Ballard Power Systems

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1 Ballard Power Systems Ballard Power Systems Fuel Cells Current Status and Prospects for the Future David Musil, P. Eng. Project Engineer, Advanced Automotive Development March 30, 2006

2 Outline 1. Background on Ballard Power Systems a. Brief History b. Technical Progress to Date 2. Current Status and Benefits a. Benefits of Fleet Programs to Fuel Cell Development b. Remaining Challenges 3. Future Development a. Ballard s Next Generation Fuel Cell Stack b. Future Development of Fuel Cells c. Path to Commercialization 4. Conclusions 2 March 30, 2006

3 Outline 1. Background on Ballard Power Systems a. Brief History b. Technical Progress to Date 2. Current Status and Benefits a. Benefits of Fleet Programs to Fuel Cell Development b. Remaining Challenges 3. Future Development a. Ballard s Next Generation Fuel Cell Stack b. Future Development of Fuel Cells c. Path to Commercialization 4. Conclusions 3 March 30, 2006

4 History of Ballard Power Systems Founded in 1979 under the name Ballard Research Inc. to conduct research and development in high-energy lithium batteries. In 1983, Ballard began developing proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Proof-of-concept fuel cells followed beginning in From 1992 to 1994, sub-scale and full-scale prototype systems were developed to demonstrate the technology. To date, Ballard has supplied fuel cells for over 130 fuel cell vehicles in 24 cities worldwide, including the CUTE, STEP, China, and California fleet bus programs, and Daimler Chrysler, Ford, and Honda automotive fleets. Ballard also builds fuel cells for non-automotive and stationary applications. 4 March 30, 2006

5 Ballard s Fuel Cell Progress Power Density [W/L] of Ballard's Fuel Cell Products Power Density [W/L] Mk 7 Mk 8 Mk 901 Mk Mk Time [Years] 5 March 30, 2006

6 Mk902 LD and HD Stacks Based on Light Duty (LD) automotive stack architecture Cell active area and terminal voltage sized for automotive application. Modular design designed for ease of repair. MK902 Light Duty (LD) Mk 902 LD Mk 902 HD 4 cell row 6 cell row 440 Cell 960 Cell 85kW/300A 150kW/240A MK902 Heavy Duty (HD) 6 March 30, 2006

7 Outline 1. Background on Ballard Power Systems a. Brief History b. Technical Progress to Date 2. Current Status and Benefits a. Benefits of Fleet Programs to Fuel Cell Development b. Remaining Challenges 3. Future Development a. Ballard s Next Generation Fuel Cell Stack b. Future Development of Fuel Cells c. Path to Commercialization 4. Conclusions 7 March 30, 2006

8 Fuel Cell Vehicle Design Cycle Research and Development Specifications Development 2-3 years 3 years Job 1 Fuel Cell Vehicle Design Iteration Concept Development <CR Phase> 1 year 1-2 years Design Verification <DV Phase> 1 year Implementation Readiness <IR Phase> 8 March 30, 2006

9 Bus Cell Row Lifetime Status (Data to end of 2005) CR Operational CR Failed Mid-Life Failures ( Hours) Long Life Failures (2000+ Hours) Early Life Failures Number of CR's ( Hours) Cell Row Operating Hours (Hrs) 9 March 30, 2006

10 Number of Bus Failure Modes (Mk 902 Data to end of Dec 2005) Number of Active Failure Modes Sep-02 Require Further Investigation Resolution Planned Failure Mode Resolved Supplier Defects, Manufacturing Issues, Stack/System Interface Issues, and Random Failures of Relatively High Frequency Dec-02 Mar-03 Jun-03 Bus Stack Module Failure Mode Resolution Progress Sep-03 Dec-03 Mar-04 Jun-04 Time Random Failures of Relatively Low Frequency, Wearout, Robustness, and Materials Development/Durability Sep-04 Dec-04 Mar-05 Jun-05 Sep-05 Dec March 30, 2006

11 Mk902 Failure Modes Principle failure mechanisms of the Mk902 Leaks Chemical attack of membrane Contaminants in plates Fatigue Performance Loss Corrosion Catalyst damage Low Cells Random failure modes leading to localized damage (usually repairable) 11 March 30, 2006

12 Benefits of Fleet Programs to Fuel Cell Development Generation of real-world data not available from labs. Large data set helps identify and eliminate short, medium, and long-life failure modes. World-wide exposure of fleets enables fuel cells to operate in numerous driving and environmental conditions. This leads to improved fuel cell designs and more realistic driving simulations in the laboratories. Development of support industry and training of maintenance and support workers. 12 March 30, 2006

13 Benefits of Fleet Programs to Fuel Cell Development Fleet programs provide validation of environmental regulation implementation schedules. Data gathered from fleet vehicles allows for advances and changes in codes and standards for safety and certification (ex. Hydrogen emission standards - SAE J2578). Operating conditions, specifications, and test methods can be applied to other automotive and non-automotive fuel cell applications. 13 March 30, 2006

14 Mk902 Remaining Challenges Desirable features lacking in Mk902 High temperature operation High temperature enables smaller fuel cells, lower cost, smaller radiator Low catalyst loading and high power density Principle material cost drivers Low relative humidity Complicated reactant gas humidification system drives cost and volume Freezable Mk902 series is not freezable. Requires additional support equipment to permit outside storage. 14 March 30, 2006

15 Outline 1. Background on Ballard Power Systems a. Brief History b. Technical Progress to Date 2. Current Status and Benefits a. Benefits of Fleet Programs to Fuel Cell Development b. Remaining Challenges 3. Future Development a. Ballard s Next Generation Fuel Cell Stack b. Future Development of Fuel Cells c. Path to Commercialization 4. Conclusions 15 March 30, 2006

16 Next Generation Improvements 1. Power Density Improvements Improved catalysts Lower cell pitch Higher cell performance 2. Improved Durability Membrane improvements Catalyst improvements Seal material improvements 3. Freeze start capability 4. Higher temperature operation 5. Lower relative humidity operation 6. Lower cost Higher cell performance requires less material Lower cost materials 16 March 30, 2006

17 Technology Roadmap Ballard will demonstrate commercially viable automotive technology by 2010 INCREASING POWER DENSITY INCREASING DURABILITY IMPROVING FREEZE START REDUCING COST in one fuel cell design Based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Requirements. Ballard publishes the technology updates yearly. Forms the basis of must meet requirements internally. Roadmap requirements are cascaded to component and stack roadmaps, and the technology routemap. 17 March 30, 2006

18 Stack Power Density 18 March 30, 2006

19 Durability 19 March 30, 2006

20 Freeze Start 20 March 30, 2006

21 Cost 21 March 30, 2006

22 Fuel Cell Vehicle Adoption Today s of vehicles Customer demonstration programs 50% plus powered by Ballard CARB target: 2,500 fuel cell vehicles Controlled central fleet demonstrations CARB target: 25,000 fuel cell vehicles Initial limited production More fueling stations PROVING THE TECHNOLOGY ON THE ROAD DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY FOR LIMITED COMMERCIAL INTRODUCTION MANUFACTURING FOR COMMERCIAL INTRODUCTION 22 March 30, 2006

23 FCV Commercialization Scenarios 1,500 1,250 1,000 Units (000s) Potential FCV Market Adoption Curves (Based on Hybrid Experience) Optimistic Baseline Pessimistic Variable 2: FCV Adoption Rates Optimistic: 250k in 6yrs; 500k in 6yrs Baseline: 250k in 6yrs; 500k in 7yrs Pessimistic: 250k in 6yrs; 500k in 9yrs Pre-Commercial Activities Variable 1: Commercial Launch Date Optimistic: 2012 Baseline: 2013 Pessimistic: 2015 Note: Based on Hybrid experience Source: Office for the Study of Automotive Transportation (UMTRI), JD Power, Monitor Analysis 23 March 30, 2006

24 Outline 1. Background on Ballard Power Systems a. Brief History b. Technical Progress to Date 2. Current Status and Benefits a. Benefits of Fleet Programs to Fuel Cell Development b. Remaining Challenges 3. Future Development a. Ballard s Next Generation Fuel Cell Stack b. Future Development of Fuel Cells c. Path to Commercialization 4. Conclusions 24 March 30, 2006

25 Concluding Remarks 1. Background on Ballard Power Systems Ballard has been developing PEM fuel cells since Ballard fuel cells have made huge gains in power density since Current Status and Benefits Fleet programs generate data that enables learning which can be applied to future fuel cell designs. The current design shows many advances, but is not optimal. 3. Future Development Ballard's next generation fuel cell has progressive technology improvements aligned with long term targets established by governments and industry. Achieving the long term targets will demonstrate a commercially viable automotive fuel cell design in March 30, 2006

26 Concluding Remarks 1. Background on Ballard Power Systems Ballard has been developing PEM fuel cells since Ballard fuel cells have made huge gains in power density since Current Status and Benefits Fleet programs generate data that enables learning which can be applied to future fuel cell designs. The current design shows many advances, but is not optimal. 3. Future Development Ballard's next generation fuel cell has progressive technology improvements aligned with long term targets established by governments and industry. Achieving the long term targets will demonstrate a commercially viable automotive fuel cell design in March 30, 2006

27 Concluding Remarks 1. Background on Ballard Power Systems Ballard has been developing PEM fuel cells since Ballard fuel cells have made huge gains in power density since Current Status and Benefits Fleet programs generate data that enables learning which can be applied to future fuel cell designs. The current design shows many advances, but is not optimal. 3. Future Development Ballard's next generation fuel cell has progressive technology improvements aligned with long term targets established by governments and industry. Achieving the long term targets will demonstrate a commercially viable automotive fuel cell design in March 30, 2006

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