHT LAeq = 55 db(a Standard DAY LAeq = 65 db(a YEAR 2014 (Period - 15th October, 2014 to 30th of October, 2014 (16 days) Sound level data at ITO always exceed the prescribed limit of day and night time, observation 105 db (A) observed on 22/10/2014 YEAR 2015 (Period - 22 nd October to 22 nd November 2015 (32 days) Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of day and night time YEAR 2016 (Period - 23 rd October to 6 th November 2016 (15 days) Sound level data always exceeded the prescribed limit of day and night time. 2. Civil lines Table 5.10 a. Year 2015 : Out of 32 days observations, sound level data varied between 60 db(a) to 64 db(a) during day time and ranged between 59 db(a) to 66 db(a) during night time. b. Year Out of 15 days observations, sound level data was always less than of 65 db (A) (day time) whereas sound level always above the prescribed limit of 55 db (A) (night time). During day time, sound level data varied from 61 db(a) to 62 db(a) and during night time sound level data ranged between 58 db(a) to 62 db(a). 50

63 3. Anand Vihar ( major traffic junction) Table 5.10 a. During year 2015, out of 32 days observations, sound level data always above the prescribed limit of 65 db (A) (day time) and exceeded prescribed limits of 55 db (A) (night time). During day time, sound level data varied from 66 db(a) to 73 db(a) and during night time ranged from 62 db(a) to 69 db(a). b. Year 2016 : - Out of 15 days observations, sound level data was always above the prescribed limit of 65 db (A) (day time) and above the prescribed limit of 55 db (A) (night time). The sound level data varied from 66 db(a) to 70 db(a) day time and during night time sound level data ranged between 62 db(a) to 68 db(a). c. The noise monitoring station at Anand Vihar (major traffic prone area) exceeded noise standards prescribed for day and night during the monitored period in the two years on ALL the days. The ambient high noise levels through out the day can be attributed ONLY to vehicle movements only. Table 5.10 : LAeq (day / night) w.r.t. noise limits - Civil Lines and Anand Vihar DELHI Noise monitoring station Range DAY LAeq db(a) Range Night LAeq db(a) Civil Lines Anand Vihar Comparison of noise levels at LAeq NIGHT time - Diwali days Vs BAU weekdays Noise limits applicable for night time were exceeded during Diwali period. Regarding comparison of noise levels at NIGHT time - Diwali days Vs business as usual (BAU) of the immediate previous weekdays indicated that there was significant increase in noise levels during the Diwali NIGHTS which can be attributed ONLY DUE TO BURSTING of sound emitting FIRECRAKERS. Table 5.11 Table 5.11 Comparison of noise levels at NIGHT time - Diwali days Vs BAU previous week DELHI Noise monitoring station 1. Delhi College of Engineering (DCE) 2. Netaji Subhas Area Zone stds LAeq db(a) at NIGHT time 10 pm to 6 am Silence zone LAeq Night 40 dba Noise Range during DIWALI festival period ( LAeq NIGHT db(a) ) (Note in year 2014 there were only FIVE operational stations in Delhi) YEAR 2014 YEAR 2015 YEAR 2016 October 23 24, 2014 BAU October 16-17, 2014 November 11-12, 2015 BAU November 4-5, 2015 October 30-31, 2016 BAU October 23-24,

64 DELHI Noise monitoring station Area Zone stds LAeq db(a) at NIGHT time 10 pm to 6 am Noise Range during DIWALI festival period ( LAeq NIGHT db(a) ) (Note in year 2014 there were only FIVE operational stations in Delhi) YEAR 2014 YEAR 2015 YEAR 2016 October 23 24, 2014 BAU October 16-17, 2014 November 11-12, 2015 BAU November 4-5, 2015 October 30-31, 2016 BAU October 23-24, 2016 Institute of Technology (NSIT) 3. IHBAS, Dilshad Garden 4. Mandir Marg R.K. Puram Residential Punjabi zone Night Bagh 45 dba 7. Central ( 61) Pollution Control Board (CPCB) Civil Lines Commercial zone LAeq Night 55 dba Anand Vihar ITO Figure : Common firecrackers sold in the markets during Diwali * * * 52

65 Chapter VI Case study Noise levels during Republic Day (January 26) and Independence Day (August 15) National holidays - Republic Days (January 26) & Independence Days (August 15) Salient features w.r.t. traffic flow during national holidays viz. Republic Day (January 26) & Independence Day (August 15) : REPUBLIC DAY (January 26) 1. Both the days are gazetted National holidays across the country - All Central & State Govt offices, private organizations, schools, colleges, institutions and markets / mandis areas remain closed 2. Other vehicle movements : a. Except for emergency vehicles ( ambulance and police vans ) there are barely any private vehicles ( 2W & 4W) b. Buses and, taxis and autorickshaws (3W) plying are minimal c. Essential goods - ex Milk tankers in early hours may be observed 3. Metro rail services and DTC buses reduce their frequency services significantly 4. In view of the above noise due to vehicle movement, traffic congestion and honking are not expected to be high generally traffic movement across the city till forenoon is less. 53

66 Objective & Methodology, COMMERCIAL Area Zones generally have maximum transport movement (2W, 3W & 4W) besides buses. The two national holidays viz. Republic Day (January 26) & Independence Day (August 15) are off days the objective of this chapter is ascertain whether the day time noise levels reported at the FOUR noise monitoring stations located in COMMERCIAL Area Zones are comparable with BAU weekdays or lower due to reduced traffic flow. As the National holidays in year 2015 & 2016 occurred on Monday, Tuesday & Saturday, the corresponding noise levels for BAU weekdays were analyzed. To compare if there was any reduction in noise levels during the national holidays the noise levels were compared with a business as usual week (BAU), between January 18 24, The data of the following days were analysed. Table 6.1 : National holidays & BAU week identified for Delhi Day of week BAU week in Delhi dd/mm/yy National Holidays Monday 18/01/16 Republic Day January 26 th, 2015 Independence Day August 15, 2016 Tuesday 19/01/16 Republic Day January 26 th, 2016 Wednesday 20/01/16 - Thursday 21/01/16 - Friday 22/01/16 - Saturday 23/01/16 Independence Day August 15, 2015 Duration BAU week - January 18 24, 2016 Republic Day, January 26 th celebrated at India Gate Independence Day, August 15 celebrated at Red Fort Remarks To compare if there was any reduction in noise levels during the national holidays the noise levels were compared with a business as usual week (BAU), between January 18 24, 2016, this week is between the two Phases of the odd even traffic experiment conducted in Delhi during year 2016, the period is given below. Presently there are TEN Independence Day (August 15) noise monitoring stations, however when the real time noise monitoring was established in FY there were then only five stations in Delhi. The noise levels reported from CPCB s real time noise monitoring network were analysed focus shall be on noise due to traffic movement, the data of the FOUR stations located in commercial area zones were studied as 54

67 these locations should reflect reduction in traffic volume effectively (if any). The noise monitoring stations located in commercial area zones are at Anand Vihar, CPCB- HQ, Civil Lines and ITO. Table 6.2 : National Noise Monitoring Network - DELHI Name of location Area Zone Latitude Longitude type 1. Anand Vihar Commercial 28º38' 51.22'' N 77º18' 57.02'' E 2. CPCB, HQ Commercial 28º39' 20.99'' N 77º17' 39.91'' E 3. Civil Lines Commercial 28º40' 55.97'' N 77º13' 25.75'' E 4. Income Tax Office (ITO) Commercial 28º37' 23.06'' N 77º14' 28.57'' E Standards - Ambient noise levels for commercial area zones The Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000 were published in the Gazette of India, vide S.O. 123(E), dated and subsequently amended vide S.O. 1046(E), dated , S.O. 1088(E), dated , S.O (E), dated and S.O. 50 (E) dated under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.) These rules relate to maintaining of ambient air quality standards in respect of noise in different areas/ zones. The Rules were last amended in January 2010 to reduce noise levels at night (by restricting the use of horns, sound emitting construction equipments and bursting of fire crackers). Table 6.3 : Ambient Air Quality Standards w.r.t. NOISE Area code Zones Day Time db(a) Leq A Industrial B COMMERCIAL C Residential D Silence Night Time db(a) Leq 1) Day time : 6.00 a.m. to p.m. (16 hours) 2) Night time p.m. to 6.00 a.m. (8 hours) BAU weekdays Vs National Holidays : Monday, Tuesday & Saturday - LAeq day Observations a) Mondays : Though LAeq day db(a) values on National holidays were higher (exceeded prescribed noise limit of 65 dba at ITO & Anand Vihar) however it was less than corresponding BAU Monday. TABLE 6.4 TABLE 6.4 LAeq day db(a) MONDAYs ANAND VIHAR CPCB HQ CIVIL LINES ITO BAU Monday (18/01/16) Republic Day January 26 th, Independence Day August 15,

68 b) Tuesdays : Though LAeq day db(a) values on National holidays were higher (exceeded prescribed noise limit of 65 dba at ITO & Anand Vihar) however it was less than corresponding BAU Monday TABLE 6.5 TABLE 6.5 LAeq day db(a) ANAND TUEDAYs VIHAR CPCB HQ CIVIL LINES ITO BAU Tuesday (19/01/16) Republic Day January 26 th, c) Saturday: On the National holiday Independence Day August 15, 2015 the LAeq day value near the noise limit 65 dba at ITO, Anand Vihar and CPCB HQ on Saturday. TABLE6.6 TABLE 6.6 LAeq day db(a) SATURDAYs ANAND VIHAR CPCB HQ CIVIL LINES ITO BAU Saturday (23/01/16) Independence Day August 15, Comparison : Though LAeq day db(a) values on National holidays were higher (exceeded prescribed noise limit of 65 dba at ITO & Anand Vihar) however it was less / close to corresponding BAU Monday, Tuesday and Saturday, indicating that traffic movement during national holidays is significant, particularly at ITO and Anand Vihar Status of compliance LAeq day on National Holidays On Republic Days (January 26) & Independence Days (August 15), the LAeq noise limit day 65 dba was exceeded at ITO and Anand Vihar on both the years. Table 6.7 Table 6.7 : LAeq day db(a)compliance status on National holidays in Delhi LAeq (day) db(a) (6am to 10pm) Std. 65 db(a) Republic Day (January 26 th ) Independence Day ( August 15 ) Anand Vihar CPCB, HQ Civil Lines ITO

69 Background noise levels, L 90 (6am to 10pm) on National holidays The noise descriptor, L n is that noise level exceeded for n% of the measurement time. L 90 i.e. noise level exceeding for 90 per cent of time is taken to be the ambient or background noise level. On Republic Days (January 26) & Independence Days (August 15), the L 90 (6am to 10pm) was less than than 65 dba at all locations except at ITO. Observations Table 6.8 and Table 6.9 :The background L 90 (6am to 10pm) dba noise levels in BAU week between January 18 24, 2016 (Table 6.9) in commercial area zones were compared with L90 on National holidays (Table 6.8), the day background noise levels were less higher on BAU weekdays compared to National holidays except at ITO a busy traffic crossing. It can be concluded that there is significant background noise (exceeding 60 dba) mainly due to traffic movement. Table 6.8 : Background noise levels, L 90 (6am to 10pm) on National holidays L 90 (6am to 10pm) National Holidays Republic (January 26 th ) Independence August 15 Day Day Anand Vihar CPCB, HQ Civil Lines ITO Table 6.9 : Background noise levels, L 90 (6am to 10pm) on BAU week - January 18 24, 2016 in commercial area zones BAU weekday L 90 (day) dba ANAND VIHAR CPCB HQ CIVIL LINES ITO Monday (18/01/16) Tuesday (19/01/16) Wednesday (20/01/16) Thursday (21/01/16) Friday (22/01/16) Saturday (23/01/16) Noise level distribution (% exceedance) day time : Republic day Based on the number of observations the noise levels were grouped as given in the Table below, the key observations was that on both the national holidays the maximum observations occurred during daytime ( 6am to 10 pm ) in the range >55 - <=65 dba except at ITO wherein the observations were in the range >65 - <=75 dba respectively, this can be attributed to the vehicular movement at ITO which is a major traffic crossing. Table 6.10 &

70 Table 6.10 : Noise level distribution (% exceedance) DAY time on REPUBLIC DAY January 26 th in Delhi Location Anand Vihar CPCB, HQ Civil Lines ITO Range Noise level distribution (% exceedance) DAY time db(a) Year <=50 >50 - <=55 >55 - <=65 >65 - <=75 > Table 6.11 : Noise level distribution (% exceedance) DAY time - on INDEPENDENCE DAY, August 15 in Delhi Location Range Noise level distribution (% exceedance) DAY time db(a) Year <=50 >50 - <=55 >55 - <=65 >65 - <=75 >75 Anand Vihar CPCB, HQ Civil Lines ITO Graphical presentation Graphical presentations given on Republic Day and Independence Day between 6am to noon time at the FOUR locations in commercial area zones for years 2015 and The variation in noise levels during Independence Day was more prominent compared to Republic Day. 58

71 Republic Day Leq value in db(a) Anand Vihar 2015 Anand Vihar 2016 Time Independence Day Anand Vihar 2015 Anand Vihar 2016 Leq value in db(a) Leq value in db(a) Time Republic Day CPCB HQ 2015 CPCB HQ 2016 Time 59

72 Independence Day CPCB HQ 2015 CPCB HQ 2016 Leq value in db(a) Time Republic Day Civil Lines 2015 Civil Lines Leq value in db(a) Leq value in db(a) Time Independence Day Civil Lines 2015 Civil Lines 2016 Time 60

73 Leq value in db(a) Republic Day ITO 2015 ITO 2016 Time Leq value in db(a) Independence Day ITO 2015 ITO 2016 Time * * * 61

74 Chapter VII How quiet are Sundays in Delhi? Typical traffic related activities on Sundays Salient features w.r.t. traffic flow on Sundays : 1. All Central & State Govt offices, private organizations, schools, colleges, institutions remain closed 2. Buses and, taxis and auto-rickshaws (3W) services reduced 3. Metro rail services and DTC buses reduce their frequency services significantly 4. In view of the above noise levels during day due to vehicle movement, traffic congestion and honking are not expected to be high generally traffic movement across the city till forenoon is expected to be low. Standards - Ambient noise level based on area zones The Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000 rules relate to maintaining of ambient air quality standards in respect of noise in different areas/ zones. Typical Sunday in INDIA GATE 62

75 Table 7.1 : Ambient Air Quality Standards w.r.t. NOISE Area code Zones Day Time db(a) Leq A Industrial B Commercial C Residential D Silence Night Time db(a) Leq 1) Day time : 6.00 a.m. to p.m. (16 hours) 2) Night time p.m. to 6.00 a.m. (8 hours) Objective & Methodology The objective is to ascertain whether prescribed area zone noise limits were exceeded during day-time on Sundays. The FOUR stations located in commercial area zones in Delhi are Anand Vihar, CPCB HQ, Civil Lines and Typical Sunday in Connaught Place Income Tax Office (ITO) were also studied - these areas are expected to have maximum transport movement (2W, 3W & 4W). Presently there are TEN noise monitoring stations, however when the real time noise monitoring was established in FY there were then only five stations in Delhi. The noise levels reported from CPCB s real time noise monitoring network were analysed. As the odd even traffic experiment was conducted in Delhi in year 2016, the reasons for identifying following SUNDAYS of year 2016 is summarized below. The noise level data was analyzed to verify compliance with noise limits and assess the background noise levels (L 90) on Sundays Table 7.2 : Sundays of year 2016 in Delhi (database) Sundays on Phase I traffic experiment Phase II traffic experiment Business as usual (BAU) week Diwali period monitoring Sundays dd/mm/yy Remarks Monitored period 03/01/16 April January 1-15, 2016 (15 days), time period 8am to 8pm ; 10/01/16 Days Monday to Saturday Note : Odd even traffic restrictions were not applicable on Sundays 17/04/16 Period - April 15-30, 2016 (16 days), time period 8am to 8pm ; 24/04/16 Days Monday to Saturday Note : Odd even traffic restrictions were not applicable on Sundays 24/01/16 January18 24, 2016 ( 7 days) & Sundays during Diwali period in year 2015 and year /10/16 06/11/16 63

76 Table 7.3 : National monitoring network - DELHI Name of location Area Zone Latitude Longitude type 1. Institute of Human Silence 28º40' 53.76'' N 77º19' 6.2'' E Behavior & Allied Sciences (IHBAS), Dilshad Garden 2. Delhi College of Silence 28º45' 00.54'' N 77º7' 3.61'' E Engineering (DCE) 3. Mandir Marg Silence 28º38' 11.41'' N 77º12' 2.36'' E 4. Netaji Subhas Institute of Silence 28º36' 14.46'' N 77º2' 28.78'' E Technology (NSIT) 5. R.K. Puram Residential 28º33' 46.23'' N 77º11' 12.4'' E 6. Punjabi Bagh Residential 28º40' 12.83'' N 77º7' 54.14'' E 7. Anand Vihar Commercial 28º38' 51.22'' N 77º18' 57.02'' E 8. CPCB, HQ Commercial 28º39' 20.99'' N 77º17' 39.91'' E 9. Civil Lines Commercial 28º40' 55.97'' N 77º13' 25.75'' E 10. Income Tax Office (ITO) Commercial 28º37' 23.06'' N 77º14' 28.57'' E Status of compliance LAeq day : Sundays of Odd even traffic experiment in year 2016, PHASE I Table 7.4 : LAeq (day) dba on Sundays during Odd-even traffic experiment (PHASE I) in year 2016 in DELHI (Noise limits area zones db( A) :silence zone 50 ; residential zone - 55 ; commercial 65 ) Noise monitoring locations Area zone SUNDAYS Phase I traffic experiment Comments 03/01/16 10/01/16 a. Silence zone : Silence Silence zones exceed noise limits, NSIT reported higher LAeq day b. Residential area : The prescribed noise limit LAeq 55 dba was almost complied c. Commercial area : LAeq day exceeded at ITO and Anand Vihar two high traffic prone areas. d. Noise limits exceeded prescribed limits at most locations on Sundays 1. Dilshad Garden 2. DCE Silence Mandir Marg Silence NSIT Silence R.K. Puram Residential Punjabi Bagh Residential Anand Vihar Commercial CPCB, HQ Commercial Civil Lines Commercial ITO Commercial

77 Status of compliance LAeq day : Sundays of Odd even traffic experiment in year 2016, PHASE II Table 7.5 : LAeq (day) dba on Sundays during Odd-even traffic experiment (PHASE II) in year 2016 in DELHI (Noise limits area zones db( A) :silence zone 50 ; residential zone - 55 ; commercial 65 ) Noise monitoring locations Area zone 1. Dilshad Garden Silence DCE Silence Mandir Marg Silence NSIT Silence R.K. Puram Residential Punjabi Bagh Residential Anand Vihar Commercial CPCB, HQ Commercial Civil Lines Commercial ITO Commercial Status of compliance LAeq day : Sunday of BAU week SUNDAYS Comments Phase II traffic experiment 17/04/16 24/04/16 a. Silence zone : Silence zones exceed noise limits, NSIT reported higher LAeq day b. Residential area : The prescribed noise limit LAeq 55 dba is exceeded c. Commercial area : LAeq day exceeded at ITO and Anand Vihar two high traffic prone areas. ITO noise levels lower d. Noise limits exceeded prescribed limits at most locations on Sundays To compare if there was any reduction in noise levels the same were compared with a business as usual week (BAU), between January 18 24, 2016 (see below) Table 7.6 : National holidays & BAU week identified for Delhi Day of week BAU week in Delhi Remarks dd/mm/yy Monday 18/01/16 To compare if there was any reduction in noise Tuesday 19/01/16 levels during the national holidays the noise levels Wednesday 20/01/16 were compared with a business as usual week Thursday 21/01/16 (BAU), between January 18 24, 2016, this Friday 22/01/16 week is between the two Phases of the odd even Saturday 23/01/16 traffic experiment conducted in Delhi during year Sunday 24/01/ , the period is given below. Duration BAU week - January 18 24, 2016 Observation : LAeq day on BAU Sunday exceeded 65 dba at ITO and Anand Vihar, both busy traffic prone areas. Table 7.7 : LAeq (day) dba on Sunday in BAU week (Noise limits area zones db( A) : commercial 65 ) SUNDAY 24/01/16 Anand Vihar CPCB, HQ Civil Lines ITO LAeq (day)

78 Status of compliance LAeq day : Sundays of Diwali period in year 2015 & 2016 The noise levels LAeq day on SUNDAYS of Diwali period dd/mm/yy are summarized below. Table 7.8 : SUNDAYS during Diwali periods in year 2015 & 2016 Monitoring period Year (pre, post & during Diwali) Duration (days) Diwali day Day of week Sundays nd October to 22 nd November 2015 Duration 32 days 23 rd October to 6 th November 2016 Duration 15 days 11thNovember 30 th October Wednesday & Thursday Sunday & Monday Sunday - (pre Diwali) Sunday - (post Diwali) Sunday - (pre Diwali) Sunday- (post Diwali) Observations : Noise limits for LAeq day dba prescribed area zone noise limit were exceeded on most SUNDAYS in silence, residential and commercial area zones ( ITO & Anand Vihar). Table7.9 : Status of compliance of LAeq daydba on Sundays (Silence & Residential are zones) Weekday Sunday (pre Diwali) Sunday (post Diwali) Sunday (pre Diwali) Sunday (post Diwali) SUNDAY dd/mm/yy IBHAS DIlshad Garden DCE NSIT Mandir Marg RK Puram Punjabi Bagh SILENCE area zone RESIDENTIAL Table 7.10 : Status of compliance of LAeq daydba on Sundays (Commercial area zones) Weekday Dd/mm/yy CPCB HQ Civil Lines Anand Vihar ITO COMMERCIAL area zone Sunday (pre Diwali) Sunday (Post Diwali)

79 Background noise levels L 90 (day) on Sundays in Delhi Commercial area zones Observation Except at ITO the background noise levels L 90 (day) on Sundays in Delhi in commercial area zones were in most cases exceeded 60 dba except at ITO where it exceeded 65 dba (prescribed noise limits for day ). Sundays are noisy days too. Table 7.11 : Background noise levels L 90 (day) on Sundays in Delhi Commercial area zones Noise Stations in SUNDAYs in COMMERCIAL AREA ZONES Background noise levels L 90 (day 6am to 10pm) dba Commercial area zones Phase I Traffic Experiment Phase II Traffic Experiment BAU week Diwali Period (Diwali on 30 th Oct. 2016) 03/01/16 10/01/16 17/04/16 24/04/16 24/01/16 23/10/16 30/10/16 06/11/16 Anand Vihar CPCB HQ Civil Lines ITO Background noise levels L 90 (day) on Sundays in Delhi Silence & Residential area zones Observation Except at NSIT ( academic institution) the background noise levels L 90 (day) on Sundays in Delhi in silence and residential area zones were below the LAeq day limits implying the areas were quiet and in the absence any other noise source, the existing noise levels can be attributed to traffic movement. only. Table 7.12 : Background noise levels L 90 (day) on Sundays in Delhi during Phase I & II of Odd even traffic experiment (Noise limits area zones db( A) :silence zone 50 ; residential zone - 55 ) Noise Monitoring Area Zone Sunday (dd/mm/yy), L 90 (day) db(a) Stations Phase I Traffic experiment Phase II Traffic experiment 03/01/16 10/01/16 17/04/16 24/04/16 IBHAS Dilshad Garden Silence DCE Silence Mandir Marg Silence NSIT Silence RK Puram Residential Punjabi Bagh Residential

80 Table 7.13 : Background noise levels L 90 (day) on Sundays in Delhi during Diwali period and Business as usual (BAU) week in year 2016 (Noise limits area zones db(a) :silence zone 50 ; residential zone - 55 ) Noise Monitoring Area Zone Sunday (dd/mm/yy), L 90 (day) db(a) - Stations BAU) week Diwali Period (Diwali on 30 th Oct. 2016) 24/01/16 23/10/16 30/10/16 06/11/16 IBHAS Dilshad Garden Silence DCE Silence Mandir Marg Silence NSIT Silence RK Puram Residential Punjabi Bagh Residential SILENCE ZONE 68

81 Table 7.14 : Compliance status Noise levels) LAeq day db(a) on SUNDAYS in year 2016 in DELHI (Noise limits area zones LAeq day dba : silence zone 50 ; residential zone - 55 ; commercial 65 ) Noise monitoring locations Area zone Phase I traffic experiment Phase II traffic experiment Business as usual (BAU) week Diwali period 03/01/16 10/01/16 17/04/16 24/04/16 24/01/16 23/10/16 30/10/16 06/11/16 IBHAS Dilshad Silence Garden DCE Silence Mandir Marg Silence NSIT Silence R.K. Puram Residential Punjabi Bagh Residential Anand Vihar Commercial CPCB, HQ Commercial Civil Lines Commercial ITO Commercial Table 7.15 : L90 (background) Noise levels db(a) during day - time on Sundays in year 2016 in DELHI (Noise limits for area zones db( A) :silence zone 50 ; residential zone - 55 ; commercial 65 ) Noise Monitoring Stations Area Zone L 90 (day) - SUNDAYs Phase I Traffic Experiment Phase II Traffic Experiment BAU week Diwali Period 03/01/16 10/01/16 17/04/16 24/04/16 24/01/16 23/10/16 30/10/16 06/11/ IBHAS Dilshad Silence Garden DCE Silence Mandir Marg Silence NSIT Silence RK Puram Residential Punjabi Bagh Residential Anand Vihar Commercial CPCB HQ Commercial Civil Lines Commercial ITO Commercial

82 Table 7.16 : Compliance LAeq day dba and background noise levels L90 dba day for Commercial area zones in Delhi BAU week between January, 2016 BAU Day dd/mm/yy Monday (18/01/16) Tuesday (19/01/16) Wednesday (20/01/16) Thursday (21/01/16) Friday (22/01/16) Saturday (23/01/16) SUNDAY 24/01/16 Anand Vihar CPCB, HQ Civil Lines ITO LAeq L 90 LAeq L 90 LAeq L 90 LAeq L * * * 70

83 Chapter VIII Case study : Noise levels during Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in year 2016 Objective & Methodology, The salient features of Delhi s odd even traffic experiment conducted in year 2016 is discussed in this chapter followed by the analyses of the noise levels during the two rounds of the experiment. The aim of the traffic experiment was to reduce the number of vehicles, thereby reducing the VEHICULAR EMISSIONS (particulate matter) that impact air quality. The objective of analyses of the NOISE LEVELS during Delhi s ODD-EVEN TRAFFIC EXPERIMENT in year 2016 to ascertain whether there was any significant decrease in noise levels during traffic experiment due to anticipated decrease in vehicle numbers. The noise levels reported from CPCB s real time noise monitoring network were analysed the focus was on daytime noise levels at FOUR stations located in commercial area zones viz. Anand Vihar, CPCB HQ, Civil Lines and Income Tax Office (ITO), as these locations should reflect reduction in noise levels (if any) arising from odd even traffic restrictions. The noise levels are compared with weekdays of a typical business as usual (BAU) week to ascertain change in noise levels. Note when the real time noise monitoring network was established in FY there were then, only five noise monitoring stations in Delhi, subsequently five more stations were added - presently there are TEN noise monitoring stations in Delhi. 71

84 Table 8.1 : Duration of Delhi s Odd even Traffic experiment in year 2016 Day of week Phase I Phase II Monday 04/01/16 11/01/16-18/04/16 25/04/16 Tuesday 05/01/16 12/01/16-19/04/16 26/04/16 Wednesday 06/01/16 13/01/16-20/04/16 27/04/16 Thursday 07/01/16 14/01/16-21/04/16 28/04/16 Friday 01/01/16 08/01/16 15/01/16 15/04/16 22/04/16 29/04/16 Saturday 02/01/16 09/01/16-16/04/16 23/04/16 30/04/16 Sunday 03/01/16 10/01/16-17/04/16 24/04/16 Duration January 1-15, Days Duration 8am to 8pm Monday till Saturday April 15-30, Days Duration - 8am to 8pm Monday till Saturday Table 8.2: CPCB s noise monitoring stations in DELHI Name of location Area Zone type Latitude Longitude Institute of Human Behavior & Silence 28º40' 53.76'' N 77º19' 6.2'' E Allied Sciences (IHBAS), Dilshad Garden Delhi College of Engineering (DCE) Silence 28º45' 00.54'' N 77º7' 3.61'' E Mandir Marg Silence 28º38' 11.41'' N 77º12' 2.36'' E Netaji Subhas Institute of Silence 28º36' 14.46'' N 77º2' 28.78'' E Technology (NSIT) R.K. Puram Residential 28º33' 46.23'' N 77º11' 12.4'' E Punjabi Bagh Residential 28º40' 12.83'' N 77º7' 54.14'' E Anand Vihar Commercial 28º38' 51.22'' N 77º18' 57.02'' E CPCB, HQ Commercial 28º39' 20.99'' N 77º17' 39.91'' E Civil Lines Commercial 28º40' 55.97'' N 77º13' 25.75'' E Income Tax Office (ITO) Commercial 28º37' 23.06'' N 77º14' 28.57'' E Delhi s odd even traffic experiment in year salient features a) Aim of traffic experiment The aim of traffic experiment was to regulate the number private vehicle use by means of applying licence plate restrictions, it was expected that these restrictions would reduce cars on Delhi s roads by nearly 10 lakh each day. The main aim was to counter NOISE is an air pollutant automobiles on roads impact quality of life. 72

85 rising air pollution (particulate matter) arising due to growing vehicular numbers in the country s capital. b) Odd even factor - The odd-even restrictions allow cars with odd-numbered licence plates to drive on odd-numbered dates and those with even-numbered plates on even number dates. Thus for example, on January 1, cars with numbers ending with 1,3,5, 7 and 9 will operate while on January 2, cars with numbers ending with 0,2, 4, 6, 8 will be allowed to ply. c) Implementation period - The odd-even scheme was conducted in two rounds, first (Phase I ) introduced between January 1-15, 2016 and Phase II between April 15 30, 2016, the highlights are given below. Table 8.3 : Snapshot of Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in year 2016 Issues Phase I Phase II Effective period January 1-15, 2016 April 15 30, 2016 Duration 15 days 16 days Period 8 am to 8 pm 8 am to 8 pm Days applicable Monday to Saturday Monday to Saturday Sundays No restrictions on licence number plates d) Exemptions and restrictions on vehicles during traffic experiment in Delhi EXEMPTIONS : i. CNG and electric cars : In a bid to promote clean fuel and reward those who have shifted away from petrol/diesel cars, exemptions applicable for CNG and hybrid cars like electric cars in the pilot scheme. CNG cars to get a hologram sticker from Indraprastha Gas Limited (IGL) pumping stations and display them prominently on their cars windshields. ii. Public transport : Vehicles include CNG-driven buses, taxis, auto-rickshaws. iii. Two-wheelers : The reason for exempting two-wheelers bikes was that that the existing public transport was inadequate to provide a viable option. iv. Women drivers : Women travelling alone or with children below the age of 12 have been allowed, the government cited safety concerns as the reason v. People with disabilities : Vehicles driven or occupied by handicapped persons and those being used for medical emergencies vi. Emergency services : ambulances, fire brigades, hospital vehicles, hearse vans vii. Enforcement vehicles : Delhi Police vehicles, PCR vans, Transport department vehicles 73

86 viii. VVIP cars, emergency services : Vehicles of VVIPs : cars of chief ministers from other states, Cars ferrying members of Parliament, the Chief Justice of India, judges in the Supreme & High Courts, Cars with diplomatic and defence ministry license plates, the army, paramilitary force motors,some officials cars, including those belonging to the president, vice president and prime minister s convoys RESTRICTIONS i. Taxi aggregators : Taxi aggregators such as Ola and Uber if not run on CNG. ii. Cars from out of Delhi : All diesel and petrol cars, irrespective of where they are coming from, will have to follow the rules. If a car is coming from out of Delhi and is breaking the odd-even rule, a fine will be levied. iii. Accessing parking : The Delhi government (Phase I) issued an order asking civic bodies and other agencies to prevent violators of odd even from accessing authorised parking spaces in the city. iv. Heavy traffic (trucks) : Traffic police told to ensure that diesel trucks, which transit through the city at night, enter only after 11pm. The Hon ble SC banned the entry of trucks registered before 2005 into the city. e) MRTS services increased during odd-even traffic experiment in Delhi - Delhi Metro Rail s transport arrangements during odd-even traffic experiment in Delhi indicated that the frequency services were increased to meet the high passenger movement, the facilities provided by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) as per its website are summarized below: Facility by DMRC Duration Table 8.4 : MRTS services increased during odd-even traffic experiment Phase I Phase II Remarks Jan April 15-30, 2016 Train Trips Additional 56 train trips. 200 trains be used daily to achieve these trips. Delhi Metro pressed into service the maximum number of trains possible operationally during this period keeping only the essential maintenance reserve. Feeder Buses DMRC operated 15 additional feeder buses. Routes in The routes are also reviewed, 3 new routes are introduced and rationalized to 6-12 km range so as to utilize the feeder buses to the maximum as first/last mile connectivity. Passenger handling related information Delhi Metro trips have been increased to 493 on Monday (Phase I) The Airport Express Line has also shown increase in passengers. Reported wit that target to accommodate 32 lakh people, 20 per cent more than what the metro regularly sees. Delhi Metro's Cumulative Ridership for the financial year crosses one billion (100 crores) Source

87 f) DTC services increased during odd-even traffic experiment in Delhi -The DTC is the backbone of the odd-even traffic experiment with the Delhi government banking on its fleet of 4,500 buses and additional private buses to be deployed to ferry people going without cars, targeting a minimum of 48 lakh commuters to a maximum of 64 lakh passengers. Of the 4,500 buses the DTC has, ordinarily it outsheds 92 per cent, keeping back 8 per cent for maintenance or emergency purposes, however, for the traffic experiment DTC outshed all the buses in its fleet. On Sunday (Phase I ) DTC outshed only 70 per cent of the buses and retained 30 per cent in need of the repair and servicing. This way, DTC maintained a healthy fleet ready for 100 per cent out-shedding on Monday (1 st Monday of Phase I). To cope with the extra pressure on the public transport network, Delhi's government (in Phase I ) hired around 3,000 private buses to provide shuttle services into the city from residential areas. Status of compliance on MONDAYs : Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (daytime) Observations: Except for a day or two, at all locations the LAeq day dba noise limits were exceeded and did not differ significantly during Phase I, Phase or BAU weekday on Mondays, except noise levels at Civil Lines were within noise limits. Table 8.5 Status of compliance on MONDAYs : Odd even traffic experiment Delhi Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) in commercial area zones Location ANAND VIHAR CPCB CIVIL LINES ITO Phase II LAeq (day) db(a) Weekday Phase I LAeq (day) db(a) 67 18/04/16 Monday 04/01/ /04/16 Monday 11/01/ /04/16 Monday 04/01/ /04/16 Monday 11/01/ /04/16 Monday 04/01/ /04/16 Monday 11/01/ /04/16 Monday 04/01/ /04/16 Monday 11/01/16 75 BAU week - Monday LAeq (day) db(a) 18/01/ /01/ /01/ /01/16 74 Status of compliance on TUESDAYs : Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (daytime) Observations: Except for a day or two, at all locations the LAeq day dba noise limits were exceeded and did not differ significantly during odd even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II) or BAU weekday on Tuesdays, except noise levels at Civil Lines were within noise limits. 75

88 Table 8.6 Status of compliance on TUESDAYs : Odd even traffic experiment Delhi Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) in commercial area zones Location ANAND VIHAR CPCB CIVIL LINES ITO Phase II LAeq (day) db(a) Weekday Phase I LAeq (day) db(a) 67 19/04/16 Tuesday 05/01/ /04/16 Tuesday 12/01/ /04/16 Tuesday 05/01/ /04/16 Tuesday 12/01/ /04/16 Tuesday 05/01/ /04/16 Tuesday 12/01/ /04/16 Tuesday 05/01/ /04/16 Tuesday 12/01/16 75 BAU week - Tuesday LAeq (day) db(a) 19/01/ /01/ /01/ /01/16 74 Status of compliance on WEDNESDAYs : Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) Observations: At all locations the LAeq day dba noise limits were exceeded and did not differ significantly during odd even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II) or BAU weekday on Wednesdays, except noise levels at Civil Lines were within noise limits. Table 8.7 Status of compliance on WEDNESDAYs : Odd even traffic experiment Delhi Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) in commercial area zones Location ANAND VIHAR CPCB CIVIL LINES ITO Phase II LAeq (day) db(a) Weekday Phase I LAeq (day) db(a) 68 20/04/16 Wednesday 06/01/ /04/16 Wednesday 13/01/ /04/16 Wednesday 06/01/ /04/16 Wednesday 13/01/ /04/16 Wednesday 06/01/ /04/16 Wednesday 13/01/ /04/16 Wednesday 06/01/ /04/16 Wednesday 13/01/16 74 BAU week - Wednesday LAeq (day) db(a) 20/01/ /01/ /01/ /01/16 73 Status of compliance on THURSDAYs Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (daytime) Observations: At all locations the LAeq day dba noise limits were exceeded and did not differ significantly during odd even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II) or BAU weekday on Thursdays, except noise levels at Civil Lines were within noise limits. 76

89 Table 8.8 Status of compliance on THURSDAYs : Odd even traffic experiment Delhi Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) in commercial area zones Location ANAND VIHAR CPCB CIVIL LINES ITO Phase II LAeq (day) db(a) Weekday Phase I LAeq (day) db(a) 68 21/04/16 Thursday 07/01/ /04/16 Thursday 14/01/ /04/16 Thursday 07/01/ /04/16 Thursday 14/01/ /04/16 Thursday 07/01/ /04/16 Thursday 14/01/ /04/16 Thursday 07/01/ /04/16 Thursday 14/01/16 75 BAU week - Thursday LAeq (day) db(a) 21/01/ /01/ /01/ /01/16 74 Status of compliance on FRIDAYs : Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (daytime) Observations: Except a day or two at all locations the LAeq day dba noise limits were exceeded and did not differ significantly during odd even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II) or BAU weekday on Fridays, except noise levels at Civil Lines were within noise limits. Table 8.9 Status of compliance on FRIDAYs : Odd even traffic experiment Delhi Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) in commercial area zones Location ANAND VIHAR CPCB CIVIL LINES ITO Phase II LAeq (day) db(a) Weekday Phase I LAeq (day) db(a) 68 15/04/16 Friday 01/01/ /04/16 Friday 08/01/ /04/16 Friday 15/01/ /04/16 Friday 01/01/ /04/16 Friday 08/01/ /04/16 Friday 15/01/ /04/16 Friday 01/01/ /04/16 Friday 08/01/ /04/16 Friday 15/01/ /04/16 Friday 01/01/ /04/16 Friday 08/01/ /04/16 Friday 15/01/16 75 BAU week -Friday LAeq (day) db(a) 22/01/ /01/ /01/ /01/16 73 Status of compliance on SATURDAYs : Odd even traffic experiment Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) Observations: Except at CPCB HQ, at all locations the LAeq day dba noise limits were exceeded and did not differ significantly during odd even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II) or BAU weekday on Fridays, except noise levels at Civil Lines were within noise limits. 77

90 Location Location ANAND VIHAR CPCB CIVIL LINES ITO Table 8.10 Status of compliance on SATURDAYS : Odd even traffic experiment Delhi Vs BAU - LAeq (day-time) in commercial area zones Phase II LAeq (day) db(a) LAeq (day) db(a) Weekday Phase II Weekday Phase I Phase I LAeq (day) db(a) LAeq (day) db(a) 68 16/04/16 Saturday 02/01/ /04/16 Saturday 09/01/ /04/16 Saturday /04/16 Saturday 02/01/ /04/16 Saturday 09/01/ /04/16 Saturday /04/16 Saturday 02/01/ /04/16 Saturday 09/01/ /04/16 Saturday /04/16 Saturday 02/01/ /04/16 Saturday 09/01/ /04/16 Saturday - BAU week -Saturday LAeq (day) db(a) BAU week Saturday LAeq (day) db(a) 23/01/ /01/ /01/ /01/16 73 Status of compliance with noise limits LAeq (day-time) : Odd even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II ) Observations : In Phase I except a day or two at CPCB HQ, the noise limits for commercial area zones were exceeded on all days at ITO and Anand Vihar, except at Civil Lines the noise levels were within noise limits Table 8.11 : Status of compliance LAeq (day time) during PHASE I of Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in DELHI Weekday Phase I dd/mm/yy ANAND VIHAR CPCB HQ CIVIL LINES ITO Friday 01/01/ Saturday 02/01/ Monday 04/01/ Tuesday 05/01/ Wednesday 06/01/ Thursday 07/01/ Friday 08/01/ Saturday 09/01/ Monday 11/01/ Tuesday 12/01/ Wednesday 13/01/ Thursday 14/01/ Friday 15/01/

91 Observations : In Phase II except for the 1 st few days at CPCB HQ, the noise limits for commercial area zones were exceeded on several days at ITO and Anand Vihar, except at Civil Lines the noise levels were within noise limits Table 8.12: Status of compliance LAeq (day time) during PHASE II of Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in DELHI Weekday Phase II ANAND VIHAR CPCB HQ CIVIL LINES ITO Friday 15/04/ Saturday 16/04/ Monday 18/04/ Tuesday 19/04/ Wednesday 20/04/ Thursday 21/04/ Friday 22/04/ Saturday 23/04/ Monday 25/04/ Tuesday 26/04/ Wednesday 27/04/ Thursday 28/04/ Friday 29/04/ Saturday 30/04/ Overview observations : Regarding status of compliance with noise limits LAeq (day-time) : Odd even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II ) Vs BAU weekdays indicated LAeq day noise limit of 65 dba was exceeded on several days at the locations during Phase I & Phase II except at Civil lines Status of compliance LAeq (day time) during BAU weekdays - January 18 24, 2016 Observations : Regarding status of compliance LAeq (day time) during BAU weekdays - January 18 24, 2016, except at location at Civil Lines the noise levels exceeded the prescribed limit of 65 dba on all BAU weekdays Monday, Tuesday Saturday at all locations in commercial area zones viz. ITO, Anand Vihar and CPCB HQ. The observations w.r.t. status of compliance of w.r.t. area zone noise limits are comparable with Odd-even traffic experiment, indicating that noise levels due to traffic flow did not reduce 79

92 Table 8.13: Status of compliance LAeq (day time) during BAU weekdays January 18 24, 2016 BAU Day ANAND VIHAR CPCB HQ CIVIL LINES ITO Monday (18/01/16) Tuesday (19/01/16) Wednesday (20/01/16) Thursday (21/01/16) Friday (22/01/16) Saturday (23/01/16) Background noise L 90 (day-time) dba : BAU weekdays Background noise L 90 (day-time) Monday to Saturday - BAU weekdays : The odd-even scheme was conducted in two rounds in Delhi, the section above discussed the background noise levels L 90 (daytime 6 am to 10 pm) during Phase I and Phase II of the experiment. To compare if there was any reduction in noise levels during the odd even traffic experiment a business as usual week (BAU) was selected between the two Phases of the odd even traffic experiment conducted in year 2016, the BAU week between : January 18 24, 2016 as given below. Observations :The background L 90 (6am to 10pm) dba noise levels in BAU week between January 18 24, 2016 in commercial area zones were less than 65 dba, the noise limit except at ITO a busy traffic crossing. Table 8.14 : L 90 (6am to 10pm) in BAU week - January 18 24, 2016 in commercial area zones BAU weekday L 90 (day) dba ANAND VIHAR CPCB HQ CIVIL LINES ITO Monday (18/01/16) Tuesday (19/01/16) Wednesday (20/01/16) Thursday (21/01/16) Friday (22/01/16) Saturday (23/01/16) Background noise levels L 90 (day-time) : Odd-even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II) Observations : Background noise levels L 90 (day-time) dba of odd-even traffic experiment of Phase I exceeded 60 dba however exceeded 65dBA at ITO and on some days at Anand Vihar. 80

93 Table 8.15 : Background noise levels L 90(day) during PHASE I of Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in DELHI Weekday ANAND Phase I \L 90 (day) VIHAR CPCB HQ CIVIL LINES ITO Friday 01/01/ Saturday 02/01/ Monday 04/01/ Tuesday 05/01/ Wednesday 06/01/ Thursday 07/01/ Friday 08/01/ Saturday 09/01/ Monday 11/01/ Tuesday 12/01/ Wednesday 13/01/ Thursday 14/01/ Friday 15/01/ Observations : Background noise levels L 90 (day-time) dba of odd-even traffic experiment of Phase II exceeded 60 dba however exceeded 65 dba at ITO and Anand Vihar. Table 8.16: Background noise levels L 90 (day) during PHASE II of Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in DELHI Weekday ANAND Phase II \L 90 (day) VIHAR CPCB HQ CIVIL LINES ITO Friday 15/04/ Saturday 16/04/ Monday 18/04/ Tuesday 19/04/ Wednesday 20/04/ Thursday 21/04/ Friday 22/04/ Saturday 23/04/ Monday 25/04/ Tuesday 26/04/ Wednesday 27/04/ Thursday 28/04/ Friday 29/04/ Saturday 30/04/ Overview observations : Background noise levels L 90 (day-time) : Odd-even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II) noise levels were higher or on par with corresponding BAU week days (exceeding 65 dba). Phase II reported higher noise levels. 81

94 Overview - Salient observations i. The noise descriptors LAeq day was compared with noise limit 65 dba applicable for commercial area zones as stipulated under Noise (Regulation & Control) Rules The noise descriptor, L n is that noise level exceeded for n% of the measurement time. L 90 i.e. noise level exceeding for 90 per cent of time is taken to be the ambient or background noise level. ii. The objective of analyses of the NOISE LEVELS during Delhi s odd-even traffic experiment conducted in Delhi in year 2016 was to ascertain whether there was any significant decrease in noise levels during traffic experiment due anticipated decrease in vehicle numbers. The data of FOUR stations located in commercial area zones were studied as these locations should reflect reduction in noise levels arising from reduction in traffic volume (if any). The noise levels are compared with weekdays of a typical business as usual (BAU) week to ascertain change in noise levels. The odd-even traffic scheme was conducted in two rounds viz. o o o first (Phase I ) between January 1-15, 2016 (15 days) and Phase II between April 15 30, 2016 (16 days) Days applicable were Monday to Saturday between 8 am to 8 pm iii. LAeq day 65 dba: The levels of compliance with prescribed noise limits did not differ from BAU weekdays when compared with the period during the two rounds of odd-even traffic experiment. iv. Background noise levels L 90 (day-time) : Odd-even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II) noise levels were higher or on par with corresponding BAU week days (exceeding 65 dba). Phase II reported higher noise levels. v. Saturdays is as busy and noisy as other weekdays i.e. Monday to Friday, traffic flow remain unchanged. vi. vii. viii. CPCB HQ higher noise levels during Phase II : The road stretch in front of CPCB is parallel to the main road leading to Shahdara / Anand Vihar / LAxmi Nagar, it is frequently used as a by pass by vehicle drivers to overcome congested routes. L 90-day Phase II and L 90-forenoon at location CPCB HQ was significant. ITO & Anand Vihar noisy : The noise levels at both the locations were high exceeding prescribed noise limit 65 dba ; note ITO (major commercial hub and traffic junction ) and Anand Vihar (ISBT + railway station + Metro rail station) are high traffic prone areas. Besides the above, there are several reasons for high noise levels observed during Delhi s odd-even traffic experiment conducted in Delhi in year They include : 82

95 a) Vehicles exempted during the odd even traffic experiment to curb air pollution (particulate matter) include : i. CNG vehicles and electric cars : In a bid to promote clean fuel and reward those who have shifted away from petrol/diesel cars, exemptions applied for CNG vehciles and hybrid cars ii. Two-wheelers : The reason for exempting two-wheelers / bikes was that that the existing public transport was inadequate to provide a viable option. 2W generate maximum noise. a) Taxi aggregators : Taxi aggregators such as Ola and Uber operating on CNG. b) All types of vehicles ( CNG (clean fuel) or otherwise ) when stationary idling ex. waiting at traffic signals or during their movement generate noise besides noise from honking, a widely acknowledged traffic nuisance. Though there were restrictions on odd even number plates, there were no restrictions on CNG vehicles which may generate less vehicular emissions however their contribution to noise levels (movement & honking) remain unchanged. Due to the odd-even restrictions use of CNG vehicles could have increased (NCR areas) they include private vehicles, car pooling and private taxis ( includes Ola & Uber etc) operating on CNG c) 3W (auto rickshaws) are CNG based however they generate significant noise on the roads. d) It was estimated that Delhi has over 55 lakhs 2Ws ( motorcycles & scooters this category was exempted from the traffic experiment 2W are the most noisy vehicles in Delhi s traffic mix followed by 3Ws ( autorickshaws). e) DTC increased its bus fleet which operate on CNG & additional buses were procured to the regular DTC bus fleet during the experiment to cater to passenger needs. Movement of heavy vehicles generate more noise. f) MRTS services increased MRTS services increased during odd-even traffic experiment in Delhi. Delhi Metro trips were increased and the services of Airport Express Line was also increased to handle increased passenger movement. g) The analyses of the noise levels results indicate that ambient noise from traffic flow cannot be reduced singly by adopting odd even noise experiment only, there need to be simultaneous application of other traffic control and noise mitigation measures. 83

96 Constraints The number of noise monitoring stations in commercial area zones are inadequate to represent the prevailing noise environment more effectively (constraint) across entire NCT - Delhi. Graphical presentations ITO and Anand Vihar are two very busy traffic junctions, the noise levels for the weeks days at these locations during Odd even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II) is given below. There was no significant decrease in noise levels during the traffic experiment conducted in year Source : MAIL TODAY, December 2015 Leq value in db(a) Anand Vihar Day Time Monday 06:00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21: M1 Phase I Time M2 Phase I M1 Phase II M2 Phase II M1 BAU 84

97 83 ITO Day Time Monday Leq value in db(a) :00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21:30 Time M1 Phase I M2 Phase I M1 Phase II 83 Anand Vihar Day Time Tuesday 78 Leq value in db(a) Leq value in db(a) :00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21:30 Time T1 Phase I T2 Phase I M1 Phase II ITO Day Time Tuesday 06:00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21: T1 Phase I TimeT2 Phase I M1 Phase II T2 Phase II T1 BAU 85

98 Leq value in db(a) Anand Vihar Day Time Wednesday 06:00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21:30 Time W1 Phase I W2 Phase I W1 Phase II Leq value in db(a) Leq value in db(a) ITO Day Time Wednesday 06:00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21:30 Time W1 Phase I W2 Phase I W1 Phase II Anand Vihar Day Time Thursday 06:00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21:30 Time TH1 Phase I TH2 Phase I TH1 Phase II 86

99 80 ITO Day Time Thursday Leq value in db(a) :00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21: TH1 Phase I TimeTH2 Phase I TH1 Phase II TH2 Phase II TH1 BAU Leq value in db(a) Leq value in db(a) ITO Day Time Friday 06:00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21: F1 Phase I Time F2 Phase I F3 Phase I F1 Phase II F2 Phase II F3 Phase II Anand Vihar Day Time Friday 06:00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21: F1 Phase I TimeF2 Phase I F3 Phase I F1 Phase II F2 Phase II F3 Phase II 87

100 85 Anand Vihar Day Time Saturday Leq value in db(a) :00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21:30 Time S1 Phase I S2 Phase I S1 Phase II 85 ITO Day Time Saturday 80 Leq value in db(a) :00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 20:30 21:00 21: S1 Phase I Time S2 Phase I S1 Phase II S2 Phase II S3 Phase II S1 BAU * * * 88

101 Chapter IX Findings & Challenges in traffic noise abatement Adverse health effects of noise Community noise (also called environmental noise, residential noise or domestic noise) is defined as noise emitted from all sources except noise at the industrial workplace. As per WHO, most people are typically exposed to several noise sources, with road traffic noise being a dominant source (OECD-ECMT1995). Population growth, urbanization and to a large extent technological development are the main driving forces, and future expansion of highways / road networks, airports, MRTS will increase the noise levels further. Hearing impairment is typically defined as an increase in the threshold of hearing. Hearing deficits may be accompanied by tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Noise-induced hearing impairment occurs predominantly in the higher frequency range of Hz, with the largest effect at Hz. But with increasing LAeq,8h and increasing exposure time, noise-induced hearing impairment occurs even at frequencies as low as 2000 Hz. In the European Union countries about 40% of the population are exposed to road traffic noise with an equivalent sound pressure level exceeding 55 db(a) daytime and 20% are exposed to levels exceeding 65 db(a). Taking all exposure to transportation noise together about half of the European Union citizens are estimated to live in zones which do not ensure acoustical comfort to residents. More than 30% are exposed at night to equivalent sound pressure levels exceeding 55 db(a) which are disturbing to sleep. Data collected alongside densely travelled roads were found to have equivalent sound pressure levels for 24 hours of 75 to 80 db(a). The 89

102 degree to which noise leads to disturbance, annoyance and stress depends partly on individual characteristics, in particular a person s attitude and sensitivity to noise. Unsustainable trends in noise pollution future policy planning (OECD (1991) In a large number of community attitudinal surveys, transportation noise has been ranked among the most significant causes of community dissatisfaction. A number of trends are expected to increase environmental noise pollution, and are considered to be unsustainable in the long term. The OECD (1991) identified the following factors to be of increasing importance in the future. a. The wider geographical dispersion of noise sources, together with greater individual mobility and spread of leisure activities. b. The increasing invasion of noise, particularly into the early morning, evenings and weekends. c. The increasing public expectations that are closely linked to increases in incomes and in education levels. Besides above, increased noise pollution is also linked to systemic changes in business practices (OECD-ECMT 1995). Figure People(%) annoyed as a function of noise exposure (Lden in db(a)) Source: Miedema & Oudshoorn (2001). Key findings - Case studies on noise levels in Delhi The past chapters highlighted the concerns on traffic management due to rapid growth of vehicle numbers on city roads. Traffic congestion is a major problem in Indian cities mainly due to increasing number of vehicles and the mixed nature of traffic flow 2W, 3W, 4W, tempos, battery operated vehicles and buses compete for limited road space the matter get serious during peak hours particularly on office days. Several de-congestion measures have been 90

103 adopted in Delhi ex. increase in number of traffic signal posts, by-passes, flyovers, one way traffic on major routes at peak hours, BRTS, car free day, no parking zones, tow away area, removal road encroachments besides odd-even traffic experiment etc. The Rules were last amended in January 2010 to reduce noise levels at night (by restricting the use of horns, sound emitting construction equipments and bursting of fire crackers. Delhi s unique traffic mix : private, commercial, mass transport / light & heavy / 2W,3W,4W transport Area code Table : Ambient Air Quality Standards w.r.t. NOISE Zones Day Time db(a) Leq A Industrial B Commercial C Residential Night Time db(a) Leq 1) Day time : 6.00 a.m. to p.m. (16 hours) 2) Night time p.m. to 6.00 a.m. (8 hours) The following events in DELHI were studied and presented in separate chapters as case studies to ascertain decrease (if any) of noise levels and attribute it to a source : a. Diwali ( 2014, 2015, 2016 ) b. Republic Day & Independence Day ( 2015, 2016 ) c. Sundays ( eight Sundays in year 2016 ) d. Odd even traffic experiment in Delhi 2016 Phase I e. Odd Odd even traffic experiment in Delhi 2016 Phase II Table : National Noise Monitoring Network - DELHI Name of location Area Zone type Latitude Longitude 1. IBHAS Dilshad Garden Silence 28º40' 53.76'' N 77º19' 6.2'' E 2. Delhi College of Silence 28º45' 00.54'' N 77º7' 3.61'' E Engineering (DCE) 3. Mandir Marg Silence 28º38' 11.41'' N 77º12' 2.36'' E 4. NSIT Silence 28º36' 14.46'' N 77º2' 28.78'' E 5. R.K. Puram Residential 28º33' 46.23'' N 77º11' 12.4'' E 6. Punjabi Bagh Residential 28º40' 12.83'' N 77º7' 54.14'' E 7. Anand Vihar Commercial 28º38' 51.22'' N 77º18' 57.02'' E 8. CPCB, HQ Commercial 28º39' 20.99'' N 77º17' 39.91'' E 9. Civil Lines Commercial 28º40' 55.97'' N 77º13' 25.75'' E 10. ITO Commercial 28º37' 23.06'' N 77º14' 28.57'' E 91

104 The noise descriptors LAeq T and L 90 (background noise levels) were used to analyse noise levels. The noise descriptor, L n is that noise level exceeded for n% of the measurement time. L 90 i.e. noise level exceeding for 90 per cent of time is taken to be the ambient or background noise level. The noise levels were taken from data generated from CPCB s National Noise monitoring network of TEN stations located in Delhi for LAeq (day 6am to 10 pm), LAeq (day 6 am to noon), LAeq (night 10 pm to 6 am), L 90 (day 6am to 10 pm) and L 90 (day 6am to noon). The key findings are summarised below : 1. Case study Noise levels on Sundays ( 2016 ) The noise levels LAeq day of following BAU weeks of EIGHT SUNDAYS of year 2016 were analysed: Table : Sundays of year 2016 in Delhi (database) Sundays on Phase I traffic experiment Phase II traffic experiment Business as usual (BAU) week Diwali period monitoring Sundays Remarks dd/mm/yy Monitored period 03/01/16 April January 1-15, 2016 (15 days), time period 8am to 8pm ; Days Monday to Saturday 10/01/16 Note : Odd even traffic restrictions were not applicable on Sundays 17/04/16 Period - April 15-30, 2016 (16 days), time period 8am to 8pm ; Days Monday to Saturday 24/04/16 Note : Odd even traffic restrictions were not applicable on Sundays 24/01/16 January18 24, 2016 ( 7 days) 23/10/16 30/10/16 06/11/16 Besides : 1. Year 2015 : Pre-Diwali 26 th Oct. - 1 st Nov., Year 2015 : Post Diwali November rd October to 6 th November 2016 (15 days) Note 30 th October 2016 was Diwali day The objective was to ascertain whether prescribed area zone noise limits were exceeded during day-time on Sundays. The FOUR stations located in commercial area zones in Delhi are Anand Vihar, CPCB HQ, Civil Lines and Income Tax Office (ITO) were also studied - these areas are expected to have maximum transport movement (2W, 3W & 4W) particularly on office weekdays. Key observation was that area zone noise limit LAeq day dba were exceeded, implying traffic on Sundays is significant. The noise descriptor, L n is that noise level exceeded for n% of the measurement time. L 90 i.e. noise level exceeding for 90 per cent of time is taken to be the ambient or background noise level, implying Sundays traffic movement does not come to 92

105 a standstill on Sundays. The background noise levels were less than the area zone noise limits except at NSIT (academic centre) and ITO (major traffic crossing). Sundays are as noisy as week days. 2. Case study - Noise levels during Diwali festival ( 2014, 2015, 2016 ) The objective of this chapter is to examine compliance of noise levels during Diwali period day & night time w.r.t. prescribed standards for the respective area zones as defined under Noise ( Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 and to ascertain whether increase in sound levels can be attributed to bursting of firecrackers only. The noise levels were analyzed for the periods as given in Table below. Table : Monitoring schedule in Delhi during Diwali period (Note : Diwali day dd/mm/yy is underlined) Year ii. Monitoring period (pre, post & during Diwali) Duration (days) 15th October to 30th October, 2014 Duration 16 days 22 nd October to 22 nd November 2015 Duration 32 days 23 rd October to 6 th November 2016 Duration 15 days Monitored period Diwali days (two days) October November October Day of week Thursday & Friday Wednesday & Thursday Sunday & Monday i. LAeq day during monitored period Silence & Residential area zones BAU two days Previous week days dd/mm/yy 16-17/10/ /11/ /10/2016 The LAeq limits for day time was exceeded for silence (50 dba) and residential area (55dBA) zones during the monitored period of the three years LAeq NIGHT during Diwali period ) SILENCE & RESIDENTAIL area zones a. Though nights are relatively quieter than the day time, the noise standard for night time of 40 dba in the three SILENCE area zones and 45 dba in for the two residential area zones were exceeded at all locations during the three years b. SILENCE area zones are no more silent and so are residential areas zones, mainly due to movement of 2W, 3W and 4W. c. Residential area zones are not quiet areas at night time though vehicle movement may be relatively low there are other sources contributing to noise levels ex. radio, music systems & TVs. 93

106 iii. LAeq (day & night) w.r.t. noise limits - CPCB HQ ( Commercial zone area) Though nights were are quieter than the day time, the noise monitoring station at CPCB HQ exceeded noise standards, during the day and percent of the monitored periods during night time. The number of days the standards were exceeding prescribed noise limits were increasing implying Typical peak hour traffic late evenings there was increased vehicle movements both during day & night times. The noise monitoring station at CPCB HQ (commercial area zone) is located before a busy road stretch which has brisk traffic movement leading to Karkadooma District Court, CPCB HQ, Hegdewar Govt Hospital and Shahdara besides there are residential areas surrounding the area. This road stretch is also frequently used as a by-pass for vehicle divers (2W, 3W & 4W) to avoid the busy parallel main road leading to Shahdara and Laxmi Nagar / Anand Vihar. iv. LAeq (day & night) w.r.t. noise limits ( 2014, 2015, 2016 ) - ITO, Anand Vihar and Civil Lines ( Commercial zone area ) ITO : The noise levels reported at ITO (major traffic crossing) exceeded noise standards prescribed for day and night for all the three years during the monitored period. The area ITO area is categorised as COMMERCIAL AREA ZONE, this is a very busy traffic crossing and is has several government offices / institutions in the region. The ambient high noise levels throughout the day can be attributed ONLY to busy traffic movement. The area has briskly developed over the last two decades and there has been corresponding increase in vehicle movement due to which several traffic de-congestion measures were undertaken in the region to ensure smooth traffic flow. a. Anand Vihar ( major traffic junction) : In the monitored period during years 2015 & 2016 the LAeq noise levels during day and night were always exceeded. The noise levels at Anand Vihar, major traffic prone area due to ISBT, metro rail station and Delhi Ghaziabad (UP) border. The ambient high noise levels through out the day can be attributed ONLY due to constant vehicle movement. b. Civil Lines : During the monitored periods in year 2015 and 2016, out of 32 days observations the day LAeq were less than noise limits while night levels exceeded 55 dba on all days. v. Comparison of noise levels at LAeq NIGHT time - Diwali days Vs BAU weekdays Noise limits applicable for night time were exceeded during Diwali period at all the TEN lcoations. Regarding comparison of noise levels at NIGHT time - Diwali days Vs business 94

107 as usual (BAU) of the immediate previous weekdays indicated that there was significant increase in noise levels during the Diwali NIGHTS which can be attributed ONLY DUE TO BURSTING of sound emitting FIRECRAKERS. 3. Case study - Noise levels on Republic Day & Independence Day ( 2015, 2016 ) The two national holidays viz. Republic Day (January 26) & Independence Day (August 15) are off days the objective of study was to ascertain whether the day time noise levels reported at the FOUR noise monitoring stations located in COMMERCIAL Area Zones viz. Anand Vihar, CPCB - HQ, Civil Lines and ITO are comparable with BAU weekdays or lower due to reduced traffic flow. On Republic Days (January 26) & Independence Days (August 15), the LAeq day dba noise limit day 65 dba was exceeded at ITO and Anand Vihar on years 2015 & Comparison of noise limit LAeq day dba of BAU weekdays Vs National holidays Monday, Tuesday & Saturday indicated that the noise limits were exceeded however on par with LAeq day of corresponding BAU weekdays. The background noise levels L 90 (6am to 10pm) were less than 65 dba at all the locations (except ITO) on the two national holidays, indicating there was reduced traffic flow on these two days. L 90-forenoon were less than 65 dba at all locations except at ITO on Independence Day, this could due to traffic moving towards Red Fort where the event is celebrated. The observations indicated that though there was reduction in noise levels w.r.t. BAU weekdays at ITO and Anand Vihar during the measurement times however noise levels exceeded prescribed day-time limits of 65 dba, and this can be attributed to reduced traffic movement only. 4. Case study : Analyses of noise levels - Delhi s Odd even traffic experiment in year 2016 The objective of analyses of the NOISE LEVELS during Delhi s odd-even traffic experiment conducted in Delhi in year 2016 is to ascertain whether there was any significant reduction in noise levels in the four commercial area zones during the traffic experiment due to expected decrease in vehicle numbers. The data of FOUR stations located in commercial area zones were studied as these locations should reflect reduction in noise levels arising from reduction in traffic volume (if any). The noise levels are compared with weekdays of a typical business as usual (BAU) week to ascertain change in noise levels. The odd-even traffic scheme was conducted in two rounds viz. o first (Phase I ) between January 1-15, 2016 (15 days) and 95

108 o o Phase II between April 15 30, 2016 (16 days) Days applicable were Monday to Saturday between 8 am to 8 pm Observations : Regarding status of compliance LAeq (day time) during BAU weekdays - January 18 24, 2016, the noise levels exceeded the prescribed limit of 65 dba on all BAU weekdays Monday, Tuesday Saturday at all locations in commercial area zones viz. ITO, Anand Vihar and CPCB HQ except at location at Civil Lines i. Background noise L 90 (day-time) : Odd-even traffic experiment (Phase I & Phase II) noise levels were higher or on par with corresponding BAU week days. Phase II reported higher noise levels. ii. For Phase I & II for L 90-forenoon - (background noise levels, forenoon period between 8 am to noon): The L 90 (forenoon) noise levels (background ) exceeded 65 dba on several days at ITO, Anand Vihar and CPCB HQ, indicating that vehicle noise levels were significant. Phase II reported higher noise levels. iii. Saturdays is as busy and noisy as other weekdays i.e. Monday to Friday, traffic flow remain unchanged. iv. CPCB HQ higher noise levels during Phase II : The road stretch in front of CPCB is parallel to the main road leading to Shahdara / Anand Vihar / LAxmi Nagar, it is frequently used as a by pass by vehicle drivers to overcome congested routes. L 90-day Phase II and L 90-forenoon at location CPCB HQ was significant. v. ITO & Anand Vihar noisy : The noise levels at both the locations were high exceeding prescribed noise limit 65 dba ; note ITO (major commercial hub and traffic junction ) and Anand Vihar (ISBT + railway station + Metro rail station) are high traffic prone areas. vi. Besides the above, there are several reasons for high noise levels observed during Delhi s odd-even traffic experiment conducted in Delhi in year 2016, they include : a) All types of vehicles ( CNG or otherwise ) IGL filling station : CNG vehicles also contribute to traffic noise when idling ex. waiting at traffic signals or during their movement generate noise besides noise from honking, a widely acknowledged traffic nuisance. b) Though there were restrictions on odd even number plates, there were no restrictions on CNG vehicles which may generate less vehicular emissions however their contribution to noise levels (movement & honking) remain unchanged. Due to the odd-even restrictions use of 96

109 CNG vehicles could have increased (NCR areas) they include private vehicles, car pooling and private taxis ( includes Ola & Uber etc) c) 3W (auto ric kshaws) are CNG based however they generate significant noise on the roads. d) DTC increased its bus fleet which operate on CNG & additional buses were procured to the regular DTC bus fleet during the experiment to cater to passenger needs. Movement of heavy vehicles generate more noise. e) MRTS services increased MRTS services increased during odd-even traffic experiment in Delhi. Delhi Metro trips were increased and the services of Airport Express Line was also increased to handle increased passenger movement. f) All vehicles exempted during the odd even traffic experiment to curb air pollution ( particulate matter) contribute significantly to ambient noise levels, they include : a) CNG vehicles and electric cars : In a bid to promote clean fuel and reward those who have shifted away from petrol/diesel cars, exemptions applied for CNG vehciles and hybrid cars b) Two-wheelers : The reason for exempting two-wheelers / bikes was that that the existing public transport was inadequate to provide a viable option. 2W generate maximum noise. c) Taxi aggregators : Taxi aggregators such as Ola and Uber operating on CNG. g) The analyses of the noise levels results indicated that ambient noise from traffic flow cannot be reduced singly by adopting odd even noise experiment only, there need to be simultaneous application of other traffic control and noise mitigation measures. Vehicle ownership The larger cities in China namely Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing have introduced quotas for the number of cars that can be registered per month. Beijing for instance, allowed only 20,000 cars to be registered per month in 2011, which was 70% less than the number registered in 2010 i Shanghai adopts a car quota system, which allows only 7000 to 8,000 cars to be registered per month. Guangzhou allows only 10,000 car registrations per month. Even as these cities have restricted the registration of cars, they have made massive investments in public transit systems. In India on the cities such as DELHI register more than 30,000 cars per month or 1,000 1,200 cars per day. Urban road space will never be able to match the growth of the projected number of cars. (Ref. TERI Policy brief June 2014). The above features indicate that environmental issues pertaining to growing vehicle numbers affect ambient air quality i.e. chemical composition and NOISE levels. Urban sprawl : Delhi NCR move toward seamless urban continuum The growth of Delhi has been documented in the Master Plans of Delhi (MPD) in beginning with the Master Plan of Delhi in 1962 (MPD-62), Master Plan for Delhi 2001 (MPD-2001) and latest MASTER PLAN FOR DELHI (MPD) The Master Plan for Delhi (MPD) highlights 97

110 that the holding capacity (population) of Delhi is under stress and hence the need to de-congest the city by tapping on the urbanisable areas within it and regions that adjoin National Capital Regions (NCR). A separate chapter with above title gives further information, the thrust areas on development of Delhi are : a. Mixed land-use b. Urbanizing landuse c. TRANSPORTATION d. NCR- Delhi s virtual urban continuum A major component of MPD 2021 called for a comprehensive re-development strategy for accommodating a larger population, strengthening of infrastructure facilities accompanied by creation of more open spaces at the local level by undertaking measures for re-development of congested areas. NCT Delhi is highly urbanized with 93.18% of its population living in urban areas as against the national average of 27.81%. With the continuation of the present population trend, the total population of National Capital Territory Delhi ( NCTD) by the year 2021 would be 225 lakh respectively. To accommodate the projected population of about 230 lakhs by the year 2021, a three-pronged strategy is recommended: a. To encourage the population to deflect to NCR towns; b. To increase the population holding capacity of the area within existing urban limits through re-development; and c. Extension of the present urban limits to the extent necessary Population holding capacity is to be enhanced through a re-development strategy and modified development norms. Delhi has a limited area of 1483 sq. kms., out of which about half of the area is already urbanized. NCR Plan-2021 has proposed the availability of urbanisable land in NCT-Delhi for It is envisaged that major rural areas would be absorbed as urban extension from time to time with due regard to balanced city development. In future, urbanization has to be in the areas that have development pressure / potential like the areas along the major transport corridors and fringes of already urbanised areas. To meet the growing demand of commercial activities and overcome the shortfall of available commercial space, a liberalized provision of Mixed Use in residential areas has been adopted adhering to the requisites of the environment, while achieving better synergy between workplace, residence and transportation. A key governing principle for mixed use ( means the provision for non-residential activity in residential premises) is to allow access to commercial activities in the proximity of the residences and reduces the need for commuting across zones in the city. However, at the same time, it needs to be regulated in order to manage and mitigate the associated adverse impact related to congestion, increased traffic and increased pressure on civic amenities. 98

111 The present National Capital Region (NCR) comprises of a total area of 33,578 sq. km including: a) areas of Delhi (1483 sq. kms), b) Haryana (13413 sq. kms.), c) Uttar Pradesh (10853 sq. kms.) and d) Rajasthan (7829 sq. kms). The physical potential for further urbanization within the NCT is reducing although there is a virtual urban continuum between Delhi and the surrounding areas, particularly which lie in the States of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. De-congest NCT Delhi echoes in MPD 2021 The TRANSPORT COMPOSITION in Delhi is very unique, though passengers avail of the services of mass transport system ex. rail, metro rail and bus however the road traffic comprising of vehicles four wheelers (4W),3W and 2W (motorbikes, scooters etc) is significant. Delhi s per capita income was almost three times of the national average, both at current and constant prices (Economic Survey of Delhi ), this indicates higher buying power. A key observation Master Plan Delhi (MPD) mentioned that compared to the period of the last Master Plan there is a phenomenal growth of Delhi s traffic s unique mix (2W,3W,4W & buses) automobiles which has resulted in congestion, pollution, safety of travel and parking etc. As on 31 st March, 2016, the total number of motor vehicles on road in Delhi touched to lakhs, showing an increase of 9.94 per cent over previous year (Economic Survey of Delhi, ). As per the Delhi Statistical Handbook the twowheelers (2W) far outnumber four-wheelers, accounting for 64% (nearly double the number of four-wheelers) of the vehicles plying on Delhi roads. Delhi roads lengths have been growing over the years, implying increase in road space to accommodate more traffic flow.the road network of Delhi has increased from 32,131 lane km in to 33,868 lane km in (Economic Survey of Delhi, ). With commencement of MRTS and its expansion in phases, public transport in Delhi witnessed perceptible change as more passenger trips are being covered by Metro Rail services. DMRC is the mass transportation backbone of the National Capital Region (NCR). The average daily ridership has increased by 43 percent in the last five years. 99

112 Factors contributing to traffic noise Road traffic noise is the major source contributing to ambient noise, factors contributing to traffic noise are : i. Traffic flow, as the traffic flow increases, the noise levels increase. ii. Traffic speed - Higher speed causes higher noise levels, at lower speeds, the influence of engine transmission of noise is predominant. iii. Tyre-road surface interaction: At higher speed the tyre surface interaction assumes importance, noise level increases during acceleration. Tyre-road surface interaction is a major generator of noise, grooved cement concrete pavement is found to be source of annoying noise to neighbourhoods. iv. Road surface condition: Smooth surface generally produce less noise, rough surface and poorly maintained road with pot-holes produce more noise. v. The noise generated by various parts of vehicle: engine inlet exhaust, propulsion & transmission including gears, brakes, horns, chassis body structure, load in vehicle, door slamming etc. contribute to noise vi. Old vehicles - As the vehicle grow old and their mechanical condition (wear & tear) deteriorate generating more noise. vii. Movement of heavy vehicles : Freight carriers, Heavy diesel engine vehicles, Commercial trucks, tractor-trolleys, buses generate more noise. viii. High honking vehicles : two wheelers (Motor cycles, scooter), auto-rickshaws, tempos, and minibuses are generally noisier (due to excessive honking) compared to passenger cars. (Source -Traffic noise pollution by P. D. Marathe, IJED: Vol. 9, No. 1, (January-June 2012) Traffic noise link between speed and road traffic noise (Case study by UKNA) Noise from road traffic is serious especially densely populated urban areas near highways, railways and airports, according to a 2009 report by Paige Mitchell on the link between speed and road traffic noise, commissioned by the UK Noise Association (UKNA), salient features given below. 1. Noise levels Vs urban area : The issue of noise pollution from road traffic in urban and other areas, however, is not as simple as merely lowering the speed limit. Irish National Roads Authority (NRA) informs that noise from road traffic comprises engine-related propulsion noise and rolling noise from the interaction between tyre and road. At higher speeds, rolling noise is predominant, while at speeds less than 30 kph, engine noise becomes dominant. Implying reducing speeds in the higher range, when rolling noise is dominant, will decrease traffic noise levels. However, reducing speed limits from 50 kph to 30 kph (31 to 18 mph) has the potential to increase noise levels, because one goes from predominantly rolling noise to a situation where engine noise is dominant, 2. Link between Speed & Noise :In urban areas with speeds of between 20 and 35 mph, reducing speeds by 6 mph would cut noise levels by up to 40%, Reducing 70 mph and

113 mph speeds on urban motorways would cut noise by up to 50%. In 2008 in Munich, speed limit reductions evaluated for one of the busiest roads in a densely populated area, the speed limit reduction from 60 kph (37 mph) to 30 kph (19 mph) was predicted to produce an average 3 decibel (db) reduction with no change in traffic flow or composition. 3. Accelerating and braking influence overall traffic noise and noise peaks. Acceleration is more significant than braking and its importance is greater at lower speeds, acceleration can account for as much as 10% of all traffic noise. 4. Driver behaviour : Traffic speeds, volumes and vehicles make up the driving environment an factor in traffic noise ex. for driving patterns like acceleration and braking, with these patterns also depend on driver behaviour. 5. Traffic noise main road problem : The size of the road is another factor to consider, UKNA report informs there is evidence to suggest that traffic noise, certainly in urban areas, has become predominately a main road problem. Many 'residential' roads have been traffic-calmed, cutting traffic volumes, speed and, thus noise levels 6. Noise awareness : Until now awareness about noise pollution among policy-makers as well as the public has been too low as the focus on urban environments has been on air pollution & its chemical contamination, there is a need to sensitise noise abatement issues. (Ref for this section : Limitations & constraints 1. Land-use urbanised: Delhi as the National Capital has a distinct and unique character, it is expanding and also serving as a hub for the region surrounding it. Planning for a metropolis like Delhi, therefore, cannot be limited within its boundaries. Delhi has a limited area of 1483 sq. kms The physical potential for further urbanization within the NCT is reducing although there is a virtual urban continuum between Delhi and the surrounding areas, particularly which lie in the States of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. There is steady flow of traffic across the borders 2. Area zone and landuse The Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 has defined noise levels based on area zones categorized as silence, residential, commercial and industrial. Maximum complains on noise levels are received due to non-compliance to area zone noise limits prescribed under these Rules. The pace of development in the last two decades has transformed DELHI from Class I to a mega city. Landuse has created several problems, particularly non conforming activities in area zones. 3. Road surfaces Vehicles are subjected to varying qualities of road surfaces which affect their performance, including noise levels (tye road interface). 4. There is a phenomenal growth of automobiles which has resulted in congestion, pollution, safety of travel and parking etc these also contribute to increased noise levels 5. The problem of 2W owners tampering with their vehicle, particularly by replacing the original exhaust silencer by a less efficient one, seems to be equally serious all over Europe, the penetration of illegal exhausts in the fleet is 35% for motorcycles and 65% for mopeds. The two-wheelers (2W) in Delhi far outnumber four-wheelers, accounting for 64% (nearly double the number of four-wheelers) of the vehicles plying on Delhi roads. 101

114 6. An increased presence of electric vehicles, which are significantly quieter at lower speeds however in mixed traffic particularly nearing metro stations they contribute to congestion due unscheduled parking areas 7. Land Vs parking space requirement: The Delhi Govt had informed the Hon ble Supreme Court that 10,000 buses would be bought however only 5000 added. The reason submitted by to the Hon ble was lack of adequate parking spaces. The Delhi Govt would need 500 acres to accommodate 10,000 buses. Parking problems is not restricted to buses alone, private and commercial vehicles alos have parking problems. 8. Lack of health studies Traffic comprises engine-related propulsion noise and rolling noise from the interaction between tyre and road besides Typical parking encroachments in market places by 2Ws & 4Ws indiscriminate honking. Sudden or sharp noise peaks can be as or more annoying than overall noise levels, especially at night as it disturbs sleep. In addition to loudness, the health impacts of noise depend on duration, predictability, pitch and context. Lack of health related information on impacts from traffic noise. 9. Honking nuisance : Though there is awareness on undesirable honking habit the implementation by drivers is weak. 10. Noise network inadequate : An effective noise monitoring network with display screen located at strategic locations can enhance awareness. The noise levels data is based on TEN stations in DELHI under the National Noise Monitoring Network, the number of stations are inadequate to represent noise levels of the entire city effectively. 11. Noise descriptors and noise mapping / modeling tools :The analyses was done using noise descriptors LAeq T and Ln. There is a need to conduct noise surveys at hot spots and use relevant noise mapping / modeling tools to generate a database, to analyze, predict and suggest noise abatement measures. 12. Post project problems : Establishment / expansion of several infrastructure projects like airports, ISBTs, MRTS, railway stations, hospitals, commercial hubs etc is accompanied by population growth around these areas, frequently complaints are received from residents living in the vicinity of these service centres, many relocate for availing conveniences of the services deployed. 13. Sound proofing & building codes : Inadequate publicity on sound proofing features in building codes * * * 102

115 Chapter 10 Audible Warning Devices (horns & sirens) and vehicle noise HORN an Audible Warning Device Horn is called as Audible Warning Device (AWD) internationally in automotive regulatory terms, it basically is a safety device providing warning to other road users to avoid accidents and for signaling overtaking while driving on highways. World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) 1. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) (WP.29) is a unique worldwide regulatory forum within the institutional framework of the UNECE Inland Transport Committee. UN Regulations contain provisions (for vehicles, their systems, parts and equipment) related to safety and environmental aspects. They include performance-oriented test requirements, as well as administrative procedures. The latter address the type approval (of vehicle systems, parts and equipment), the conformity of production (i.e. the means to prove the ability, for manufacturers, to produce a series of products that exactly match the type approval specifications) and the mutual recognition of the type approvals granted by Contracting Parties. The key objectives are : a. Overall, the regulatory framework developed by the World Forum WP.29 allows the market introduction of innovative vehicle technologies, while continuously improving global vehicle safety. The framework enables decreasing environmental pollution and energy consumption, as well as the improvement of anti-theft capabilities. b. The same regulatory framework is also instrumental for fostering and facilitating crossborder trade, since provisions established under the 1958 Agreement include the reciprocal acceptance of approvals of vehicle systems, parts and equipment issued by other Contracting Parties (the reciprocal recognition of the entire vehicle is not yet possible under the 1958 Agreement, even if procedures for the whole vehicle type 103

116 approval of vehicles have been established in EU Member States. In order to address this issue, WP.29 launched the International Whole Vehicle Type Approval (IWVTA) project in March 2010). 2. Three UN Agreements, adopted in 1958, 1997 and 1998, provide the legal framework allowing Contracting Parties (member countries) attending the WP.29 sessions to establish regulatory instruments concerning motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment: a) UN Regulations, annexed to the 1958 Agreement; b) United Nations Global Technical Regulations (UN GTRs), associated with the 1998 Agreement; and c) UN Rules, annexed to the 1997 Agreement. 3. UN Regulations contain provisions (for vehicles, their systems, parts and equipment) related to safety and environmental aspects. They include performance-oriented test requirements, as well as administrative procedures. The latter address the type approval (of vehicle systems, parts and equipment), the conformity of production (i.e. the means to prove the ability, for manufacturers, to produce a series of produ cts that exactly match the type approval specifications) and the mutual recognition of Fire services use special sirens emergency vehicles the type approvals granted by Contracting Parties. 4. UN GTRs contain globally harmonized performance-related requirements and test procedures. They provide a predictable regulatory framework for the global automotive industry, consumers and their associations. They do not contain administrative provisions for type approvals and their mutual recognition. 5. UN Rules concern periodical technical inspections of vehicles in use. Contracting Parties reciprocally recognize (with certain conditions) the international inspection certificates granted according to the UN Rules. 6. UN Regulation No. 28 (Audible Warning Devices) : As per the UN Regulation No. 28 (Audible Warning Devices) most of the countries have mandated installation of horn in vehicles, however no noise limits for vehicular horns have been prescribed. 104

117 Some global perspectives on horns / sirens 1. Noise emitted from HORNS and SIRENS are controlled at the Manufacturing Stage - In the International context, noise emitted from Horns / Sirens are controlled at the manufacturing stage and installation stage with appropriate standards and norms. 2. Horns are Audible Warning Devices (UN Regulation No. 28) : It is generally required that a vehicle shall be equipped with a horn and that this horn shall be audible in a free field at a certain distance typically 60 m to 100 m distance. 3. UN Regulation No. 28 (Audible Warning Devices) : As per the UN Regulation No. 28 (Audible Warning Devices) most of the countries have mandated Installation of Horn in Vehicles, however no Noise Limits for Vehicular Horns have been prescribed. Thus it may be concluded that internationally NO PROTOCOL is available for measurement of VEHICLE NOISE from Horns / Sirens for Moving Vehicle in a Traffic flow. It is also noted that, as per the country wise assessment of existing regulations on the horn by UNECE, even Saudi Arabia (Abu Dhabi) has no limits specified for Horns in Moving Vehicles, because Horns shall not be used at all near mosques, Police patrol vans fitted with sirens (emergency vehciles) hospitals nor school; nor shall they be used within inhabited areas, except in cases of extreme necessity. 4. Country-wise assessment on regulation of use of HORNS by UNECE - A country wise assessment of existing regulations on the HORNs has been done by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). Based on the above assessment it was observed that in most countries the requirements are much less specific. It is generally required that a vehicle shall be equipped with a horn and that this horn shall be audible in a free field at a certain distance (typically 60 m to 100 m distance). 105

118 Table: Countries that require Installation of a HORN (do not use UN Regulation No. 28 ) Country Regulation Code Minimum sound Maximum sound Test Procedure Argentina Decree 779/95 IRAM Standard db Art. 30 Australia ADR 42/ Canada Highway Traffic Act 1964, Chapter Audible at 200ft distance (60m) (under normal traffic conditions) Gulf Microphone at 2m distance Cooperation GSO 42/2003, and 1.25 height 88 db(a) 125 db (A) Council ( Art, 26 GCC) Iceland 411/1993 Art Malaysia L.N. 170/ Mexico Audible at 60m distance RTCPJF Art (under normal traffic conditions) New Zealand Republic of Korea Saudi Arabia Singapore United States of America Land Transport Rule 32017/5 KMVSS Art. 53 M/49Dec. 23, 1971 Art dB(C) Tested at 2m distance; min required Sound is 90 db(c) - - S 345/ CFR 393 G S Audible at 100m distance (under normal traffic conditions) Horns shall not be used at all near mosques, hospitals nor school; nor shall they be used within inhabited areas, except in cases of extreme necessity The instrument or apparatus fitted to a trailer under paragraph (3) or (4) shall not have a multi-tone or produce an unduly harsh, shrill, loud or alarming noise. Connecticut: Audible at 200ft distance (60m) (under normal traffic conditions) 106

119 5. Honking is not a habit : The above indicates there is no necessity felt by most of the developed countries to use HORNS due to reasons that can range from (a) Strict implementation of traffic rules by Traffic Police (b) smooth traffic flow / management (c) no mixed traffic (d) better road infrastructure (e) well maintained vehicles & advanced technologies (vehicle manufacturing related matter) Two wheelers (2Ws) constitute significant fraction of city vehicles responsible for indiscriminate honking Six certified testing agencies authorised by MoRTH vehicle noise Automobile manufacturers submit their vehicles for type approval (TA) to any of the six certified agencies mentioned in Rule 126 of the Central Motor Vehicles Rules, Further, Automotive Industry Standard Committee (AISC) is constituted by the MoRTH, Govt. of India for preparation of standards and review of the existing standards The SIX agencies identified by MoRTH for the above certification are: i. The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune(ARAI) ii. International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar iii. Central Institute of Road Transport, Pune iv. Vehicle Research & Development Establishment, Ahmednagar v. Central Farm Machinery Testing and Training Institute, Budhni vi. Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun Specifications for vehicle HORN as a COMPONENT - BIS & AIS Horn/Siren as a COMPONENT : Safety components such as horns, mirrors, lighting / signalling devices, seats, etc. are notified under specific rules of Central Motor Vehicle Rules (CMVR) and it specifies Test Standard viz Automotive Industry Standards (AIS) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) to which the said component / system should conform. In Ambulance (emergency vehicle) stuck in traffic jam 107

120 general, any measurement methods / protocols related to vehicular noise are developed by BIS and the BIS committee for formulating IS standards includes ARAI, MoRTH and SIAM. Component manufacturers must approach the approved testing agencies for necessary testing and approval. Key features include : a) IS : In case of vehicular Horn as a component it is to be produced as per IS b) CERTIFICATION of Safety Components (Horns etc) Component Type Approval : ARAI issues Type Approval Certificates (TAC) for vehicles/components/parts/assemblies etc based on the documents produced and/or prototypes submitted by the applicant and testing thereof. Component approval is done by the testing agencies notified under Rule 126 under CMVR, c) Automotive Industry Standard (AIS 014) : Additionally, when the horn is fitted in a particular vehicle model, it should comply with the installation requiremen t as per AIS 014. The vehicle manufacturer seeks approval as per AIS 014 for use of that specific model of horn. Industry Specific Standards (like AIS 014 for Horn Installation) are developed by ARAI d) Standards / Norms for Vehicular Horns at Manufacturing Stage and Installation Stage as notified under CMVR, 1989 of MoRTH and same summarised below. Table : Vehicular Noise Standards w.r.t Horns & Sirens Vehicular Noise Sources Horn as a component Horn Installation VEHICULAR NOISE STANDARDS To be Norms notified by Implemented & complied by Specification for MoRTH horns etc (Traffic (manufacturing Police) & installation) by MoRTH Standard Code IS IS (AIS 014) Noise Limits/Standard 85 db for Type 1 horns 90 db for Type 2A horns 100 db for Type 2B horns and 105 db for Type 3 horns Maximum sound pressure level when determined in accordance with method of test shall meet the following: a)between 83 db(a) for horns fitted on 2 wheelers or 3 wheelers of a power less than or equal to 7 kw and b)between 93 db(a) to 112 db(a) for the horn fitted on all other motor vehicles including tractor, 2 wheelers and 3 wheelers of a power greater than 7 kw 108

121 Specifications for SIRENS as a COMPONENT - AIS Only emergency and police vehicles are permitted to use multi-tone sirens. Currently no noise limit is specified for sirens under Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989 of MORTH (commonly used in vehicles like ambulance, police Vans, Firebrigade ) under CMVR. The MoRTH has notified National Ambulance Code for road ambulance for Type L and M - National Ambulance Code (AIS 125) formulated by Ministry of Road Transport & Highways (MORTH) prescribes noise limits for sirens fitted on Ambulance in the range of 110 db(a) to 120 db(a). Rule 119(1) and (3) of the Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 states that the sirens and multi tone horns shall be continued to be banned except for Police Van, Ambulance and Fire Brigade vehciles Vehicular Noise Sources VEHICULAR NOISE STANDARDS Norms notified by To be Implemented & complied by Sirens MORTH MORTH Standard Code AIS 125 (National Ambulance Code) Noise Limits/Standard Noise limits for sirens fitted on Ambulance are in the range of 110 db (A) to 120 db (A). Ban on noise from 2W ( motorcycles) - removal of silencers Hon ble NGT bench headed by NGT Chairperson Justice Swatanter Kumar came down heavily on two wheelers which have removed their silencers, they shall not be permitted to ply on the roads in the national capital was direction to MoRTH. Ban of use of multi-toned and pressure horns in Delhi In a 2013 ruling, Supreme Court had banned pressure horns, multiple sound emitting horns and musical horns in vehicles. Noise pollution arising from horns in the vehicles is a major nuisance, the indiscriminate use of pressure horns is a source of serious noise pollution. The National Green Tribunal (NGT) imposed ban use of pressure horns in all vehicles in the national capital particularly trucks and buses in year Police say that the sound from a vehicle including its horn, should not exceed 90 decibels, but pressure horns can take it up as high as 110 decibels. Fitting a pressure horn is an offence. A first-time challan warrants a fine of Rs 100, repeat offenders have to pay Rs 300. Government removed use of pressure horns from Blueline buses. There is a demand for these banned horns for both - trucks and cars, the cost range between Rs 250 and Rs 3,000 an d are available in a variety of tones and types. Spare parts market for 109

122 automobile parts sell these products, locations as per reports include markets in Lajpat Nagar, Jangpura, Karol Bagh and Kashmere Gate. The biggest violators are trucks, followed by cars and two-wheelers VEHICULAR NOISE is regulated by Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) as per the vehicular noise standards/norms and rules notified under Central Motor Vehicle Rules (CMVR), a) REGULATIONS FOR HORNS/MULTI-TONED HORNS/SIRENS under Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 (CMVR) : Rule 119 Reduction of noise ; Horn installation requirements for motor vehicle shall be as per [AIS-014] specifications as may be amended from time to time, till such as corresponding Bureau of Indian Standards specifications are notified. b) Rule 119(1) and (3) of the Motor Vehicles Rules, The sirens and multi tone horns shall be continued to be banned except for Police Van, Ambulance and Fire Brigades Noise limits on AWDs by MoRTH : multi-tone horns and pressure horns The following pertaining to curbs on noise from audible warning devices (AWDs) is discussed below : a) The MoRTH is considering a proposal to reduce the maximum permissible decibel range of vehicle horns, a move aimed at curbing noise pollution from compulsive honking on Indian roads. Under the Central Motor Vehicle Rules, 1989, the noise range for horns has been fixed between 93 decibel (db) and 112dB. The MoRTH proposes to cap the maximum cut-off range to below 100dB. The noise decibel is measured at a distance of 7.5 metres from the horn and at a height of 0.5 to 1.5 metres. Reducing the minimum range will make the sound inaudible. b) MoRTH is concerned on the use of loud multi-tone and pressure horns, especially on buses and trucks which is illegal and draws penalty. The decibel level of such horns can go up to 140dB. Several cities in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu have banned use of multi-tone horns. c) In July 2016, the National Green Tribunal banned the use of pressure horns in Delhi and the National Capital Region. d) MoRTH s proposal for levying penalty - imposing a fine of Rs5,000 on vehicle owners installing multi-toned and air horns (both banned under the Motor Vehicles Act), Rs500 for a first offence for needless and continuous honking and Rs1,000 for a second offence. Noise limits are implemented under the Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) : standards for horns The Panel for Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control, CED 46, constituted by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is responsible for amendments and revisions in National Building Codes of India 110

123 1. IS : In case of vehicular Horn as a component it is to be produced as per IS Electric horns - Specification Feb (third revision) 2. IS 4050:1976 Methods of tests for horn switches for automobiles Jan (first revision) 3. IS 7953:1976 Specification for horn rings for automobiles Jan 2011 : IS 14813:2000 Automotive vehicles - Air horns - Specification Jan IS 15796:2008 Automotive vehicles - Horn installation requirements Feb DOC: TED 11(880) Automotive vehicles - Audible warning devices - Specification (Superseding IS 1884 and IS 14813) Horn noise in manufacturing stage in line with UN Regulation 28 Horn Noise at Manufacturing Stage : As per Rule 119 sub-rule 2 of CMVR notified by MoRT&H fitment of multi toned horns giving a succession of different notes or any other sound producing device giving any unduly harsh shrill loud or alarming noise is prohibited. As per the CMVR at manufacturing stage it is necessary to comply with: o o IS for horn as a component; and IS (AIS 014) for horn noise emission from the vehicle with horn in the installed condition on vehicle. The Indian regulations for horns noise as component as well as horn noise in installed condition on vehicle are in line with UN Regulation 28 which is an internationally accepted regulation. All vehicles and horns fitted on vehicles by vehicle manufacturers in India meet these regulations. AWD is identified as safety critical component and needs to meet AIS-037 requirements of Type approval and CoP at component level. Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) : vehicle noise 1. IS: : Noise Emitted by Moving Vehicles : Bureau of Indian Standard BIS Draft Indian Standard automotive vehicles IS: gives method for noting vehicles noise at the manufacturing stage. The draft is in-line with the CE/TRANS/505/Rev.1/Add.40/Rev.2: Noise Emitted By Moving Vehicles Specification and method of measurement a) Part 1: L2 CATEGORY ; Part 1 covers the requirements of L2 category of vehicles and b) Part 2: Three wheeled vehicles c) Part 3: M & N Category of vehicles. 2. `IS 10399:1998: Noise Emitted by stationary vehicles : Bureau of Indian Standard BIS IS 10399:1998 Automotive vehicles - Noise emitted by stationary vehicles - Method of measurement (first revision) Jun

124 Vehicle noise in manufacturing stage MoEF&CC Vehicle noise in manufacturing stage Landuse for parking in metro cities is deterrent 2W may occupy less space but are more in number than 4Ws specified standards under the Schedule I and Schedule VI (Part-E), 1. Notified by MoEF&CC on 19 th May 1993 under section under Part E of Schedule VI section 25 under E (P) Act 1986 : 2. Vehicles noise test method to be followed as per IS: for vehicles at manufacturing stage. Testing method to seek compliance of noise limits for automobiles, has been published by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) i.e. IS: , as amended up to date. 3. Noise limits for vehicles at manufacturing stage, as specified in Schedule VI, Part E, of the Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986, specifying the noise limits for automobiles with effect from 31st December, 1993, subsequently amended on as under; Noise Limits for Automobiles [(Free Field Distance at 7.5 Metre) in db (A) at the manufacturing stage Noise Limits for Automobiles [(Free Field Distance at 7.5 Metre) in db (A) at the manufacturing stage (a) 2W( Motorcycles, Scooters) & Three wheelers (3W) - 80 db (A) (b) Passenger Cars - 82 db (A) (c) Passenger or Commercial vehicles up to 4 MT -85 db (A) (d) Passenger or Commercial vehicles above 4 MT and up to 12 MT -89 db (A) (e) Passenger or Commercial vehicles exceeding 12 MT -91 db (A) Noise limits for vehicles manufactured w.e.f. year 2003: a) For 2W for displacement from 80 to 175 cub.cm w.e.f. 1 st January 2003 b) For 3W: for displacement upto 175 cub cm w.e.f. 1 st January 2003 c) For passenger car: displacement 75 cub cm w.e.f. 1 st January 2003 d) Passenger & commercial vehicles: for GVW upto 4 tonnes to > 12 tonnes w.e.f. 1 st January 2003 Noise limits for vehicles manufactured w.e.f. 1 st April 2005 a) For 2W for displacement upto 89 cc to above 175 cc b) For 3W : for displacement upto 175 cc to > 175 cc c) Vehicles for carriage of passengers having nine seats including driver seat d) Vehicles for carriage of passengers having more than nine seats including driver seat and maximum GVW of more than 3.5 tonnes 112

125 e) Vehicles for carriage of passengers having more than nine seats including driver seat and used for carriage goods f) Vehicles used for transport of goods with maximum GVW exceeding 3.5 tonnes Notification 5 th May 2005 under section 6 & 25 of E (P) Act 1986 : For vehicles, the enforcement of noise limits for the following states: i). 1 st June 2005 : Rajasthan, UP ( Mathura, Kannuaj, Muzzafarnagar, Aligarh, Farukkhabad, Saharanpur Badaun, Bareily, Moradabad, Hathras, Rampur, Bijnor, Agra, Pilbhit, JP Nagar, Mainpuri, lalitpur, Hardoi, Ferozabad, Jhansi, Shahjahanpur, Etawah, Jalun, Lakhimpuri Kheri, Etah, Mahoba, & Sitapur ) ii). 1 st July 2005 : Uttranchal iii). 1 st September 2005 : MP iv). 1 st October 2005 : HP, J&K, Punjab Vehicular noise in manufacturing stage MoRTH In Europe, the maximum permissible noise levels range from 69 dba for motor vehicles to 77 dba for cars, and 83 dba for heavy two-wheeled vehicles to 84 dba for trucks. A number of European. Directives give permissible sound levels for motor vehicles and motorcycles (EU 1970; EU 1978; EU 1996a; EU 1997). The MoRTH provides noise level limits for new vehicles (type test) a) Central Motor Vehicle Rules, notified by Ministry of Road Transport has, in Rule No, 120 subrule 2, (amended vide MoRT&H notification GSR 111(e) dated 10 th February 2004) mandates the norms specified in Part E of Schedule VI section 25 under E (P) Act 1986 as part of vehicle Type Approval (TA) of all categories of vehicles. Pass-by Noise Norms for Vehicles notified by Ministry of Environment & Forests under part E of Schedule VI to the Environment (Protection) Rules Typical traffic rush - As per reports 2Ws dominated during odd even traffic experiment in Delhi 1986, vide Notification GSR 849 (E) dated 30 th December 2002, are included as part of vehicle Type Approval by Ministry of Road Transport & Highways under Rule 120 of Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989 vide Notification GSR 111 (E) dated 10 th February

126 b) Automobile manufacturers submit their vehicles for type approval (TA) to any of the six certified agencies mentioned in Rule 126 of the Central Motor Vehicles Rules, c) Automotive Industry Stand ard Committee (AISC) is constituted by the MoRTH, Govt. of India for preparation of standards and review of the existing standards d) Compliance certification for vehicles at manufacturing stage are governed by the rules prescribed under CMVR. e) Currently, all vehicle models in manufacturing stage of all categories sold in India comply with the norms Noise Limits stipulated by MoRT&H with effect from 1 st April Modified format Form 22 includes vehicle noise Vehicle manufacturers will have to give details about emission and noise levels of each vehicle they produce from April 1, 2017 as per release the Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways Ministry. Manufacturers of all kinds of motor vehicles including E-rickshaws and E- carts will have to give declaration about the emission ( exhaust and noise levels) levels of the vehicle manufactured. MoRTH has amended Form 22 under the Central Motor Vehicles Act, 1989, through which manufacturers provide the initial certificate of Compliance with Pollution Standards, Safety Standards of Components Quality and Road Worthiness certificate for all vehicles. The Form will include sound level for horn and pass by noise values. The amended rules will apply to all vehicles run on petrol, CNG, LPG, electric, diesel and hybrid, including agricultural and construction vehicles, as well as E-rickshaws and E-carts. Form 22 will be issued with the signature of the manufacturer. In the case of E-rickshaws and E-carts, this form will be issued with the signature of an authorised signatory of registered E-rickshaw or E-cart association. The modified format Form 22 is placed on the website Vahan of MoRTH Vehicular noise under Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 under MoEF&CC Under Rule 5A(1) of the Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 the use of sirens and multi-toned horns on vehicles should be continued to be prohibited in the silence zone and during night time in the residential zone as prescribed under the Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 except during a public emergency Pressure horns & multi-tone horns banned in DELHI 114

127 Challenges in noise measurement from vehicles 1. Area of concern : India produced around 2,22,66,246 vehicles during and there are around 159 million registered vehicles ( ) plying on the road. Noise from vehicles ( due to movement & honking) increases with increase in on-road vehicle numbers. In Delhi and other major cities the traffic characteristics are mixed type ( slow to high speed) and each have horns installed. Though horns are warning devices however, indiscriminate use of horns ( honking) has become an habit serving the purpose of rapidly over-taking other vehicles, to relieve driver stress / frustration, rather than using it as a traffic warning device! 2. Challenge : Noise measurement of a moving vehicle on city roads. The concerns is whether any technology has been developed by which the sound pollution level of a particular vehicle, at a particular given point of time and place could be measured amongst several other vehicles passing that particular point? In the case of vehicle exhaust emission for individual moving vehicle there is mechanism to detect emissions from a moving vehicle, this has been used by Transport Authority of Kolkata,West Bengal. However presently in the country, there is such experiment adopted which can detect noise caused by individual moving vehicle / or which can pin-point a particular moving vehicle found making excessive noise. The traffic characteristics in Delhi (including other major cities) are generally mixed ( 2W,3W, 4W, tempos, mini goods carriers, buses, cycle rickshaws etc) hence measurement of noise levels of a single moving vehicle particularly during peak rush hours a major challenge 3. Challenge Implementation of Standards of Noise from Horns & Sirens of Moving Vehicles : A CONCEPT NOTE for a proposal cum strategy for effectively controlling Noise pollution from Vehicles (Horns & Sirens) in the ambient condition was circulated among experts from IISs Bangalore, IIT (Bombay), ARAI, Maharashtra Pollution Control Board and SIAM by CPCB. The response highlighted that NO PROTOCOL is available for measurement of noise from horns or sirens of moving vehicles in India or abroad. 4. Methodology IS 3028:1998: Method of Measurement of Noise emitted by moving vehicles is given in IS 3028:1998, which covers the following aspects with reference to vehicular noise; (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Technical characteristics of the vehicle Test site requirements Ambient noise and wind interference Test, protocol, instrumentation and Test Reports The method refers to the maximum sound a vehicle can generate in the worst condition (full throttle condition) and is not applicable for mixed traffic on road. The test method requires elaborate test set up in terms of a specialized test track, accurate vehicle speed 115

128 and engine rpm, measurement instruments, hence testing of noise from on-road vehicles remains a major challenge, this method is not applicable for mixed traffic conditions as observed in major cities having high traffic flow 5. Case study, Abu Dhabi: Abu Dhabi is the federal capital of the United Arab Emirates and the largest of the seven emirates. The Emirate lies on the borders with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Sultanate of Oman and the Arabian Gulf. As per available literature Abu Dhabi s has installed a noise measuring radar system to monitor vehicular noise. The major objectives of the radar system is to monitor excessive use of car horns especially in residential areas, near hospitals, mosques and learning institutions The radar contains two systems (a) Sound level meter (SLM) and (b) A highly developed camera to capture images of noise creating vehicles. The traffic flow that was being monitored is highly streamlined unlike the high traffic density (per km) and mixed vehicle types as seen in major Indian cities particularly during peak rush hours. The model like Abu Dhabi is exclusive and can be applicable as suited for a stream lined traffic flow and uniform traffic type ie. cars only (4Ws). A statistical comparison of Abu Dhabi and India is given below at Table Table : Vehicle Statistics of Abu Dhabi Vs India Issues ABU DHABI INDIA Area 67,340 Sq Km (87% of the total area of the UAE) 2,972,892 Sq Km (1,147,839 sq. miles) Population 2.65 million (mid 2014 estimates) 1254 million ( 2015) Number of motor 785,076 (licensed (2011)) 2,22,66,246 ( ) vehicles Source Statistics Center - Abu Dhabi (SCAD) Open Government Data Platform India In view of the data, the above Abu Dhabi Model of capturing noisy vehicles is a major challenge when applied in India / major Indian cities which high vehicle count and high traffic density (vehicle per km). 6. Case study Acoustic One / Norsonic AS and SINTEF; other partners being NTNU and Norsk Elektro Optikk AS (NEO) - precision sound and vibration analyzer NOR150): In a dense traffic situation, it is not possible to separate acoustically individual vehicles. An acoustical system has been developed to monitor noise from individual moving vehicles using array of microphones wherein it is possible to separate two vehicles acoustically at speeds around km/h. There is no literature / feedback available to indicate the outcomes of adopting such measures and how economically viability of such adopting such tools. 116

129 Table. Status of Action Taken for Vehicular Noise Control Criteria Issues Status Vehicular Noise for In-Use / Moving Provisions Method of Measurement of Vehicular Pass by Noise as per IS 3028:1998 Vehicles Notifying / MoRTH (Notifying & Implementing Agency) Implementing Agency Action Taken Status MoRTH incorporated vehicular NOISE standards in the certificate of TA & COP issued to automobile manufacturers. FORM 22 amended Pass-by Noise Provisions - Limits at Notifying / MoEF&CC (Notifying Agency) Manufacturing Stage Implementing Agency Action Taken Status Pass-by noise limits for vehicles at manufacturing stage are notified by under Part E of Schedule VI of E (P) Act, 1986 vide Notification GSR 849 (E) dated 30 th Dec These norms were included as part of Vehicle Type Approval by MoRTH under Rule 120 of Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989 vide Notification GSR 111(E) dated 10 th Feb 2004 when tested as per IS , as amended from time to time. Noise from Horns Provisions No Method or protocol for Measurement of Horn Noise from Moving Vehicles. Notifying / Implementing Agency Testing of Horns at Manufacturing and Installation stage through approved testing agencies (under Rule 126) to be done by manufacturers Action Taken Status TA/COP issued to the manufacturers covers Horn as a safety component and necessary testing and approval to be obtained by Manufacturers for Horn Manufacturing, Installation and Use. Component approval is done by the testing agencies notified under Rule 126 under CMVR, 1989 Noise from Sirens Provisions No Method or protocol for Measurement of Siren Noise from Moving Vehicles Notifying / MoRTH (Notifying & Implementing Agency) Implementing Agency Action Taken Status Standards for Siren Noise level based on 117

130 Criteria Issues Status National Ambulance Code (AIS-125) by ARAI notified by MoRTH Noise from Multitoned Provisions Banned Horns Notifying / MoRTH (Notifying & Implementing Agency) Implementing Agency Action Taken Status Ban on Multi toned Horns are specified as per Rule 119(2) of the Motor Vehicles Rules, State Transport Departments. Ambient Noise Level Provisions Ambient Noise Monitoring Protocol developed by CPCB Notifying / CPCB in association with concerned SPCBs Implementing Agency Action Taken Status CPCB has developed a Protocol for Ambient Level Noise Monitoring which covers various sources of noise including VEHICULAR NOISE (see : Fig. HORNS are audible warning devices (AWDs), not to be used indiscriminately * * * 118

131 Chapter XI Strategies for vehicular air pollution abatement are also applicable to reduction of traffic noise White Paper on Pollution in Delhi (1997) highlighted TRAFFIC NOISE A White Paper on Pollution in Delhi with an Action Plan was brought out in year 1997 was also displayed in MoEF&CC s website. Chapter 7 discusses NOISE POLLUTION, and highlights that the main sources of noise pollution are automobiles followed by construction equipments, loudspeakers, bursting of crackers, etc. Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) conducted noise survey in Delhi between August to October, 1996, the findings highlight that TRAFFIC NOISE is a major nuisance, see Table below. Key Table : Observations & recommendations of DPCC s traffic noise survey in year 1996 (ref. Observations DPCC s traffic noise survey in Delhi between August to October, Three wheelers (3W), trucks and motorcycles (2W) remain the chief source or noise pollution on Delhi roads followed by generators in the residential, commercial and industrial locations. 2. All major commercial areas remain noisier than the tolerable limits with Chandni Chowk remaining highly noisy round the clock. 3. Sensitive locations including the silence zones, including hospital areas, are alarmingly noisy. 4. All major traffic corridors are highly noisy with peaks even crossing 100 dba mark. Mahipalpur Crossing on NH-8 is noisiest round the clock. 5. Andrew's Ganj Crossing on Ring Road is also alarmingly noisy. 119

132 Key Recommendations DPCC s traffic noise survey in Delhi between August to October, Ban on pressure horns to be effectively implemented. 2. Well designed silencers and mufflers be installed on the vehicles, preferably at the manufacturers level. 3-Wheeler Autos to be phased out. 3. Synchronised traffic signaling to be introduced on Ring Road and all other major traffic corridors including National Highways within the city limits. 4. A comprehensive Traffic Management Plan including effective implementation and extension of traffic restrictions, construction of sub-ways and fly-overs be chalked out on priority. Only mild slope to be provided on approach roads of the fly overs. 5. Adequate noise barriers be created around the hospitals schools and other locations in silence zones. Relationship between traffic congestion, traffic speed & air pollution in Delhi (CSE) Two traffic surveys were conducted in Delhi by CSE, the same are summarized below: 1. According to Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), the quantity of all the three major air pollutants namely CO, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, drastically increases with a reduction in motor vehicle speeds. Thus, traffic congestion not only decreases the vehicle speed but also increases the pollution level. The average peak hour speed in Indian cities is far less than the optimum one. 2. In another survey, CSE monitored travel time and traffic speed of 13 arterial roads for 12 hours daily (8am to 8 pm) for a month in Road space in cities is always a major constraint June Arterial roads are primary networks that provide long-distance travel through multi-modal transport system connecting all major city-level land uses. They also facilitate inter-city and regional trips by connecting with highways and expressway networks and have been designed to achieve a driving speed of km/hr as per the Unified Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure (Planning & Engineering) Centre (UTTIPEC) street design guidelines as well as Indian Road Congress guidelines for urban 120

133 roads. The key findings are that the average morning and evening peak speeds were recorded at 28 kmph and 25kmph, the off-peak speed remained restricted to 27kmph. Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: As per survey by UK Noise Association (UKNA) informs that noise from road traffic comprises engine-related propulsion noise and rolling noise from the interaction between tyre and road. At higher speeds, rolling noise is predominant, while at speeds less than 30 kph, engine noise becomes dominant. It is observed that when there is slow traffic movement in Delhi it encourages indiscriminate honking by Delhi drivers. # Road Rationing Policies in cities : also opportunities for traffic noise reduction i. PARIS : On March 17 th, 2014, a driving restriction was imposed in Paris and its suburbs based on license plate numbers, odd-even rationing was adopted for only a day. This exercise was done before in year ii. MEXICO : The odd-even rationing policy was introduced in year Cars would be banned for one day in the week depending on the number on their license plates. Air pollution reduced by 11% however people started buying two cars with both, even and odd numbers implying higher emission levels due to more number of cars on the roads iii. BOGOTA : The city implemented Pico-y-Placa ('peak and plate'), banning cars during the peak hours for two days a week. It failed because the drivers would start driving during the off-peak hours as reported. iv. BEIJING : A pilot test of a temporary road space rationing initiated was conducted in year 2007, restrictions applied on about 1.3 million vehicles, about 1/3rd of Beijing's fleet, for four days. This was pre-run before the year 2008 summer Olympics, a modified version was implemented then. v. Other cities : Road space rotation theory based on number plates has been implemented in other cities too like Athens (1982), Santiago ( 1986, 2001), Metro Manila (1995), Sao Paulo (1997), La Paz (2003), San Jose (2005), Quito (2010). Ref. Cities Implemented The Even-Odd Road Rationing Policy? Rishabh Banerji, India Times ) ( Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: Other terminologies for oddeven traffic experiment include Road space rationing policy and oddeven car rationing experiment. The experiments conducted in various cities show that it was a short term measure mainly to address traffic congestion. It was Traffic density, speed and weather contribute to ambient noise levels 121

134 observed that the main reason cited for cities (including DELHI) adopting or experimenting with various versions of odd-even traffic experiments was tackling increasing vehicle emissions (ambient air contamination) arising from growing numbers of vehicles (2W, 3W and 4W) on city roads a typical URBAN PHENOMENON. Noise is by product of unregulated traffic movement in cities, as the traffic mix (vehicles that are slow, fast and heavy vehicle) in Delhi is unique, only adopting road rationing based on number plate restrictions would be inadequate there is a need for parallel / simultaneous application of a rational mix of other traffic noise abatement measures. Delhi s Transport needs directly proportional to urban population (MoUD 2016) Rapid urbanization of Delhi and migration from neighboring cities and other states has impacted mobility and transportation network in the city. With per capita income of Delhi being one of the highest in the country, there has been enormous increase in the number of personal vehicles with limited scope for expansion in road network leading to increased congestion and resultant traffic delays. In this backdrop, the Govt. of Delhi has planned various sustainable solutions to provide safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable and safe access to the city s residents by investing in transport systems that would encourage greater use of public transport (especially buses and non-motorized mode) instead of personal motor vehicles. While congestion is often sought to be dealt with increasing the road space, often this is counterproductive as it serves to increase the number of motor vehicles and results in increase in congestion due to higher traffic density (MoUD 2016). Another undesirable outcome is increased Traffic noise. DELHI is dependent on road transport - a snap shot Master Plan of Delhi (MPD) 2021 notes that the period between 1981 and 2001 and subsequently 2011 has seen a phenomenal increase in the growth of vehicles and traffic in Delhi. There has been a rise in per capita trip rate (excluding walk trips) from 0.72 in 1981 to 0.87 in 2001 and exponentially more in Delhi is dependence on road transport is significant Keeping in view the population growth, this translates into an increase from 45 lakh trips to around 118 lakh trips in 2001 and 144 lakh trips till As per the Transport Demand Forecast Study (TDFS) undertaken by GNCTD and approved by the UTTIPEC in 2011, it is seen that between 2001 and 2008, the private motor vehicle trips have increased from 28% to 35% and non-motorized vehicle trips from 9% to 15%; however, bus trips have 122

135 decreased from 60% to 42% of the total number of trips. (Data source: TDFS 2007) Despite measures by way of increasing the length of the road network and road surface space through widening, construction of a number of flyovers / grade separators and, launching of the Metro, the traffic congestion has continued to increase unabated (MoUD 2016). Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: Some traffic management measures to abate vehicular pollution (emissions) also address traffic noise abatement Initiatives to de-congest Delhi modal shift to public transport Several initiatives taken to address traffic congestion due to increased vehicle numbers in cities includes Delhi. The National Mission on Sustainable Habitat (NMSH), 2011 provides various parameters to address the issue of mitigating climate change by taking appropriate action with respect to the transport sector such as evolving integrated land use and transportation plans, achieving a modal shift from private to public modes of transportation, and encouraging the use of non-motorized transport. The National Urban Transport Policy, 2006 (NUTP 2006) had also recognized that people occupy center stage in our cities and all plans would be for their common benefit and well being and recommended to make our cities most livable and to allow the cities to evolve into an urban form that is better suited to support the main socio-economic activities that take place in the city. The Transport policy for Delhi vision is to have a mobility transition which will deliver a sustainable urban transport system for the city and aims to deliver the objectives of NUTP and NMSH. Strategy for Delhi s Transport Policy includes establishment of a quick and efficient transport network between the NCR and the NCT of Delhi. The proposals in MPD 2021 target on traffic de-congestion include the following: 1. Unified Metro Transport Authority 2. Synergy between land-use and transport Integrated multi-modal public transport system to reduce dependence on personalized vehicles. 3. Road and rail based mass transport system to be a major mode of public transport, optimal use of existing road network and development of missing links. Delhi s mass transport data : i. Metro (MRTS) is currently over 211Km long with another 300Km under various stages of construction (Phase III) and planning (Phase IV) carries about 26 lakh passengers per day ii. Buses in Delhi carry about 52 lakh passengers per day. iii. Besides the above, Delhi has developed as a seamless city with an urban continuum comprising of a number of rapidly growing towns in Haryana and UP. This has added to the flow and movement of traffic within Delhi In spite of this, Delhi faces huge congestion issues Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: NMSH, NUTP 2006, Unified Metro Transport Authority (UMTA), Transport policy for Delhi all recognize that people occupy center stage in a cities growth hence mobility services to focus on sustainable urban transport system. It is reported that National 123

136 Capital Territory Delhi ( NCTD) by the year 2021 is estimated to have population of 225 lakh respectively, this signals immediate measures to reduce number of (includes private) vehicles on roads. Hence as observed above the focus has been to shift to mass transport systems. Delhi s MRTS has been expanding / increasing its services with each year. The country s National Environment Policy (NEP) recognizes that noise is an environmental parameter and this is a noise abatement initiatives. Survey & Metro rail users - Noise abatement is an additional benefit 1. Household & Metro users Survey (Dept Delhi metro services during peak rush hours of Transport, GNCTD, 2007) results: - 97% people will shift to Public Transport system if there is a significant saving in travel time. - 72% will shift if quality feeder system is available. - For 93% workers acceptable walking distance is 200m. - 45% of car users will shift to Public Transport if the parking fee is increased by 50% - Most respondents need comfort and good frequency to shift to Public Transport 2. Multi-modal integration is key to providing passenger comfort and for providing seamless connectivity for transit services. The majority of Metro riders, almost 80% (people who access the Metro by foot, bus, cycle, cycle-rickshaw, e-rickshaw or auto-rickshaw) are the worst affected, due to lack of seamless connectivity. Last-mile connectivity and provision of safe and comfortable modal options for people must remain one of the primary objectives for the city. With nearly 2.6 million people using the Delhi Metro every day, and with the future expansion the Delhi Metro shall soon be the city s life-line. Therefore, it is critical that a comprehensive strategy for affecting the modal share of the commuters goes hand-in-hand with metro development. Improved accessibility at the Metro stations for pedestrians and non-motorized transport must form a mandatory part of all Metro Station designs. 3. The recent project in multi-modal integration at Phase-III metro stations looks specifically at the provision of essential facilities and amenities including Intermediate Para Transit (IPT) parking, vending zones, bus-stop locations, cycle-rental facilities, etc. within the immediate station area. Metro Rail Project (Phase-III) looks at improving the last mile connectivity within a 2Km zone of all Metro Stations to help people optimize travel trips in terms of time and money while providing efficient, comfortable and safe connectivity for all users. From the learning of earlier phases of Metro, the issue of last mile connectivity is being given priority in all subsequent phases with retrofitting of the previous ones. 124

137 Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: The above observations from Report of the High Powered Committee on De-congesting Traffic in Delhi (MoUD 2016) emphasizes the measures to further facilitate public transport i.e. use of Delhi s MRTS (metro rail). This approach discourages not only the movement of private vehicles ( 2W & 4W) besides 3Ws on city roads thereby decreasing in ambient noise levels arising from increased traffic vehicular movement Multi-Modal Integration at Railway Stations / ISBT issue - long distance travel In order to encourage use of public transport for long distance travel, use of Railways/ RRTS/ Interstate Bus services, etc. and their integration with local intra-city public transport systems i.e. Metro, Buses, Intermediate Para Transit ( IPT ) and non-motorised traffic (NMT) needs to be made fast, convenient and seamless. This, along with 'Planetary Model' of Ministry of Railways for Delhi will allow the city to provide a viable alternative to motor vehicle users and de-congest roads. These include : a) The Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) Corridors planned by National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB)/ NCRTC is the most critical transit system that will reduce immigration into Delhi and facilitate growth of satellite towns with swift connectivity. b) Ring railway system is currently under-utilized public transport system. Though affordable for long distance commuters, it is not used due to bad connectivity to the station areas, lack of integration with Metro and Bus Stops. Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: The above extract from MoUD 2016 report highlights that any viable public transport alternative ( rail, metro, bus ) to motor vehicle users to de-congest city roads offers additional advantage of decreasing ambient noise levels due reduction in traffic volumes - vehicle movement / honking. National Environment Policy (NEP) urban noise an environmental quality parameter National Environment Policy was approved by the Union Cabinet on 18 th May, 2006 : Regarding, Noise pollution the NEP mentions : Persistent exposure to elevated noise levels has been established to result in significant adverse health impacts. At the same time, it needs to be understood that certain environments in which people choose to live and work necessarily involve a certain level of noise. NEP also suggests that abatement of noise pollution to be also considered in urban 125

138 planning as follows : Include ambient noise as among the environmental quality parameters to be routinely monitored in specified urban areas. Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: NCT Delhi is highly urbanized with 93.18% of its population living in urban areas as against the national average of 27.81%. Traffic noise in urban areas, significantly impacts ambient noise levels. Traffic Noise awareness initiatives & campaigns Awareness about vehicular noise pollution has been low as the focus w.r.t. urban environments since the focus was on chemical contamination of ambient air quality pollution due to vehicular emissions. There is a need to sensitize public on issues pertaining to traffic noise as most of the strategies for abating noise due to vehicular movements. In urban context it has been noted that vehicles generate noise when stationary (ex. idling at traffic signals), in transit, heavy vehicles (ex, buses) generate more noise, indiscriminate honking by drivers besides traffic congestion during peak hours. Most traffic management mea sures to curb air pollution ( vehicle emissions ) target areas prone to high traffic congestion assist in reducing traffic NOISE. The subsequent sections highlight how measures to reduce vehicle pollution also abate ambient noise levels due to vehicle movements. Some key public awareness initiatives include the following : 1. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) maintains a noise monitoring network of 10 stations in Delhi, the real time noise levels are being displayed in public places (LED screens) and in its website. Though the present coverage of the city may be inadequate however as noise is an important environmental quality parameter, organizations / RWAs can come forward to install similar installations as a community initiative to spread awareness on health impacts on exposure to high noise levels and adopt noise abatement practices in their localities. 2. The key findings of NO HONKING CAMPAIGN by ToI was discussed earlier in this report. 3. NO HONK campaign to spread awareness was also launched in Delhi by an NGO - Earth Saviours Foundation. The NGO played an important role in converting 90% buses 126

139 of commercial blue line bus service to convert to standard (low density) horns from earlier pressure horns. The NGO observed that people still do not realize that the horn in the vehicle is to be used only for emergencies and not for getting the traffic in front of them to move faster. To promote awareness on noise the NGO has painted slogans Do Not Honk on vehicle. Provisions under Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, The Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000 were published in the Gazette of India, vide S.O. 123(E), dated and subsequently amended vide S.O. 1046(E), dated , S.O. 1088(E), dated , S.O (E), dated and S.O. 50 (E) dated under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.) The Rules were last amended in January 2010 to reduce noise levels at night (by restricting the use of horns, sound emitting construction equipments and bursting of fire crackers). 2. Definition of DAY and NIGHT : Under Rule 2 (j) under Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 (j) night time means the period between p.m. and 6.00 a.m. Under SCHEDULE of Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000, (see rule 3(1) and 4(1)) Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of Noise day time means period between 6.00 a.m. to p.m. 3. Restrictions in SILENCE area zones Rule 5A under Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 highlights ban on the use of horns, sound emitting construction equipments and bursting of fire crackers in silence zone areas. Rule 6 under Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 following activities in silence area zones that are punishable : subrule (ii) whoever, beats a drum or tom-tom or blows a horn either musical or pressure, or trumpet or beats etc. 4. Restrictions in residential areas Rule 5A under Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 highlights restrictions in residential areas at night time - No horn shall be used and sound emitting construction equipments 5. Under Schedule of Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000 Ambient Air Quality Standards w.r.t. NOISE have been notified as given below 127

140 Table : Ambient Air Quality Standards w.r.t. NOISE Area code Zones Day Time db(a) Leq Night Time db(a) Leq A Industrial B Commercial C Residential D Silence Day time : 6.00 a.m. to p.m. (16 hours) Night time p.m. to 6.00 a.m. (8 hours) MoUD approves Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Policy for Delhi India is urbanizing at a rapid pace with urban population rising much faster than its total population. Level of urbanisation has increased from 17.29% in 1951 to 31.6 % in India is competing with the fastest growing countries in the world. The urban population in India, which is nearly 377 million is poised to grow to 600 million by The urban population of India contributes 65% of country s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which is expected to grow to 75% in the next 15 years. With India witnessing a high economic growth, Indian cities are growing at a rate faster than other cities in the world. Urbanization has led to horizontal growth of the cities thus creating problems of urban sprawl. This has resulted in increase of trip lengths and higher usage of private vehicles, problems of pollution and increased demand of infrastructure. To address these issues, many cities have strengthened their public transport by developing mass rapid transit systems (MRTS) such as metro rails and Bus Rapid Transit Systems (BRTS). It is however, important to efficiently use these systems by integrating the land use with the transport infrastructure to make the cities livable, healthy and smart. Objective of TOD is that it integrates land use and transport planning to develop compact growth centers within the influence zone of m on either side of the transit stations that have access to open green and public spaces and at the same time transit facilities are efficiently utilized. Based on the objectives of National Urban Transport Policy, this TOD policy defines 12 Guiding Principles and 9 Supportive tools. The approach for TOD Implementation include Influence Zone, High Density Compact Development, Mixed Use Development, Mandatory and Inclusive Housing, Multimodal Integration, Street Oriented Buildings and Vibrant Public Spaces and Managed Parking. National TOD policy would serve as guidelines and play a catalytic role in formulating state/ city level policies for promotion of transit oriented development As per press releases dated July 14, 2015, the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) approved Transit Oriented Development Policy for DELHI having following features: 1. Policy seeks to promote walk to work and safety and check congestion and pollution 2. 45% of developed land to be reserved for affordable housing and for middle class 3. 20% of Delhi area under potential TOD Zone ; 128

141 4. FAR of 400 to change Delhi s landscape Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: The features of TOD are also indirectly curbing ambient noise levels due to movement of vehicles ( private includes) and promoting mass public transport Funds & HPC to De-congest Traffic in DELHI - benefits traffic noise abatement The Report of the High Powered Committee (HPC) on De-congesting Traffic in Delhi (MoUD 2016) highlights concerns on vehicular pollution impacting air quality, and provides recommendations to abate air pollution. Key areas proposed by GoI are : Delhi, mixed transport slows down traffic flow 1. Announcement of Fund to Decongest Delhi Hon ble Minister of Urban Development, on 22 November, 2015, announced allocation of Urban Development Fund of Rs.3,250 Crore to various projects in Delhi to help decongest the city. 2. Constitution of High Powered Committee (HPC) on De-congesting Traffic in DELHI The High Powered Inter-Ministerial Committee decided on the FOUR - pronged strategic approach to meet the objectives and to move f orward on the path to de-congest Delhi. i. Strategy One: Improving Public Transport and Dis-incentivizing use of private vehicles This can be achieved by : 1.1 Parking Pricing & Management 1.2 Multi-modal Integration & Intermediate Public Transport (IPT) 1.3 Enhancing walkability & use of Non-Motorized Transport (NMT) 1.4 Bus service Improvements 1.5 Improving regional connectivity ii. Strategy Two: Road Safety and Traffic Management Road Safety and Traffic Management can be achieved by : 2.1 Intelligent Transport System 2.2 Road network optimisation 2.3 Junction improvements 2.4 Freight audit of Delhi 2.5 Road safety iii. Strategy Three: Enhancing Institutional Capacity iv. Strategy Four: Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: All the FOUR strategies recommended by the High Powered Committee on De-congesting Traffic in DELHI also address indirectly the concerns on increasing noise levels due to increased traffic movement in the city. 129

142 Synchronize public transport services with Feeder Services, Taxis & auto-rickshaws As per MoUD 2016 report : 1. Feeder services in the form of smaller buses, vans including shared auto-rickshaws currently play an important role in the transportation system of the city, though mostly informally, connecting commuters to not only the Metro or the Bus for the first and last mile but also for the entire journey. Currently, a fleet of 120 Metro Buses and 6,153 Grameen Seva ply in the city. 2. Taxis - Taxis play an important role in providing an integrated transport service for people who choose not to use a car and combine taxi with public transport for certain trips. Currently 47,342 private operators are registered in the city. Improved facilities for taxis can help to reduce car-dependency. 3. Auto-rickshaws are an essential and affordable option of non-shared public transport in the city and also the only mode, other than cycle-rickshaws, that one can hail in the city. Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: Synchronizing public transport services with Feeder Services, Taxis & auto-rickshaws facilitate passengers to s hift to using the city s MRTS (metro rail), thereby reducing the number private vehicles on city roads. Though traffic noise reduction is an additional benefit adopting these measures, however two noise related problems arising from these services - they contribute to traffic noise, 1stly random parking at any point on busy roads thus leading to congestion, 2ndly indiscriminate honking. Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) Public Transport Network planning work was initiated by GNCTD on the basis of the Transport Demand Forecast (TDF) study by Transport Department in As per the plan, the total length of the Integrated Public Transport Network (IPTN) was 556.7Km of which BRT system comprised of 365.5Km. Thereafter, a revised IPTN of 843Km was proposed including a BRT system of 645Km. PWD agreed to implement 5 out of 14 approved corridors and the rest were to be implemented by DIMTS in As per MoUD 2016 report, BRTS is a high capacity bus system and therefore should have this integration with the regular bus BRTS experiment in Delhi system. With efficient and comfortable BRTS development, bus services will be able to provide greater comfort, reduce travel time and integrate with all systems to provide seamless travel experience. In Delhi, on the pilot corridor, studies have shown that the speed of the bus increased thereby carrying more passengers per minute. The Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) of Delhi faced flak from many sections of the 130

143 society including experts and technical personnel, with the result that BRTS could never gain support. PHOTO : Delhi s BRTS pilot project Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: Delhi is not unfamiliar to the sight of crawling cars and unending traffic snarls particularly during peak rush hours (mornings & evenings). A successful BRTS facilitates has the huge potential to remove private vehicles ( 2W and 4W) from city roads thereby decreasing city s ambient noise levels caused due to the movement of these vehicles. Improving Regional Connectivity Issue As per MoUD 2016 report, the National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) prepared the Regional Plan for the National Capital Region (NCR) with the perspective year 2021 for balanced and harmonized development of the region. One of the objectives of the Regional Plan-2021 is to provide efficient and economic rail and road based transportation systems (including mass transport systems) well integrated with the land use patterns for balanced regional sustainable development. NCR Planning Board prepared the Functional Plan on Transport for NCR in 2009 with a perspective year 2032 for systematic development of transport system for sustainable development of NCR, with various proposals to enhance the Road / Rail connectivity and mobility in the region Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: Regional Plan-2021 aims to provide efficient and economic road based transportation systems (including mass transport systems) well integrated with the land use patterns, These features acknowledges the importance of land-use vis a vis traffic movements and hence the benefit of noise reduction indirectly. Road Safety and Traffic Management also reduce traffic noise Regarding road safety and traffic management as per MoUD 2016 report mentions: a. Intelligent systems are also very helpful in traffic management, control and for real time location mapping and providing information to the customers through means of different devices all powered by a central control monitoring system. Intelligent Transport System (ITS) mainly helps in the following areasa) Reducing congestion through smart signal management and synchronization; b) Improving Road Safety through better monitoring and management; c) Providing reliable public services through smart Passenger Information System (PIS); d) Improving operations, management of both traffic and public transportation; e) Integration of public transport system and use of ITS for its day-to-day, short and long term operations. b. Mobile Application - Mobile application, which is compatible with all leading softwares, should be developed for the ease of use for the commuters Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: 131

144 Intelligent systems & mobile application are also helpful in traffic management, additional information for Delhi include : Google Launches DELHI Public Transport Offline Mobile App. : This is the very first time Google is targeting a specific city, the app is currently available only for Android and is being. The app will show routes, timetables and directions for buses and Metro rail in New Delhi. It does work even in offline mode, so, even if one is not in a wifi zone or do not have your mobile data on, one can still use it. Aurobindo Marg Crosswalk Delhi (pilot run) : Delhi Traffic Police & UTTIPEC Delhi Traffic Police initiated safety measures to reduce road fatalities on a number of roads in Delhi, of which, Aurobindo Marg was chosen as a pilot case study and the impact resulted in drastic reduction in road fatalities. The Delhi Traffic Police restricted the speed of vehicles by introducing pedestrian signals, marking pedestrian crossings, traffic calming measures and enforcements. Pedestrian crossings were introduced at every 250m. The success of the pilot encouraged the Traffic Police to implement these measures in virtually all the arterial roads and highways passing through Delhi city. Similarly the Crosswalk Lab was initiated jointly with Traffic Police and Municipal Authority in Ahmedabad city. It is a demonstration of tactical urbanization where temporary installation of cones, barricades, road markings improved intersection geometrics made junction more safe for pedestrians and made traffic flow more efficient. Other De-congestion measures Delhi government ref Classification of congested corridors : Delhi Traffic Police have identified 77 congested corridors in the city that have been classified into following categories a. category A- High visibility/high volume traffic b. category B - B is the medium category c. category C - low volume traffic/ low visibility The 77 corridors are a part of the de-congestion plan the implementation structure includes creating six traffic ranges of the Delhi Police, each headed by an officer of the Deputy Commissioner of Police rank. The Transport department has established six task forces which are working along with us and other agencies, including MCD, PWD, DMRC etc. There are 56 stretches across the city that have been declared as "no tolerance zones" for unwarranted noise. 2. De-congestion plan for the ISBT terminus : The area around the Inter State Bus Terminus (ISBT), Kashmere Gate, New Delhi, is experiencing heavy flow of pedestrian and vehicle traffic. Its facilities are no longer sufficient for smooth traffic flow, so that long delays to its road users are very frequent. Delhi Traffic Police have proposed a plan regarding decongestion of ISBT and other corridors. The findings of the proposed plan have also been approved by the Central Road Research Institute (CRRI). It is not aiming at widening the 132

145 roads and new constructions due to structural issues. However de-congest the traffic flow other measures identified, for example, regarding ISBT the MCD garbage point at the terminus, it has been proposed to shift, besides installing railings and signals is also a part of the plan. 3. Car pooling Ahead of the second phase of odd-even car-rationing scheme set to begin from April 15, Delhi government launched Poochh-O Carpool app to help people explore carpooling options during the 15-day exercise. After download, users will have to register themselves to find carpooling options within a radius of 1-5 km. PoochhO Carpool app, prepared by Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System (DIMTS), can be downloaded on Google Play store for Android users. 4. Car free day : Besides odd even traffic experiment launched in year 2016, the Delhi Govt launched CAR CAR FREE DAY advt. at backside of DTC bus FREE DAY initiative in year The objective to sensitise public on nuisance of growing vehicle numbers in the city and was planned by State Govt for once every month for a given road stretch. The inspiration came from adjoining NCR town Gurgaon, which held its first car-free day on September 22, 2015 known on the Internet as World Car Free Day, in a bid to lower vehicular pollution and emphasise on the need to promote use of cycle and carpooling. The first car free day was conducted in October 2015 in Delhi. 133

146 Car free day 1 st 2 nd 3 rd Car free stretch Red Forth to India Gate Dwarka Sector 3-13 to Dwarka Sector 7-9 (West Delhi) Vikas Marg between Nirman Vihar Metro station and Laxmi Nagar. Date October 22 nd 2015 (Thursday) Dusshera 7 am to noon November 22, am to 4 pm Dec 22,2015 8am to 4 pm (eight hours) 4 th 5 th 6 th Vishwa Vidyalaya Metro Station to Chhatrasal Stadium (6km) Munirka T point to Hyatt Hotel T point on Vivekanada Marg Proposed 6th Car Free Day in North- East Delhi's Shahdara area - Loni area Jan 22, am to 4 pm(eight hours) Feb 22, am to 4 pm(eight hours) - 5. Odd-even traffic experiment :Delhi government announced the above experiment to curb the number of vehicles on the city s roads thereby decreasing air pollution. The program was launched w.e.f. New Year from January 1, 2016 (Friday) at 8 am, wherein odd and even numbered cars were kept off the roads on alternate days. The odd-even scheme was conducted in two rounds, first (Phase I ) introduced between January 1-15, 2016 and next in April The main aim was to counter rising air pollution arising due to growing vehicular movement in the country s capital. Table : Details of 55 areas prone to congestion / traffic jam and facing encroachment problems in DELHI (Source: ANNEXURE TO RS.USQ. No. 74 FOR ) Sl. No. Area Sl. No. Area 1. ISBT Kashmere Gate 29. IIT Flyover to Panchsheel 2. Mukarba Chowk 30. Gurgaon Road Dhaula Kuan/RR Hospital 3. G.T.Road Shastri Park 31. Ashram Chowk 4. Akshardham 32. Khanpur T- Point 5. Mayur Vihar Metro Station 33. Saket Metro Station 6. Shastri Park Chowk 34. Rao Tula Ram Marg from Moti Bagh Chowk up 7. Nanaksar towards Yamuna Bridge 35. Outer Ring Road 8. Rohtak Road (Peeragarhi to Mundka) 36. Aurobindo Marg 9. Ring Road (Naraina to Punjabi Bagh) 37. Mehrauli Gurgaon Road 10. Pankha Road (Kali Mata Mandir to 38. Mehrauli Badarpur Road DBlock,Janak Puri) 11. Palam Flyover 39. Maa Anandmai Marg 12. Uttam Nagar on Najafgarh Road 40. Kamal T- Point 13. Dwarka Link Road 41. Asaf Ali Road 134

147 14. Delhi Gate Najafgarh 42. Shradhanand Marg 15. Chandgi Ram Akhara to Nigam Bodh Ghat 43. In front of NDRS Bhavbhuti Marg 16. Hanuman Setu to ISBT Kashmiri Gate 44. JLN Marg in front of LNJP Hospital Ring Road 17. S.P.M. Marg on both carriageways 45. Chawari Bazar 18. Subhash Marg on both carriageways 46. In front of NDRS Chemsford Road 19. Rani Jhansi Road 47. DBG Road PGC Chowk to NDRS Flyover 20. Sadar Bazar 48. N.S. Marg 21. Azad Market 49. Military Road to Faiz Road Crossing 22. Roshanara Road 50. Entire Karol Bagh Market Area 23. Ghanta Ghar on GTK Road 51. Arya Samaj Road 24. Shakti Nagar 52. New Rohtak Road 25. Jawahar Nagar Road from Malka Ganj 53. Shankar Road Chowk 26. Boulevard Road opposite Tis Hazari 54. S-Block Mangol Puri 27. Banglow Road 55. NSP to Kohat Enclave 28. Kamla Nagar Market - Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: All the initiatives taken to de-congest Delhi like, classification of congested corridors, 56 stretches across declared as "no tolerance zones" for unwarranted noise, de-congestion plan for the ISBT terminus, pilot run of BRTS, declaration of car free day and Odd-even traffic experiment are also initiatives that reduce traffic noise too. Due to urbanisation Delhi has seamlessly merged with the adjoining NCR towns, for the 1 st time Gurgaon s corporate have tied with NASSCOM to promote shared transport through a common commuting database launched on Tuesday ( ). The aim was to give options to employees who currently drive to work, around 39 companies have shown interest in the database. All the measures above though focus on reduction of vehicle emission, however these measures also provide an additional benefit of reducing ambient noise levels by reducing movement of private vehicles. Installation of Synchronized traffic signaling Elevated traffic signals with timers is a good traffic noise abatement practice Arterial roads are primary networks that provide long-distance travel through multi-modal transport system connecting all major city-level land uses. They also facilitate inter-city and regional trips by connecting with highways and expressway networks and have been designed 135

148 to achieve a driving speed of km/hr as per the Unified Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure (Planning & Engineering) Centre (UTTIPEC) street design guidelines as well as Indian Road Congress guidelines for urban roads. Adoption of synchronized traffic signaling assists in uniform traffic flow, particularly peak hours on busy routes. This measure reduces the scope for indiscriminate honking and thereby reducing congestion and reduction in noise levels. The busy routes have been identified : (a) Delhi Traffic Police have identified 77 congested corridors in the city (b) List of 44 major choke points /congestion points in Delhi which require interventions for immediate improvement (MoUD 2016) Table : List of 44 major choke points /congestion points in Delhi which require interventions for immediate improvement (MoUD 2016) South/South-East Delhi 1. Hauz Khas Metro Station near Panchsheel Flyover. 2. Gurgaon Road 3. Ashram Chowk 4. Saket Metro Station 5. Khanpur T 6. RTR MotiBagh Parallel Flyover 7. Lajpat Nagar Market 8. INA Market 9. Adhchini T-point 10. Malviya Nagar 11. Aurobindo Marg 12. Under Mahipal Pur Flyover 13. Rangpuri Round About 14. C.R. Park area 15. Kalindi Kunj Chhatarpur Area Bhati Mines Central/New Delhi 17 ITO crossing 18 W-point Tilak Marg 19 Kamaal Ataturk Marg 20 Sarojini Nagar Market 21 Kamal T-point 22 Karol Bagh Market 23 Patel Road West/South-West Delhi 24 Uttam Nagar Chowk 25 Peera Garhi Chowk 26 Dwarka Sector 27 Underpass Dwarka Link Road 28 Kakrola Dwarka Mor 29 New Moti Nagar East/North-East Delhi 30 Akshardham 31 Mayur Vihar Metro Station 32 Patparganj Road Nirman Vihar crossing 33 Vikas Marg 34 Noida North/North-West/Outer Delhi 35 Chandni Chowk 36 ISBT Kashmere Gate 37 Kudesia Ghat/Geeta Ghat / Shyam Ghat / Kalindi Ghat 38 Baraf Khana Chowk 39 Wazirabad bridge 40 Azad Pur Mandi, GTK Road 41 Kohat Enclave 42 Prem Bari flyover 43 Mukarba Chowk 44 Anaj Mandi NarelaLink Road Launch of intelligent traffic management measures by Delhi Police Delhi Police today formally launched on the following INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MEASURES 136

149 a) HD CCTV Cameras (CCTVs) at prominent locations, vehicle mounted cameras on vehicles of Delhi Traffic Police and Body Worn Cameras for use of Traffic Police personnel. While launching this initiative, Sh. Bhim Sain Bassi, the Commissioner of Police, Delhi emphasised that it is the endeavour of Delhi Traffic Police to introduce intelligent traffic management measures to reduce traffic congestion at prominent locations, keep a check on traffic violations and resolve other traffic related issues faced by general public and police on roads of NCT of Delhi. b) HD Closed Circuit Television Cameras (CCTVs) have been installed at five prominent junctions i.e. Lala Ram Charan Aggarwal Chowk (ITO Point), AIIMS junction, Kashmere Gate ISBT, Dhaula Kuan Station Road T-Point and Laxmi Nagar Market which are prone to traffic congestion, so as to keep a continuous watch on traffic situation at these junctions and take timely remedial measures to avoid traffic jams and delays by way of devising alternative diversion plans and subsequent issue of traffic advisories and alerts to all road users. c) 50 Vehicle Mounted Cameras have been procured and being installed on vehicles of Delhi Traffic Police for capturing various violations especially dangerous driving, red light jumping and lane violations etc., so that it can prove to be deterrent for motorists indulging in dangerous traffic violations risking their own lives as well as of others. This will help the traffic police officials not only in ensuring proper traffic management but also for prosecution of traffic offenders since the traffic violations are recorded on the spot. d) 200 Body Worn Cameras will be issued to Traffic Police personnel on field duty so as to ensure foolproof and transparent prosecution of traffic violators at the spot. These cameras will help in ensuring proper conduct and behaviour of Traffic Police personnel as well as public. Introduction of body worn cameras will bring in transparency while dealing with the public and will help in avoiding malicious complaints. (Ref : PRESS RELEASE : : Sharad Agarwal) Joint Commissioner of Police: Traffic, Delhi Flyovers under PWD, Delhi - de-congestion measure Flyovers are generally constructed in cities to Flyovers deflect traffic, a noise mitigation measure ease traffic density. PWD, Govt. of Delhi is responsible for construction and maintenance of most of the Master Plan roads in Delhi. Construction of Flyovers at difficult traffic junctions of Delhi roads has made a remarkable improvement in the traffic flow (de-congestion measure) at various locations. PWD, Govt of Delhi is using State-of-the-Art technologies for its flyover projects to minimize construction activity at busy traffic intersections. PWD, Govt. of Delhi has introduced Q-4 standards 137

150 according to IRC:SP-47 standards on these flyovers. These standards are equivalent to ISO a. Following works have been completed by PWD so far (Source: i. Geeta Colony Bridge ii. Mangolpuri Flyover iii. Road Over Disused Canal (East Delhi) from Karkari Mor to Geeta Colony iv. Punjabi Bagh Club Flyover v. Moti Nagar Chowk Flyover vi. ROB - Marginal Bund Road (between ITO Chungi to Noida Mor) vii. B-AvenueFlyover viii. Panchsheel Club Flyover ix. Flyover at Maa Anadmai Marg near Kalkaji Temple x. Flyover at Britania Chowk xi. Grade Separator at Dhaula Kuan xii. Grade Separator at Safdarjung (AIIMS) xiii. Flyover at Mayapuri xiv. Flyover at Andrews Ganj xv. Flyover at Punjabi Bagh xvi. Flyover at Savitri Cinema (Ring Road) crossing xvii. Flyover at Nehru Place (Ring Road) crossing xviii. Flyover at Africa Avenue (Ring Road) crossing xix. Flyover at Moti Bagh Crossing xx. Flyover at Hanuman Setu xxi. Visvesvaraya Setu at Okhla xxii. Grade Separator at ISBT xxiii. Flyover at Moolchand Intersection xxiv. Ring Road Intersection at I P Estate xxv. Clover leaves at ITO flyover xxvi. Second Yamuna Bridge at ITO xxvii. Flyover at Oberoi Hotel Intersection xxviii. Flyover at Lodhi Road Intersection xxix. Nizamuddin Bridge xxx. Wazirabad Bridge xxxi. Bridge across Supplementary Drain at B-3, Rohini xxxii. Bridge on Road No 38 from Bharat Nagar to Road No 37 xxxiii. Bridge over Barapullah Nallah on ring road near Sarai Kale Khan b. Upcoming Flyovers & Bridges - in Progress i. ROB on Road No. 63 ii. Mukerba Chowk - NH 1 at G T Road - Mar 2009 iii. Underpass & Cloverleaves at ITO Chungi - Sep

151 iv. Grade Seperator at Azadpur - Jun 2009 v. Neela Hauz Bridge (Aruna Asaf Ali Marg) - Dec 2009 vi. Behra Enclave Underpass - Mar 2009 vii. Shyamlal College at G. T. Road - Sep 2009 viii. Munirka - Dec 2009 ix. Outer Ring Road at Rao Tula Ram Marg - Dec 2009 x. Naraina at Ring Road - Jun 2009 xi. Nangloi NH-10 - Sep 2009 xii. ROB on Road No. 58 & 64 xiii. Raja Ram Kohli Marg - Jun 2009 xiv. Flyover at Ghazipur - Apr 2010 xv. Flyover at Apsara Border - Jun 2010 xvi. Road No. 56 near ISBT Anand Vihar - May 2010 xvii. Shastri Nagar Pushta - Jun 2009 xviii. Road over Barapullah Nallah xix. U. P. Link Road c. New flyovers proposed in Delhi a) Ring Road Byepass Salimgarh Fort to Velodrome b) Sanjay Gandhi Transport Nagar c) Rajasthan Udhyog Nagar at Shalimar Bagh d) ROB at Road No. 68 e) North South Corridor f) Elevated East West Corridor g) BSZ Marg at ITO h) Wazirabad Bridge (by DTTDC). Hon ble Supreme Court s directions on goods vehicles opportunity for vehicle noise reduction SC bench headed by chief justice TS Thakur also banned the entry of trucks (heavy vehicles) registered before 2005 into the city, Delhi. The bench extended the ban on entry of goods vehicles not bound for the capital and also restricted entry of heavy vehicles from four more points on three national highways (NHs) and one state highway. With this order, the ban on entry of goods vehicles spans to a total of five national highways viz. NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and 58 and one state highway, SH 57, which witness largest number of vehicles passing through Delhi. These 139

152 highways connect the capital to neighbouring states such as Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The court asked the authorities to divert these vehicles to alternate routes. Regarding freight audit of Delhi, as per MoUD 2016 report,a study of movement pattern for goods vehicles entering and leaving Delhi revealed that a total of 1, 03,853 goods vehicles crossed the count stations at the borders of Delhi in a day. The freight and goods transportation system uses the same infrastructure (roads) that is used for moving people. A lack of conscious planning for the current and future freight movements, that is sustainable and environmental friendly, will lead to unstructured and hap-hazard solutions to handle freight traffic Comments w.r.t. traffic noise: Goods vehicles when over loaded move slowly, they generate more noise. Besides there are frequent complaints received indicating that several trucks have installed multi-toned horns with high decibels as they operate at nights this practice is alarming. The restrictions on the movement of heavy vehicles also reduce ambient urban noise levels at night times Hon ble Supreme Court creates funds (ECC & EPC) for abatement of vehicular pollution in Delhi a) Supreme Court directed funds for pollution control in Delhi vide order dated October 09, 2015 on Environment Compensation Charge (ECC) w.r.t. Category 2 (light duty vehicles etc.) Category 3 (2 axle trucks) Category 4 (3 axle trucks) Category 5 (4 axle trucks and above). The toll collectors will put in place Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system at their own cost at nine main entry points in the city by November 30, 2015 and by 31st January, 2016 at all the remaining 118 entry points to the city. b) Hon ble Supreme Court passed direction on to permit registration of diesel cars/suvs of 2000 cc capacity and above upon deposit of 1% of the Ex-show room price towards Environment Trucks waiting to enter Delhi at the inter-state border Protection Charge (EPC), the EPC amount to be deposited in account to be opened by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in a Scheduled public sector bank. In compliance of Hon ble Court s directions Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has opened a separate bank account for depositing Environment Protection Charge (EPC). The proposed thrust areas for project proposals for utilisation of EPC funds is mainly on projects addressing reduction of pollution from the 140

153 transport sector. Noise is an air pollutant generated significantly from vehicles hence an opportunity to undertake noise surveys ( monitoring and modelling) to MoRTH s VAHAN - database of polluting vehicles (emissions & noise) A study was commissioned by the Centre for Science and Environment to M/s. V.R. Techniche Consultants Pvt. Ltd., the survey highlights that about 23 per cent of the commercial vehicles and per cent of the heavy trucks entering Delhi were not destined for Delhi. NH 71 and NH 71A are toll roads connecting Rewari to Panipat via Jhajjar and Rohtak and this alternative route obviates the need to travel through Delhi. The MoRTH has implemented its VAHAN database at few entry points, including one at Ghazipur. The database, which records the registration date of all vehicles, will be used to identify the pre-2006 vehicles to prevent them from entering the city. The database serves an important input to transport planners to curb movement of vehicles that are not Delhi bound and are noisy. Speed reduction and traffic noise management Speed dependence is strong for automobiles, city buses (two-axle) and non-accelerating highway buses (three-axle), because tyre / pavement noise dominates for these vehicles; but it is not significant for accelerating highway buses where exhaust noise is dominant. For transit vehicles in motion, close-by sound levels also depend upon other parameters, such as vehicle acceleration and vehicle length, plus the type/condition of the road surfaces. Road traffic noise may also be reduced by speed limits (CE Delft 2003), reducing the speed of trucks from 90 to 60 km/h on concrete roads would reduce the maximum sound pressure level by 5 db, and the equivalent sound pressure level by 4 db. Decreasing the speed if cars from 140 to 100 km/h would result in the same noise reduction (WHO 1995a). At 30 km/h cars produce maximum sound pressure levels that are 7 db lower, and equivalent sound pressure levels that are 5 db lower, than cars driving at 50 km Limiting traffic speed reduces its noise, especially between 50 and 80km/h. Speed limit enforcement in urban areas has a positive effect on transport noise. Traffic management often also has an effect on the number of vehicles. The table shows the noise reduction caused by a reduced traffic volume under assumption of no changes in either speed or percentage of heavy vehicles. Although traffic management measures have relatively limited potential compared to 141

154 the long-term potential of other measures, they involve only limited investments and have a direct effect, because of their limited implementation time. However, the costs associated with travel time losses may be significant. Based on traffic surveys some of the above suggestions can be adopted for Delhi roads. Table Effects of speed limit changes on noise reduction (Source: DRI, 2004) Speed reduction (10% heavy traffic) Traffic reduction From 110 to 100 km/h 0.7 db(a) 10 % 0.5 db(a) From 100 to 90 km/h 0.7 db(a) 20 % 1.0 db(a) From 90 to 80 km/h 1.3 db(a) 30 % 1.6 db(a) From 80 to 70 km/h 1.7 db(a) 40 % 2.2 db(a) From 70 to 60 km/h 1.8 db(a) 50 % 3.0 db(a) From 60 to 50 km/h 2.1 db(a) 75 % 6.0 db(a) From 50 to 40 km/h 1.4 db(a) From 40 to 30 km/h 0 db(a) Table Effects of traffic management measures on noise reduction Traffic management measure (Source -CE DELFT Solutions for environment, economy and technology, Report Delft, August 2007, Publication code: ) Traffic calming / Environmentally adapted through-roads Potential noise reduction (LAeq) Up to 4 db(a) 30 km/h zone Up to 2 db(a) Roundabouts Up to 4 db(a) Round-top/circle-top road humps Up to 2 db(a) Speed limits combined with signs about noise disturbance 1-4 db(a) Night time restrictions on heavy vehicles Up to 7 db(a) at night time Rumble strips of thermoplastic Up to 4 db(a) noise increase Rumble areas of paving stones Up to 3 db(a) noise increase Flat-top humps Up to 6 db(a) increase Narrow speed cushions Up to 1 db(a) increase Rumble wave devices 0 db(a) Low-noise road pavements As per literature, low-noise road surfaces, such as thin-layer, double-layer, porous and poroelastic pavements, offer considerable potential to cut road noise dramatically, and are very complementary to technical measures to reduce engine, exhaust and tyre noise from cars and trucks. Such surface measures have the advantage of bringing immediate benefits, particularly 142

155 for use in noise hotspots. The degree of noise reduction achieved by low-noise pavements are summarised in Table below. Table : Low noise road pavements (source KPMG (2005)) Noise reductions due to low-noise road pavements in urban and rural areas Pavement Urban Rural 50 km/h 70 km/h 110 km/h Two-layer asphalt 3 db(a) 4 db(a) 5 db(a) Thin layer asphalt 1.5 db(a) 2 db(a) 2 db(a) Low-noise pavements are a cost-effective option to reduce traffic noise. KPMG (2005) indicates that low-noise asphalt can reduce investments in noise abatement measures by up to 80% compared to noise barriers. The cost reductions are greatest for intra-urban roads, because it is here particularly that low-noise pavements can reduce the need for expensive barriers. Traffic noise abatement installation of noise barriers Noise barriers and insulation of dwellings are commonly recommended for reducing propagation of the noise. Vehicle noise regulation is important, especially in light of growing traffic volumes and the proximity between transport infrastructure and residential and living areas. Every doubling of transport intensity increases noise levels by 3 db(a). Some key features on noise barriers are : 1. On average, noise barriers reduce noise levels by 3-6 db(a), depending on their design and height. 2. Sound barriers for transportation systems are typically used to attenuate noise at the receiver by 5 to 15 decibels, depending upon barrier height, length, and distance from both source and receiver. 3. Barriers on structure, very close-in to the source, sometimes provide less attenuation than do barriers slightly more distant from the source, due to reverberation (multiple reflections) between the barrier and the body of the vehicle. 4. Roadside noise barriers are only acceptable for motorways and other bypass roads where there is no need for pedestrians to cross. 5. Acoustical absorption is included as a mitigation option. (Source - CE Delft Solutions for environment, economy and technology, Report Delft, August 2007, Publication code: ) TRAFFIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT (TIA) The goal of a traffic impact assessment is to determine potential impacts of traffic changes caused by large proposed developments on city level transportation infrastructure i.e. capacity of roads and transit systems, and to identify any infrastructure and transit improvements or 143

156 mitigation measures needed to ensure that transport networks will operate acceptably and safely upon completion of the proposed development. Comprehensive policy about Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) should be prepared Green cover Green plantation are reported to be decrease ambient noise levels. The total forest and tree cover area in Delhi increased to sq km in 2015 from sq km in 2013 which is 20.22% of the total area of Delhi. South Delhi district has the highest forest cover area at sq. km, and the lowest forest cover is in East Delhi of 3.28 sq. Km. Plantation has almost doubled over the last decade in Delhi. (Ref. Economic Survey of Delhi * * * 144

157 Chapter XII Way forward The Source-Path-Receiver framework is central to all environmental noise studies The Source-Path-Receiver framework is central to all environmental noise studies. Vehicle propulsion units generate: (1) whine from electric control systems and traction motors that propel rapid transit cars, (2) diesel-engine exhaust noise, from both diesel-electric locomotives and transit buses, (3) air-turbulence noise generated by cooling fans, and (4) gear noise. Additional noise of motion is generated by the interaction of wheels/tyres with the road surfaces, is significant at normal operating speeds. Speed dependence is also strong for automobiles, city buses (two-axle) and non-accelerating highway buses (three-axle), because tyre / pavement noise dominates for these vehicles; but it is not significant for accelerating highway buses where exhaust noise is dominant. For transit vehicles in motion, close-by sound levels also depend upon other parameters, such as vehicle acceleration and vehicle length, plus the type/condition of the road surfaces. For very high-speed rail vehicles, air turbulence can also be a significant source of noise. Depending upon the type of source and its operating characteristics, each transit source generates close-by noise levels which. Noise levels are reduced (attenuated) by distances, intervening obstacles and other factors along the propagation path between sources and receivers. Noise combines from all sources to finally reach the each receiver. Figure Factors determining traffic noise emissions (Ref.: RIVM, 2003 adapted by CE Delft) 145

158 Noise Measurement & Mitigation strategies The sampling procedure and the choice of equipment should be in accordance of the purpose of the measurements. i. Traffic management designed to ensure uniform traffic flow in towns also serve to reduce noise. ii. Noise descriptors - Regarding the choice of noise measure, LAeq,T is used to measure continuing sounds such as road traffic, L90 or L95 can be used as a measure of the general background sound pressure level. a) L 10(18 hour) of 68 db(a) at 1m outside facade of dwellings was adopted in the UK as the eligibility criterion for acoustic insulation. b) Traffic noise planning standard in Hong Kong is L 10(1 hour) of 70 db(a) measured over the peak hour of traffic. Field measurement in Hong Kong also revealed that L 10(1 hour) of 70 db(a) over the peak hour is roughly the same as L 10(18 hour) of 68 db(a), for the kind of normal traffic flow situations encountered in Hong Kong. c) The traffic noise planning standard, which is L 10(1 hour) of 70 db(a), means that when this limit is just met, traffic noise will exceed 70 db(a) for 10% of an hour. For the remaining time, the traffic noise will be less than 70 db(a). iii. Classification of sound pressure (noise) meters : Standards (IEC 1979) classify sound pressure meters as type 1 or type 2. Type 2 meters are adequate for broad band A- weighted level measurements, where extreme precision is not required and where very low sound pressure levels are not to be measure. Type 1 meters are usually much more expensive and should be used where more precise results are needed, or in cases where frequency analysis is required. iv. Measurement locations should normally be selected so that there is a clear view of the sound source and so that the propagation of the sound to the microphone of the sound pressure (noise) meters is not blocked by buildings / walls that can reduce the incident sound pressure levels. v. Measurements of environmental noise : vi. a) Measurements of environmental noise are usually best made close to the point of reception of the noise, this approach also applies to assess concerns of residents exposed to road traffic noise, noise not to be monitored near highways / roads. b) Measurements of environmental noise close to the source, need to estimate the effect of sound propagation to the point of reception, errors can be avoided by measuring at locations close to the point of reception Measurements of environmental noise & positioning of the microphone The positioning of the microphone of the sound pressure (noise) meters relative to building facades or other sound-reflective surfaces is also important, it significantly influences the measured noise levels (ISO 1978). If the measuring microphone is located more than 146

159 several meters from reflecting surfaces, an unbiased data of the incident sound pressure levels is reported. Some standards recommend a position 2 m from the façade and an associated 3 db correction (ISO 1978; ASTM 1992). The effect of façade reflections must be accounted for to represent the true level of the incident sound. vii. Receiver response to transit noise : Noise can interrupt ongoing activities and can result in community annoyance, especially in residential areas. Annoyance to noise has been investigated and approximate dose-response relationships have been quantified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). National Building Code of India has incorporated features on acoustics and sound proofing for buildings. viii. Indiscriminate honking - Transit vehicles are equipped with horns and in general used as an audible warning system for use in emergency situations, for pedestrians and for motor vehicles. Honking (pressure, multi toned horns) generate annoying noise and are extremely annoying when exposed to longer duration. Car & 2W drivers use horns frequently, which result in noise with high peak levels, low or no honking behavior of drivers necessary. ix.. Noise is generated by transit vehicles even when they are stationary / idling. Opportunity to check at traffic signals non-complaint horns particularly of 2W & 4W using handy noise level meters ; installation of traffic signals with timers across the busy road sections based on study of traffic density x. Night ban - Noise emission from road traffic may be further reduced by a night-time ban for all vehicles particularly in the 56 stretches across the city that have been declared as "no tolerance zones" for unwarranted noise. Heavy vehicles (goods carriers) should be banned from using horns randomly. xi. Vehicle noise at source - The most effective mitigation measure is to reduce noise emissions at the source. Currently, all vehicle models in manufacturing stage of all categories sold in India comply with the norms Noise Limits stipulated by MoRT&H with effect from 1 st April xii. Transit noise is generated by transit vehicles in motion. Ban movement of (3W auto rickshaws) and 2W ( motorcycles / scooters) on prioritized busy roads during peak hours, for example Delhi can experiment with homogenous traffic ( ex. one category of vehicles ) xiii. Speed dependence Road traffic noise may also be reduced by speed limits, reducing the speed of trucks from 90 to 60 km/h on concrete roads would reduce the maximum sound pressure level by 5 db, and the equivalent sound pressure level by 4 db. At 30 km/h cars produce maximum sound pressure levels that are 7 db lower, and equivalent sound pressure levels that are 5 db lower, than cars driving at 50 km/h. As part of transport expansion / planning there is need to inventorise busy roads based on roads surface treatment and type of pavement when considering noise mitigation strategies in Delhi. Speed breakers need to be judiciously placed ; 147

160 Figure Reduction potential using current noise reduction technologies (expert judgement Ref. EC, 2005) xiv. Sound barriers. As mentioned before the Source- Path-Receiver framework is central to all environmental noise studies. Noise mitigation in the Source-Receiver framework w.r.t. traffic flow are achieved by interruption of the sound propagation path by : i. construction of noise barriers ii. by terrain better when terrain is naturally undulating and planned landuse development is undertaken iii. by rows of buildings : possible when planned landuse is undertaken iv. by vegetation it hides the source but does not reduce sound levels significantly However erecting noise barriers are practical m eans of lowering sound levels in particularly in sensitive areas by breaking the direct line-of-sight between traffic flow (source) and receiver (ex. residential society ) with a solid wall. Sound energy reaches the receiver s end by bending (diffracting) over the top of the barrier, and this diffraction reduces the sound level at the receiver s end. 148

161 xv. Other proposed traffic noise mitigation measures i. The noise of road vehicles is mainly generated from the (a) engine and (b) from frictional contact between the vehicle and the ground and air. Road tyre inter face noise may be reduced by quiet road surfaces (porous asphalt, drain asphalt ) or by selection of quiet tyre. The physical principle responsible for generating noise from tyre-road contact is less well understood, in general, road-contact noise exceeds engine noise at speeds higher than 60 km/h. ii. Silence zones (hospitals, schools, academic intuitions) etc are traffic prone areas. these areas need to be surveyed closely before rational mix of noise mitigation measures can be adopted. they include ensuring smooth traffic flow, ban encroachment on pavement & road space by stationary vehicles, tow away illegally parked vehicles, installation of minimum customized noise barriers, synchronized traffic signals and noise awareness programmers. iii. Delhi s Metro rail routes / network is such that it passes through highly commercial hubs / high density population, installing noise barriers at critical junctions is important as MRTS services are likely to increase in the future as this mass transport system is popular with commuters. Noise management (EEA 1995) The goal of noise management is to maintain low noise exposures, such that human health is protected, hence need to develop criteria for safe noise exposure levels, and to promote noise assessment and control as part of environmental health programmes. Table Noise Management Measures ( EEA 1995) LEGAL MEASURES Control of noise transmission Noise mapping and zoning around roads, airports Control on noise immissions Speed limits Minimum requirements for acoustical properties of buildings Emission reduction by source modification New engine technology Transmission reduction Orientation of buildings Examples Regulations on sound-obstructive measures Initiation of monitoring and modeling programmes The sound pressure level from traffic can be predicted from the traffic flow rate, the speed of the vehicles, the proportion of heavy vehicles, and the nature of the road surface. Limits for exposure levels such as national immision standard; nose monitoring and modeling; regulations for complex noise situations; regulations for recreational noise Residential areas; hospitals Construction codes for sound insulation of building parts ENGINEERING MEASURES Tyre profiles; low-noise road surfaces changes in engine properties Road vehicles; aircraft; construction machines Enclosures around machinery; noise screens Design and structuring of tranquil uses; using buildings for 149

162 LEGAL MEASURES Traffic management Passive protection Implementation of landuse planning Raising public awareness Monitoring and modeling of soundscapes Sufficient number of noise experts Initiation of research and development Initiation of behavior changes Examples screening purposes Speed limits; guidance of traffic flow by electronic means Ear plugs; ear muffs; insulation of dwellings; façade design Minimum distance between industrial, busy roads and residential areas; location of tranquility areas; by pass roads for heavy traffic; separating out incompatible functions EDUCATION & INFORMATION Informing the public on the health impacts of noise, enforcement action taken, noise levels, complaints National and local urban bodies dealing with transportation to promote the dissemination of information, to establish uniform methods of noise measurement and impact assessment, and to participate in the development and implementation of educational and public awareness programmes besides to include noise pollution in school curricula. Publication of results University or high school curricula Funding of information generation according to scientific research needs Speed reduction when driving ; use of horns; use of loudspeakers for advertisements Precautionary measures (OECD 1991 & OECD-ECMT 1995) a) Sound insulation in building code - With careful planning, noise exposure can be avoided or reduced. A sufficient distance between residential areas and an airport will make noise exposure minimal, although the realization of such a situation is not always possible. Additional insulation of houses can help to reduce noise exposure from railroad and road traffic. For new buildings, standards or building codes should describe the positions of houses, as well as the ground plans of houses with respect to noise sources. The required sound insulation of the facades should also be described. Various countries have set standards for the maximum sound pressure levels in front of buildings and for the minimum sound insulation values required for facades. b) Land use planning : The limits should be based on annoyance responses to noise. The construction of noise-sensitive buildings in noisy areas, or the construction of noisy building in quiet areas may thus be avoided. Examples of this approach can be found in OECD 1991 (also see OECD-ECMT 1995). More emphasis needs to be given to the design or retrofit of urban centres, with noise management as a priority (e.g. soundscapes ), some tools are : i. Noise level limits for various zones and building types. ii. Noise maps or noise inventories that show the existing noise situation. 150

163 Recommendations - protect population from adverse health impacts of noise 1) For a vast country like India adopting vehicle noise levels at source is a major challenge, presently MoRTH has directed that vehicle manufacturers will have to give details about emission and noise levels of each vehicle they produce from April 1, Synchronising logistics and infrastructure ( uniform road types) w.r.t. tyre noise and noise levels from in-use vehicles will take time. Different terrains offer varying wear & tear levels. 2) Speed reduction and low-noise road surfaces are regional noise abatement measures 3) The optimal strategy would consist of a mix of regional and installation of noise barriers at hotspots 4) Projects addressing short term goals need to be evaluated closely as frequently they can be scaled up as long term implementation strategy 5) Cost-effectiveness need to be assessed in implementing action plans which are short-term ( 6 9 months) and long-term ( 12 to 15 months) goals for reducing traffic noise levels. 6) Integrated approach to abate vehicle noise is generally advocated which combines with landuse vehicle noise limits with effective traffic management, speed limits, improved road surfaces, better tyres, and adapted driver behaviour. Guidelines for weighting noise as an environmental impact during the decision-making process are set out in European directives 85/337/EEC and 97/11/EC. Table : Guideline values for community noise in specific environments (WHO) Specific environment Critical health effect(s) L Aeq Time base [db(a)] [hours] L Aeq Outdoor living area Serious annoyance, daytime and evening Moderate annoyance, daytime and evening Industrial, commercial shopping and traffic areas, indoors and outdoors Hearing impairment Ceremonies, festivals and Hearing impairment entertainment events (patrons:<5times/year) Public addresses, indoors and outdoors Hearing impairment Music and other sounds through Hearing impairment 85# headphones/ earphones (free-field value) 151

164 TRAFFIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT (TIA) The goal of a traffic impact assessment is to determine potential impacts of traffic changes caused by large proposed developments on city level transportation infrastructure i.e. capacity of roads and transit systems, and to identify any infrastructure and transit improvements or mitigation measures needed to ensure that transport networks will operate acceptably and safely upon completion of the proposed development. Comprehensive policy about Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) should be prepared, TIAs also assist in abating noise based on landuse features. Promotion of noise assessment & control as part of environmental health programmes - Utilisation of EPC funds. Proposals on traffic noise surveys may prepared depending on the regional landuse features on the following areas utilizing funds deposited towards Environment Protection Charges (EPC): a) Investigating complaints for assessing the number of persons exposed to traffic noise levels. b) Monitoring compliance of regulations / restrictions. c) environmental impact assessment w.r.t. land use plans d) Assessment / performance study of noise remedial / mitigation measures e) Calibration and validation of predictions. f) Trend analyses of noise levels g) Noise mapping / modeling Table Proposed Timetable for creation of noise maps and action plans Urban Agglomeration / Population Proposed Area / Source to be mapped Strategic noise maps by > One million plus population < One million plus population 9 to 12 month each Major roads Based on Vehicle density 6 to 9 month each Major airports As per AAI / DGCA ranking of airports 9 to 12 month each Action plans by Hon ble Supreme Court passed direction on to permit registration of diesel cars/suvs of 2000 cc capacity and above upon deposit of 1% of the Ex-show room price towards Environment Protection Charge (EPC), the EPC amount to be deposited in account to be opened by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in a Scheduled public sector bank. In compliance of Hon ble Court s directions Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has opened a separate bank account for depositing Environment Protection Charge (EPC). The proposed 152

165 thrust areas for project proposals for utilisation of EPC funds is mainly on projects addressing reduction of pollution from the transport sector. Noise is an air pollutant generated significantly from vehicles hence an opportunity to undertake noise surveys ( monitoring and modelling) to highlight hot spots in a city Ref. 1. WHO Guidelines on Community Noise 2. Castle Group (10710) UK : 3. Traffic noise reduction in Europe (Ref DELFT ), Health effects, social costs and technical and policy options to reduce road and rail traffic noise, August 2007Publication code: * * * 153

166 ANNEXURES Abatement of ambient noise levels from other sources Ambient noise an environmental quality parameter National Environment Policy (NEP) was approved by the Union Cabinet on 18 th May, 2006 a. Regarding, Noise pollution the NEP mentions : Persistent exposure to elevated noise levels has been established to result in significant adverse health impacts. At the same time, it needs to be understood that certain environments in which people choose to live and work necessarily involve a certain level of noise. b. NEP also suggests that abatement of noise pollution to be also considered in urban planning as follows : Include ambient noise as among the environmental quality parameters to be routinely monitored in specified urban areas. Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000 The Noise Pollution (Regulation And Control) Rules, 2000 were published in the Gazette of India, vide S.O. 123(E), dated and subsequently amended vide S.O. 1046(E), dated , S.O. 1088(E), dated , S.O (E), dated and S.O. 50 (E) dated under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.) The Rules were last amended in January 2010 to reduce noise levels at night (by restricting the use of horns, sound emitting construction equipments and bursting of fire crackers). Definition of day time and night time Under Rule 2 (j) under Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 (j) night time means the period between p.m. and 6.00 a.m. Under SCHEDULE of Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000, (see rule 3(1) and 4(1)) Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of Noise day time means period between 6.00 a.m. to p.m. 154

167 Ambient Air Quality Standards w.r.t. NOISE The increasing ambient noise levels in public places from various sources, inter-alia, industrial activity, construction activity, fire crackers, sound producing instruments, generator sets, loud speakers, public address systems, music systems, vehicular horns and other mechanical devices have deleterious effects on human health and the psychological well being of the people. It is considered necessary to regulate and control noise producing and generating sources with the objective of maintaining the ambient air quality standards in respect of noise. The ambient air quality standards in respect of noise for different areas / zones is specified in the Schedule (see rule 3(1) and 4(1)) annexed to the Noise Pollution (Regulation And Control) Rules, Table : Ambient Air Quality Standards w.r.t. NOISE Area code Zones Day Time db(a) Leq A Industrial B Commercial C Residential D Silence Night Time db(a) Leq 1) Day time : 6.00 a.m. to p.m. (16 hours) 2) Night time p.m. to 6.00 a.m. (8 hours) Restrictions in SILENCE area zones Rule 5A under Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 highlights ban on the use of horns, sound emitting construction equipments and bursting of fire crackers in silence zone areas. Rule 6 under Noise (Regulation & Control) Rules 2000 following activities in Typical wedding bands at night time in Delhi silence area zones that are punishable : i. whoever, plays any music or uses any sound amplifiers, ii. whoever, beats a drum or tom-tom or blows a horn either musical or pressure, or trumpet or beats or sounds any instrument, or iii. whoever, exhibits any mimetic, musical or other performances of a nature to attract crowds. iv. whoever, bursts sound emitting fire crackers; or v. whoever, uses a loud speaker or a public address system. Restrictions in residential areas Rule 5A under Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 highlights restrictions in residential areas at night time - No horn shall be used and sound emitting construction equipment. 155

168 Restrictions on the use of loud speakers / public address system and sound producing instruments Under Rule 5 of the Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 : 1) A loud speaker or a public address system shall not be used except after obtaining written 2) permission from the authority. 3) A loud speaker or a public Use of loudspeakers are generally misused address system or any sound producing instrument or a musical instrument or a sound amplifier shall not be used at night time except in closed premises for communication within, like auditoria, conference rooms, community halls, banquet halls or during a public emergency. 4) Notwithstanding any thing contained in sub-rule (2), the State Government may subject to such terms and conditions as are necessary to reduce noise pollution, permit use of loud speakers or public address system and the like during night hours (between p.m. to midnight) on or during any cultural or religious festive occasion of a limited duration not exceeding fifteen days in all during a calendar year. The concerned State Government shall generally specify in advance, the number and particulars of the days on which such exemption would be operative. 5) The noise level at the boundary of the public place, where loudspeaker or public address system or any other noise source is being used shall not exceed 10 db (A) above the ambient noise standards for the area or 75 db (A) whi chever is lower; 6) The peripheral noise level of a privately owned sound system or a sound producing instrument shall not, at the boundary of the private place, exceed by more than 5 db (A) the ambient noise standards specified for the area in which it is used. Restrictions on the use of horns, sound emitting construction equipment and bursting of fire crackers Under Rule 5A of the Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 : (1) No HORN shall be used in silence zones or during night time in residential areas except during a public emergency. (2) Sound emitting FIRECRACKERS shall not be burst in silence zone or during night time. (3) Sound emitting CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT shall not be used or operated during night time in residential areas and silence zones. 156

169 National noise monitoring network Recognizing NOISE as a serious environmental concern CPCB launched the National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network Programme in March The criteria for selection of cities was population viz. cities with million plus population. The cities presently covered are Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai (includes Navi Mumbai and Thane), Chennai, Bangalore, Lucknow and Hyderabad. Currently 10 noise monitoring locations per city. The network was expanded in two phases. The total network strength is 70 stations as on 31 st March Phase I / II / Zones Cities Table : National noise monitoring network ( CPCB ) Silence Commercial Residential Industrial I II I II I II I II Delhi Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Thane Lucknow Hyderabad Bangalore Chennai Kolkata Total ( 70 stations) Protocol for Ambient Noise Monitoring Noise Monitoring System (NMS) consist of a weatherproof cabinet containing a noise level analyzer and a battery, a communication device for LED display panel of CPCB s noise monitoring network transmitting data to receiving station, a back plate and an outdoor microphone (for measuring sound) all being mounted on a mast with IP-67 protection. The outdoor microphone complies with IEC Class 1 requirement. High quality microphone is connected to an advanced acquisition signal processing unit, an electronic measurement and processeddata storage unit & an integrated GPRS modem - it allows the 157

170 connection of one outdoor microphone Model 41CN. The Noise Processor 2000NP receives and digitizes, the output signal generated by the microphone, performing A and C weighting. The system computes acoustic parameters A and C weighting (Fast and Slow). Data from noise monitoring stations is directly transferred to main server (Central Receiving Station) through GPRS modem. CPCB has developed a Protocol for Ambient Level Noise Monitoring which covers various sources of noise including vehicular noise, while fixing the criteria for undertaking noise monitoring. Further, all predominant noise sources will be noted, which may include extraneous noise such as road traffic, aero planes and other activity. ( Noise related issues : Noise from Construction equipment Moving towards less dependency on manual interventions and more focus on safety, quality, efficiency improvement, meeting timelines have boosted the role of construction equipment in infrastructure development. The earth moving and construction equipment industry is dependant on the pace of infrastructure development (railways, airports, roads, water supply etc ) of the country / city. In India, the rapid pace of urbanization had led to development of new construction activities and re-redevelopment of existing areas which necessitates demolition of old buildings with more energy efficient buildings. During construction / demolition works heavy machineries are deployed and these equipment produce high noise levels. Besides construction / demolition activities equipment deployed in road works ( road widening / repair ) also generate noise. Construction activities slowly moving away from manual interventions Most of the complaints pertain to noise caused during operation of the these equipment at construction / work sites. Salient noise abatement measures under Rule 5A of the Noise (Regulation & Control ) Rules 2000 : on Restrictions on the use of sound emitting construction equipment states that subrule(3) Sound emitting CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT shall not be used or operated during night time in residential areas and silence zones. 158

171 Table : A general survey of construction equipment generating noise Stationary equipment Stationary equipment that are deployed generate noise from one area and they includes items such as pumps, generators, compressors, etc. These equipment operate at a constant noise level under normal operation and are classified as non-impact equipment. Other types of stationary equipment employed such as pile drivers, jackhammers, pavement breakers, blasting operations, etc., produce variable and sporadic noise levels and often produce impact-type noises. Impact equipment generates impulsive noise i.e. of short duration (generally less than one second), high intensity Mobile equipment Mobile equipment such as dozers, scrapers, graders, etc., may operate in a cyclic fashion in which a period of full power is followed by a period of reduced power. Other equipment such as compressors, although generally considered to be stationary when operating, can be readily relocated to another location for the next operation. Noise related issues Metro rail Installation of noise barriers at critical areas on the routes of metro rail have been done especially in busy residential / commercial areas., particularly for the metro trains running on elevated corridors this measure assists in controlling noise induced due to wheel rail interaction. It may be noted that the routes of metro rail (MRTS) were selected based on serving maximum commuters / passengers so that the use of private vehicles on city roads be reduced. Noise related issues : Airport noise levels Earlier airports were located further away from cities, however over the years due to urban sprawl the population around airports have begun to increase rapidly. This has led to frequent complaints from local population regarding noise levels due to aircraft movement. Demand for transportation is growing as cities are developing as nodes / hubs for commercial activities (high potential for employment generation) besides roadways and railways, the civil aviation industry is also growing at a fast pace. The main areas of noise generation in airport zones are from airport activities : Aircraft noise (during takeoff and landing) Ground level : noise mainly from Reverse thrust 159

172 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) Aircraft ground run-ups After reviewing prevailing international norms in busy airports DGCA notified interim airport noise limits vide Aviation Environment Circular (No.1 of 2011 dated 14 th July, 2011) the interim noise limits for IGI Airport Delhi as follows : Day Time (0600 Hrs to 2200 Hrs) 105 db(a), Lmax Night Time (2200 Hrs to 0600 Hrs) 95 db(a), Lmax The initiatives taken by civil aviation for abatement of aircraft noise include adopting the noise reduction at source itself, optimized flights paths and procedures such as continuous descent approach, land-use planning and operating. Noise related issues : GENSET operations 1. Irrespective of the genset fuel, gensets generate noise during operation. 2. In certain areas it has been observed that several gensets operating simultaneously in close proximity generate annoying noise levels (besides emissions) when there is a power failure, such instances are observed mainly in commercial areas (ex markets ) and shopping areas. 3. Noise limits of Diesel Generator (DGs) sets in manufacturing stage (new) are done by six authorised testing institutions that undertake 'type approval' (TA) and for verification of conformity of production' (CoP) for DG noise norms under Environment (Protection ) Rules 1986, the institutions are : i. The Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI), Pune (Maharashtra); ii. The International Centre for Automotive Technology (I-CAT), Manesar (Haryana); iii. The Fluid Control Research Institute (FCRI), Palghat (Kerala); iv. The National Test House, Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh); v. The National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL), Bangalore (Karnataka); and vi. The Naval Science and Technology Laboratoy, Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh). CPCB is the Nodal body for processing applications for compliance of noise levels at manufacturing stage : a. Under GSR 535 E dated 7 th August 2013 : Compliance of noise limits of generators driven by petrol & kerosene Genset with an acoustic hood 160

173 b. Under GSR 371 dated : Compliance of noise limits of generators driven by, diesel c. Under GSR 281 dated 7 th March 2015 : Compliance of noise limits of dedicated CNG & LPG, bi-fuel petrol & LPG / CNG, dual fuel diesel & CNG / LPG 4. NGT matter regarding Guidelines for installation of IN -USE DGs This pertains to matters - Market Welfare Association Vs. District Magistrate &Ors. and Fashion Market Welfare Association Vs. District Magistrate, SAS Nagar Mohali &Ors. Sadhu Singh &Ors. Vs. The Chief Administrator &Ors. The following are the Guidelines for installation of IN -USE DGs proposed by CPCB: i. Installation of DG Sets may be permitted keeping taking into consideration the ambience of the locality. ii. Installation of a DG sets may be limited to a specified area and be governed by concerned local authority / State Government iii. The Authority for ensuring compliance of norms shall be defined by the concerned State Government. iv. Acoustic treatment as per provisions be provided to the D G Set. Phasing out old Generator sets : In the matter of phasing out old generator sets, the useful life of DG sets may be fixed at 15 years from the effective date of utilisation as per Guidelines prescribed by CPCB. As per GSR 371 (E ) dated 17th May 2002 and its amendments, sale of Generator sets without acoustic enclosure or with specification other than that declared at the time of Type Approval with the Certification Agency is not permitted with effect from Gensets driven by LPG or CNG compatible with Petrol or Diesel fuel or affixed with such fuel tank is considered as Genset operating with Petrol or Diesel fuel as the case may be and the manufacturer should have valid Type Approval certificate before selling them. Genset buyers are also advised to ask for Type Approval Certificate from the dealer while purchasing any Generator set, which can be verified from CPCB website also. Noncompliance of the provision of the above said notification is punishable under The Environment (Protection) Act For further information visit : Noise abatement measures - Building design and sound proofing The main means for noise control in buildings include careful site investigations, adequate building designs and building codes, effective means for addressing occupant complaints and symptoms, and building diagnostic procedures. Buildings should be designed to be soundproof, to improve control over indoor noise. Soundproofing requires that outside noise be prevented from entering the building, and this should be estimated as part of the architectural and engineering design process. When soundproofing for outdoor noise, the total indoor noise load and the desired quality of the indoor space should be considered. Adequate soundproofing 161

174 against outdoor noise is important in residential as well as commercial properties, and should be re-evaluated when interior spaces are rebuilt or renovated. (Ref. WHO Guidelines on Community Noise). At-source measures that reduce overall emissions are preferable to noise exposure measures reducing imissions at the local level, like insulation of houses or construction of noise barriers (EC, 2004; KPMG, 2005). In view of acoustic comfort, there has been considerable research, particularly in Europe, for better sound insulation criteria. Hence several countries in Europe have adopted classification schemes for better acoustic comfort which have higher criteria than the legal requirements intended to provide the acoustic comfort. In India the Panel for Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control, CED 46:P20, constituted by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is responsible for amendments and revisions in National Building Codes of India. The National Building Codes of India recommend the sound insulation, clear-cut guidelines for sound regulation which shall be helpful in reducing the R&D costs for the building industry in India for development of suitable products or systems with desired noise level reductions. Noise related issues : bursting FIRECRACKERS Concerns were raised by Hon ble Supreme Court and it observed the following: The unpredictable, intermittent and impulsive noise produced by bursting of crackers all around is a major urban nuisance as people are unable to sleep due to this excessive noise pollution. On direction of Hon ble Court, Petroleum & Explosives Safety Transport (road & metro rail) generate noisebuildings need to adopt acoustic measures Some SOUND emitting firecrackers (patakas) 162

175 Organization (PESO) identified four types of SOUND emitting firecrackers viz. atom bomb, chinese crackers, maroons and garland firecrackers In compliance of Hon ble Supreme Court s restrictions on bursting fire-crackers: 1. Under Rule 5A. under Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000 are : provides for Restrictions on the bursting of fire crackers:- sound emitting fire crackers shall not be burst in silence zone or during night time. Night time means the period between p.m. and 6.00 a.m. 2. Regarding noise levels from sound emitting firecrackers in manufacturing stage the following have been done : a. Development of Noise Standards for Firecrackers in manufacturing stage given under Schedule I (SL # 89 ) of Environment (Protection) Rules 1986 b. Under Explosive Rules 2008, noise limits have also been stipulated they are similar to Schedule I (Sl. # 89 ) of Environment (Protection) Rules 1986 c. Framing Procedure for testing noise firecrackers for compliance of noise standards 4. Spreading awareness LED screens Data of CPCB s real time noise monitoring network is displayed on LED screens for public awareness 5. Spreading awareness reports Reports on the data of CPCB s real time noise monitoring network are displayed in CPCB s website for public awareness 6. Spreading awareness print media For dissemination of information on the hazards of noise from firecrackers, CPCB displays advertisements in several newspapers ( English, regional languages) before Diwali festival. Petroleum Explosives & Safety Organisation (PESO) releases advertisements for public awareness regarding pollution caused due to bursting of firecrackers. Besides the above CPCB has been monitoring (manual SLMs) monitors noise levels during Deepawali (Diwali) period for over a decade i.e. prior to installation of real time noise monitoring network International Noise Awareness Day (INAD) International Noise Awareness Day (INAD) ( is a global campaign, founded in 1996 by the Center of Hearing and Communication (CHC), aiming to raise awareness of noise on the welfare and health of people. Noise affects people in many ways, but only deafness and annoyance receive actual interest from the general public. Worldwide, People are 163

176 called upon to take part via various actions on this occasion: open days on hearing from acousticians, lectures in public health departments, universities and schools, panels of experts, noise level measuring actions, and readings. The day is commemorated on the last Wednesday of April of every year. It is organized in several countries all over the world. CSIR National Physical Laboratory (NPL) Delhi conducts noise awareness day every year for students and adults in its campus. * * * 164

177

178 Changing faces of country s capital s public transport service Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) Ref. HT Jan 9, 2017

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