# a) Understand the conditions for lighting a light bulb by connecting it to batteries with wires to make it illuminate.

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1 This area deals with simple electric circuits and electromagnets. In this area, students learn about electricity for the first time and build an electromagnet and a simple circuit to compare the brightness of a light bulb. This area helps students learn how a light bulb in an electric circuit illuminates, understand currents by comparing the brightness of a light bulb according to the way the bulb is connected to the circuit. Students also learn how to conserve electricity and use it safely.

2 The grade 6 English science unit, The Effects of Electricity, meets the academic content standards set in the Korean curriculum, which state students should: a) Understand the conditions for lighting a light bulb by connecting it to batteries with wires to make it illuminate. b) Compare brightness according to the manner of connecting the bulb to the circuit. c) Learn how to safely and efficiently use electricity and put the learning into practice. d) Make an electromagnet using wires through which a current is flowing.

3 What do I need to do? You will need an LED, a CR2302 battery, electrical tape, small strong magnets, a whiteboard marker, and a whiteboard. 1. Try to work out how to make the LED shine. 2. Once the LED works, tape the metal LED legs in place. 3. Bonus: Put a very strong magnet on either side of the battery. Tape them on. Create a little target on a whiteboard and have a scoring competition. All things are made up of atoms. Moving quickly around the atom are negatively charged particles called electrons. Some materials, like metals, allow these electrons to move between different atoms. As these electrons move, an electric current is made. It can be said that electricity is moving electrons. For electrons to move around, a power source is needed. This is why we use batteries. If you connect wires to the positive and negative side of the battery, electrons are able to flow through the wires. LED stands for light-emitting-diode. It is the electrons changing energy levels in it that allow it to shine. An atom with electrons moving around it. Electricity is a form of energy that can be changed into different forms of energy, such as light and heat. 1. How did you get the LED to shine? 2. Why did you need to use a battery?

4 What do I need to do? You will need 4 alligator clip wires, a switch, a light, a D battery, and a variety of objects made from different materials. 1. Construct the circuit pictured above. 2. Attach different materials between the two open ended alligator clips. 3. Push down on the switch and see if the light shines. Use your observations to complete the chart. Objects that allowed the light to turn on Objects that couldn t turn the light on A material that allows an electric current to flow through it is called a conductor. Metals are a great conductor of electricity. Most electrical wires are made from copper. A material that does not allow an electric current to flow through it is called an insulator. Plastic is a good insulator. Many electrical wires are covered with plastic. Conductor (metal) Insulator (plastic) 1. What does it mean if a material is a conductor? Give an example. 2. What does it mean if a material is an insulator? Give an example.

5 What do I need to do? You will need 4 alligator clip wires, a light, 2 D batteries, and metal wire. 1. Make an open circuit like the example above. It should be similar to the shock games that can be bought from the shops. 2. Start at one end of the wire and try to get the hook to the other side without touching anything. 3. If you touch the wire, your turn is over. The next person attempts to complete the game. An electrical circuit is a continuous loop of conductors that is connected to a power source. If the circuit is all connected properly and there are no breaks, it is called a closed circuit. An electric current can move through a closed circuit. If there is a gap in the circuit or something in it is broken, it is called an open circuit. An electric current cannot move through an open circuit, so it will not work. The idea of open and closed circuits is what makes the Electric Shock games fun. If your hook touches the wire, it makes a closed circuit and you will hear a noise or see a light flash. If you can get to the end without touching anything, you have kept an open circuit. Some of these games can give you a little zap, but most just make a noise when you touch the wires. 1. What is an open circuit? 2. Why did the electric shock game make a noise or have the light turn on?

6 What do I need to do? You will need a balloon, a can, paper, scissors, a straw, a container with a rounded lid, and a pencil. 1. Blow up the balloon and rub it on your hair. Put a can on its side. Put the balloon near the can and observe what happens. 2. Draw some little people on paper and cut them out. Put them on the table. Rub the balloon on your hair and hold it close to the paper people. 3. Balance the pencil on the rounded lid of the container. Rub the straw on your hair. Hold the straw near the pencil and observe what happens. All matter is made up of tiny things called atoms. In the middle of the atom is the nucleus. Around the nucleus are protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons have a positive charge. The electrons have a negative charge and they move quickly around the nucleus. If you rub some things that are insulators, electrons can move from one thing to another. This means that sometimes a substance will have more electrons and will be negatively charged. Other times, a substance that loses electrons will be positively charged. This is called static electricity. Something that has a negative charge will attract something that has a positive charge. Sometimes when you touch something that has a charge, you will feel a zap as electrons move between you and the thing that you touched. 1. How can things get a static electricity charge? The negatively charged balloon is attracted to the positively charged sweater. 2. Why did the can roll towards the balloon?

7 What do I need to do? You will need paper, aluminum tape, two LED s, a CR2302 battery, scissors, and pencils. 1. Copy the above diagram by putting the aluminum tape in a way that allows the electricity to travel down one path through two LED s. 2. Copy the above diagram by putting the aluminum tape in way that allows the electricity to travel down two different paths through the LED s. 3. If time permits, make an original design that uses the LED s as the eyes for an animal or some other idea. Describe what happened or draw a picture to show what happened. Aluminum tape allows electricity to flow through it. This is known as a conductor. The paper doesn t allow electricity to move through it. This is known as an insulator. When electricity can only travel through one path, this is known as a series circuit. The two LED s have to share the power from the battery. If one LED stops working, the other LED won t work either, because the path is broken. When electricity can travel through two or more paths, this is known as a parallel circuit. The two LED s each get the full power from the battery, so they can both shine brightly. Even if one LED stops working, the other LED will keep shining because there is still another path for the electricity to go through. The lights in your home are connected in parallel circuits. 1. In which circuit did both LED s shine brightest? Why? 2. If one LED in the parallel circuit stopped working, would the other still work? Explain.

8 What do I need to do? You will need 6 alligator clip wires, 2 lights, 2 D batteries, 2 switches, and a motor. a) b) c) d) 1. Look at the circuit diagrams and try to make the circuits. Scientists draw circuit diagrams to show different electrical parts as simple pictures. It makes understanding how to make electrical circuits easier. When the wires are drawn, they need to be straight lines. The symbols to the right show some of the more common symbols. A bulb or light can be drawn using two different symbols. They can either be a circle with an X in the middle or a circle with a little mound in the middle. 1. Why do scientists use circuit symbols? 2. Draw some original circuits below using the circuit symbols above. Can you make them?

9 What do I need to do? You will need an Electronic Snaps Circuit Kit. 1. Find circuits that use resistors in them. 2. Construct the circuits that you like. 3. Explain how the circuit works. Resistors are parts in electric circuits that help to limit the flow of electricity. This is to stop wasting energy where it is not needed. Some circuit parts, like LED s, only need a small amount of electric current to flow through it to work. If too much current flows through it, the LED will break. Other electrical parts will also break if the current flowing through them is too high. A radio, for example, can contain 50 resistors. These resistors limit the current when needed so that all the other parts in the radio can work properly. The circuit parts used in a radio. 1. What would happen to circuit parts that have too much electricity flowing through them? 2. Why are resistors used in electrical appliances?

10 What do I need to do? You will need an Electronic Snap Circuit Kit, a cup, water, colored pencils/markers, and poster paper. 1. Construct project #70 (Quiet Water Alarm) from the Electronic Snap Circuits Kit. 2. Fill up a cup with water and put the two jumper leads in. Observe what happens. 3. Brainstorm some safety ideas. Create a poster that warns people about the dangers of using electricity. Electricity is a very useful energy source, but it is also very dangerous. It is important to know about basic safety concepts when using electricity. Your body is a good conductor of electricity, so serious injuries or even death can occur if electricity is used incorrectly. Using electrical appliances around water can cause fires, explosions or electrocutions. Putting too many appliances in the same outlet can cause fires. Putting metal objects in the outlet or electrical appliance could electrocute you. Covering electrical cords with rugs can start fires. Flying a kite near power lines can also lead to electrocution. 1. Why is it dangerous to use an electrical appliance near water? 2. What is another thing you should be careful of when using electricity?

11 What do I need to do? You will need a variety of magnets, corkboard, pins, paper, a bowl, water, a matchbox, a straw, toothpicks, pet bottle caps, and tape. 1. Use two bar magnets. See how they interact with each other and other things around the classroom. 2. Design and create a boat that can move around a bowl of water using magnets. 3. Design and create a matchbox car that can move around using magnets. Magnetism is an invisible force that attracts or repels some metals. A magnet attracts things that are made from iron and steel. For example, a magnet will attract paperclips. There is a force that pulls them towards the magnet. The magnet doesn t have to touch the paperclips for them to feel this pulling force. A magnet has a north and a south pole. If you bring the north pole of one magnet near the south pole of another magnet, the magnets are attracted to each other and will join together. If you bring a south pole of one magnet to the south pole of another magnet, or a north pole of one magnet to the north pole of another magnet, the magnets will repel each other and try to move apart. 1. What is magnetism? 2. Opposites attract. What does this statement mean in terms of magnets?

12 What do I need to do? You will need a large nail, insulated wire, 2 D batteries, and paperclips. 1. Wrap the wire around the nail according to the number of wraps stated in the chart below. 2. Connect the batteries to the ends of the wire. 3. Try to pick up as many paperclips as you can for all the different number of wraps. Complete the chart. Draw a picture of your electromagnet. Number of wraps Paperclips picked up As electric current flows through a wire, it makes a magnetic field around it. This is known as electromagnetism. The magnetic field can be made stronger if the wire is wrapped around in a coil. The coils acts like a magnet. Electromagnets are used in many ways. They are used in switches and bells. Powerful electromagnets are also used to lift heavy metal objects. When the electric current is turned off, the electromagnet stops working. An electric bell uses an electromagnet. 1. Which number of wire wraps picked up the most paperclips? Why? 2. How are electromagnets used in our everyday life?

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