DESIGN OF COMPACT PERMANENTMAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS WITH CONCENTRATED WINDINGS

 Leonard Lamb
 3 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 DESIGN OF COMPACT PERMANENTMAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS WITH CONCENTRATED WINDINGS CSABA DEAK, ANDREAS BINDER Key words: Synchronous motor, Permanent magnet, Concentrated winding. The design and comparison of three permanent magnet motors for a constant power of 45 kw at rot/min rated speed, and rot/min maximum speed, with concentrated windings and different kinds of water jacket cooled stator and PM rotor is presented. Motor A and motor B have surface mounted magnets and equal tooth widths with coils wound on each tooth, but different number of stator slots, while motor C has buried magnets and unequal tooth widths and coils wound on each second tooth. The simulation results show that motor A has the smallest current rating and the highest power factor but has the biggest cogging torque and torque ripple at load. Motor B produces the smoothest torque and smallest cogging torque but also the highest total losses. Motor C yields the lowest total losses and has the better thermal behavior but has the lowest power factor and the highest current rating. 1. INTRODUCTION Modern variable speed drives demand compact electrical motors with high power and torque density, which produce at the same time small losses. As an alternative for the squirrel cage asynchronous motor, which is used nowadays in the middle power range, three inverterfed permanent magnet motors were designed with help of finite element program FEMAG for a constant power of 45 kw and 230 V phase voltage at rot/min rated speed and rot/min maximum speed. In order to increase the torque density and to reduce the losses, the so called modular synchronous machine with concentrated tooth coil windings is applied due to the short winding overhangs, which lead to reduced copper losses and reduced axial length [1 3]. The three models were designed with identical number of poles (2p = 24), stator inner and outer diameter and active length (Table 2). Differences are in the stator and rotor geometries. Motor A and B have surface mounted magnets and equal tooth widths with coils wound on each tooth, while motor C has buried Darmstadt University of Technology / Department of Electrical Energy Conversion, Darmstadt, Germany, "Csaba Deak" Rev. Roum. Sci. Techn. Électrotechn. et Énerg., 52, 2, p , Bucarest, 2007
2 184 Csaba Deak, Andreas Binder 2 magnets and unequal tooth widths with coils wound on alternate teeth. The basic design for the motors is described and the calculated steady state electromagnetic performance as well as the thermal behavior is evaluated, showing that motor A has the smallest current rating and the highest power factor but has the biggest torque ripple. Motor B produces the smoothest torque but also the highest total losses, while motor C has the best thermal utilization and the lowest total losses, but has the lowest power factor due to the higher current rating. 2. BASIC DESIGN 2.1. MOTOR GEOMETRY Three different stator and two different rotor designs were considered and optimised in order to determine the better solution for the power & torque demand (45kW/430 Nm at 1000 rot/min 45kW/143 Nm at rot/min) and the thermal demands of Thermal Class F (limit of average winding temperature 145 C). The geometries and the winding configurations are presented in Fig. 1, where U, V and W are the three phases, while + and are the wounding directions of the coils. The identical stator outer diameter, active iron length and the shaft diameter allow the application of an identical water jacket cooling system as well as identical end shields, bearings, shafts, position sensors and motor mounting, simplifying thus a lot the manufacturing process of the prototypes. The identical stator inner diameter and the identical pole number give the advantage, that the two rotors can be eventually interchanged in order to test the behaviour of the different statorrotor combinations. a c b Fig. 1 Geometry and winding configurations: a) motor A; b) motor B; c) motor C.
3 3 Permanent magnet synchronous motors with concentrated windings STATOR DESIGN Motor A has 24 semiclosed slots with constant tooth width and coils wound on each tooth (Fig. 1a) resulting in eight coils per each phase, all connected in parallel [1]. Round copper wire is used for the windings. The number of slots per pole and phase is q = 0.5 which means a ratio of 2/3 between the coil width and the pole pitch and thus a rather low pitching factor k p of for the fundamental. The distribution factor k d is unity due to the toothwound coils and multiplied with the pitching factor it gives the winding factor k w [2]. The deep and narrow slots produce a big slot stray flux, leading to a rather low power factor, but are necessary in order to compensate the low winding factor with a high current loading A, thus an increased number of turns per phase (Table 1). Motor B has 18 semiclosed slots with constant tooth width and coils wound on each tooth (Fig. 1b) resulting in six coils per phase. The number of slot per pole and phase is q = 3/8 which means a ratio of 8/9 between the coil width and the pole pitch and thus a big winding factor k w of for the fundamental. This configuration produces two subharmonics of the air gap field at load, which results in a higher harmonic leakage causing a lower power factor. Due to the winding arrangement, three coils have to be connected in serial and then connected in parallel with the other three coils. In this case each phase conductor consists of 5 internal wires (strand in hands). The big disadvantage is the occurrence of additional copper losses due to the 1 st order current displacement. This effect is totally eliminated in motor A due to the fact that all coils are connected in parallel and thus the phase conductors consist of only one wire per turn. Motor C (Fig. 1c) has 24 open slots and unequal tooth widths [1]. The alternate teeth have parallel sides to carry prefabricated coils. The appropriate width of the intermediate teeth allows increasing the coil pitch so that a ratio close to unity between coil width and pole pitch and thus a high winding factor can be obtained [1, 2]. This is 0.98 for the fundamental (Table 1). Each slot holds one coil side of one phase, which means that the number of slot per pole and phase is q = The resulting four coils per phase are connected in parallel, so no 1 st order current displacement occurs. Profiled copper wire is used for the windings, thus an increased slot fill factor of 59% is achieved. The deep and narrow slots together with the big sub harmonic air gap field at load, which will occur at a q = 0.25 configuration, cause a low power factor, but give a good field weakening capability [2].
4 186 Csaba Deak, Andreas Binder 4 Table 1 Winding parameters Motor A B C Number of turns per coil Number of parallel connections Number of strand in hands Number of turns per phase Connection of phases Y Y Y Wire diameter/dimensions (mm) Slot fill factor Winding factor (of fundamental) Resistance per phase (at 145 C) (mω) ROTOR DESIGN High energy NdFeB permanent magnets are used with a remanence of B R = 1.1 T (150 C) and a coercive field strength of H cb = 712 ka/m. The rotors of motor A and motor B are identical with magnets mounted on the rotor surface and fixed with a bandage (Fig. 1a, b). In order to reduce the cogging torque and the torque ripple at load, the pole coverage of the magnets was reduced to 77% of the pole pitch [1]. In order to reduce the losses in the magnets due to air gap field space harmonics, segmented magnet poles are considered (Table 2). Motor C is designed with buried magnets, so no bandage is necessary (Fig. 1c). The iron contour above the magnets allows an optimisation of the air gap geometry by an appropriate modelling of the rotor surface and thus a nearly sinusoidal rotor field is obtained [1], if slot opening influence is neglected. The variable air gap has a minimum of δ 0 = 0.5 mm in the pole axis (Table 2). 3. ELECTROMAGNETIC PERFORMANCE 3.1. NOLOAD OPERATION The open circuit air gap flux density and the cogging torque are determined by 2D numerical calculation at noload. From the noload field distribution (Fig. 2) it can be seen, that the intermediate teeth of motor C have a flux concentration at the stator bore due to their small width at the wedges. This means that this small area is saturated already at noload. The flux density distribution in the air gap (Fig. 3) for four pole pitches shows that motor A and motor B have a mainly trapezoidal air gap flux density. The influence of the small interpole gaps as well as of the semiclosed slot openings is clearly visible, as well as the influence of segmentation of the surface magnets. The slot openings produce the biggest
5 5 Permanent magnet synchronous motors with concentrated windings 187 distortion of the radial air gap flux density distribution, considered in the middle of the air gap. Due to the open slots, thus bigger slot openings and the unequally distributed slots, this effect is much bigger for motor C causing a high harmonic content of the air gap field even if the rotor surface optimisation yields a nearly sinusoidal rotor field [1]. * teeth with coils Table 2 Motor dimensions Motor A B C Stator outer diameter (mm) Stator bore diameter (mm) Active length (mm) Stator yoke height (mm) Number of stator slots Stator tooth width (mm) * Stator slot opening (mm) Air gap (mm) (=δ 0 ) Bandage (mm) Number of poles Magnets / pole Magnet height (mm) Magnet width (mm) Pole coverage ratio α m (%) Rotor yoke height (mm) Shaft diameter (mm) The gaps between the magnet segments of one pole do not have an influence on the air gap field as it was the case with motor A and motor B, because of the smooth rotor iron surface. The cogging torque of a motor depends on the ratio between the number of slots and poles, the stator/rotor geometry and also on the pole coverage of the magnets. Here unskewed stator and rotor are considered. The influence of the pole coverage on the cogging torque and on the torque ripple at load at rated current and field oriented control (I sd = 0) was examined in [1] for motor A for a pole coverage varying between 55% and 100%, resulting in a minimum ripple at 77 % pole coverage. The cogging torque of motor A is reduced by 40% compared to 100% pole coverage ratio and is 5.3% of the rated torque. With the same pole coverage, Motor B has a much smaller cogging torque of 0.7% of rated torque while motor C produces a cogging torque of 1.9% of the rated torque (Fig. 4).
6 188 Csaba Deak, Andreas Binder 6 a b c Fig. 2 Calculated noload field distribution: a) motor A; b) motor B; c) motor C.
7 7 Permanent magnet synchronous motors with concentrated windings 189 a b c Fig. 3 Calculated radial component of air gap flux density distribution at noload: a) motor A; b) motor B; c) motor C.
8 190 Csaba Deak, Andreas Binder 8 Cogging torque [N m] Rotor position Fig. 4 Cogging torque at α m = 77% LOAD OPERATION The three motors are designed for power converter operation with a fundamental r.m.s. phase voltage of 230 V. They have to generate a steadystate torque of 430 Nm at rot/min rated speed and 143 Nm at maximum speed of rot/min. This requires a high current loading A, which leads to a rather big synchronous reactance and a low power factor at field oriented control, where only qcomponent current I sq is applied. In order to determine the necessary currents at rated and maximum speed for given torque, the current I s and angle γ (angle between qaxis and I s ) are varied until the demanded torque and the maximum phase voltage is reached. The power factor can be improved if also a negative d component current I sd is supplied to the windings (Fig. 5). This will shift the current phasor I s towards the voltage phasor U s. At constant phase current I s, I sq is reduced due to I sq =I s I sd and thus U s is shifted towards the qaxis, reducing the angle ϕ between phase current and voltage. By increasing γ, U s will be reduced due to the increased I sd while the power factor cosϕ will increase [1]. Varying γ between 0 and 35 el, the torque will increase at the beginning, and then it decreases again. The reason for this behaviour is the reluctance torque, which is prominent, when also dcomponent current is applied. The voltage decreases with increasing γ and reaches the value 230 V at 16 el for motor A, 20 el for motor B and 18 el for motor C, respectively. At these angles the torque still has
9 9 Permanent magnet synchronous motors with concentrated windings 191 the requested value and the power factor is increased by 0.1 compared to operation with γ = 0 el. The results of the simulated steady state electromagnetic performance are presented in Table 3 for rated speed and Table 4 for maximum speed respectively. a b c Fig. 5 Phasor diagrams at rated speed: a) motor A; b) motor B; c) motor C. Table 3 Electromagnetic performance at rated speed Motor A B C Speed (rot/min) Phase voltage (V) Frequency (Hz) Phase current (A) Angle γ ( el) Power factor Torque (Nm) Torque ripple (of rated torque) Current loading (A/cm) Current density (A/mm 2 ) Thermal load A J (A/cm A/mm 2 ) Ohmic losses (at 145 C) (W)* Iron losses in stator (W)* *Calculated for sinusoidal voltage and current supply.
10 192 Csaba Deak, Andreas Binder 10 Table 4 Electromagnetic performance at maximum speed Motor A B C Speed (rot/min) Phase voltage (V) Frequency (Hz) Phase current (A) Angle γ ( el) Power factor Torque (Nm) Torque ripple (% of rated torque) Current loading (A/cm) Current density (A/mm 2 ) Thermal load A J (A/cm A/mm 2 ) Ohmic losses (at 145 C) (W)* Iron losses in stator (W)* *Calculated for sinusoidal voltage and current supply. Analysing the torque ripple at rated speed (Fig. 6) results, that motor B has the smoothest torque with the smallest ripple, while motor A and motor C produce similar torque ripple amplitudes. Additional losses, which occur in the windings due to 1 st and 2 nd order current displacement and in the magnets due to flux pulsation are calculated at sinusoidal and voltage source inverter supply. A PWM operation with 3 khz inverter pulse frequency was simulated (Table 5). Fig. 6 Torque ripple at rated speed.
11 11 Permanent magnet synchronous motors with concentrated windings 193 Table 5 Additional losses in windings and in magnets [W] Motor A Motor B Motor C Speed (rot/min) Supply Sinus Winding Magnets Supply Inverter Winding Magnets COMPARISON OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC PERFORMANCES Comparing the designed motors A, B and C, based on noload and load calculations, we can see that motor A has the smallest current rating and the highest power factor at rated speed but has the biggest thermal load due to I 2 R losses as well as the biggest cogging torque and torque ripple at load. Motor B produces the smoothest torque at all investigated operating points but has also the highest total losses due to increased additional eddy current losses especially at high frequencies. This is a major setback for the thermal behaviour. Regarding the current rating and the power factor, motor B stands between motor A and C. Compared to motor A, motor C produces smaller cogging torque and torque ripple but needs a 20% higher current at rated speed. Nevertheless due to the 30% smaller phase resistance it generates smaller ohmic losses and has a lower thermal load at both points of operation. The bigger slot openings cause a bigger harmonic distortion of the air gap field, even if the rotor field is almost sinusoidal due to the rotor outer contour optimisation, so that the power factor of motor C is the lowest at rated speed. The currents at maximum speed of motor B and motor C for 143 Nm are almost the same as the current of motor A due to the higher synchronous reactance, which allows a better field weakening ability. The fractional slot configuration leads to increased losses in the magnets especially at higher speed which could cause an overheating of the magnets. In the considered cases the lowest magnet losses occur for motor C at both rated and maximum speed while in motor B the surface mounted magnets and the bigger slot openings due to lower slot number than motor A shows the highest losses in the magnets. 4. THERMAL ANALYSIS An identical waterjacket cooling system at 45 C is designed for all three motors with a circumferential spiral cooling duct with 14 turns and with a heat
12 194 Csaba Deak, Andreas Binder 12 transfer coefficient of α K = W/m 2 K, which corresponds to 9 l/s water flow rate and 1.66 m/s water velocity [1]. A 2D thermal calculation was performed with help of finite element program ANSYS to verify the thermal behaviour of the motors, first without any resin impregnation in the slots. Due to the symmetrical heat distribution, only two magnet poles are simulated for motor A and motor C and four magnet poles for motor B with the corresponding stator segments. Due to the smaller slot fill factor (lower heat transfer) and bigger copper losses, motor A would excessively heat up without resin impregnation with a maximum temperature of above 200 C in the windings while motor C would reach a maximum temperature of above 300 C which is more than the temperature limit of the isolation. To avoid this, the coils are embedded in resin. For simulation, a heat conduction average value of resin and air of W/mK has been used. In this way the maximum temperature is reduced to 144 C (Fig. 7a) and 203 C respectively (Fig. 7b). The heat transfer of motor C is the best due to the high slot fill factor and so the temperature does not exceed 110 C (Fig. 7c) at rated and maximum speed (Table 6). a c b Fig. 7 Temperature distribution at rated speed: a) motor A; b) motor B; c) motor C.
13 13 Permanent magnet synchronous motors with concentrated windings 195 Table 6 Calculated winding temperatures Motor A Motor B Motor C Speed (rot/min) ϑ Hotspot ( C) (max. 155 C) ϑ average ( C) (max. 145 C) Speed (1/min) ϑ Hotspot ( C) (max. 155 C) ϑ average ( C) (max. 145 C) Motor B on the other hand exceeds the temperature limit at both rated and maximum speed due to the additional 1 st order losses caused by current displacement. 5. CONCLUSIONS Three permanent magnet motors were designed with concentrated tooth coil windings for a constant power of 45 kw and 230 V phase voltage at rot/min rated speed and rot/min maximum speed. Due to the high electromagnetic utilisation and the fractional slot winding design, the power factor of these models ranges only between , but it is improved by 0.1 with help of negative d current supplied to the windings. The models are designed with identical number of poles, stator inner and outer diameter and active length. Motor A and motor B have surface mounted rotor magnets and equal tooth widths with coils wound on each tooth, while motor C has buried magnets and unequal tooth widths with coils wound on alternate teeth. The calculated electromagnetic performance at noload and load operation shows, that motor C has a better thermal utilisation, smaller cogging torque and torque ripple at load, yields lower total losses at rated speed due to the smaller phase resistance but has a smaller power factor and 20% higher current rating than motor A. Motor B produces the smallest torque ripples but also the highest total losses due to increased additional eddy current losses which lead to high temperatures in the windings at high speed, exceeding the thermal limits of the insulation. Motor A and motor C are currently built as prototypes (Figs. 8, 9).
14 196 Csaba Deak, Andreas Binder 14 a Fig. 8 Built prototype stators (under construction): a) motor A; b) motor C. b a b Fig. 9 Built prototype rotors (under construction): a) motor A; b) motor C.
15 15 Permanent magnet synchronous motors with concentrated windings 197 The two motors will be tested in order to verify and evaluate the calculation results. Then the two rotors will be interchanged and the new statorrotor combinations will be tested also. Received on 16 July 2006 REFERENCES 1. C. Deak, A. Binder, Highly utilised permanent magnet synchronous machines with toothwound coils for industrial applications, Proc. Electromotion 05, Lausanne, Switzerland, Sept. 2005, CDROM. 2. T. Koch, A. Binder, Permanent magnet machines with fractional slot winding for electric traction, Proc. ICEM 02, Brugge, Belgium, Aug. 2002, CDROM. 3. D. Ishak, Z. Q. Zhu, D. Howe, Permanentmagnet brushless machine with unequal tooth widths and similar slot and pole numbers, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 41, 2, March/April 2005, pp
Permanent Magnet Machines for Distributed Generation: A Review
Permanent Magnet Machines for Distributed Generation: A Review Paper Number: 07GM0593 Authors: TzeFun Chan, EE Department, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China Loi Lei Lai, School of
More informationChapter 2 PRINCIPLES OF AFPM MACHINES. 2.1 Magnetic circuits Singlesided machines Doublesided machines with internal PM disc rotor
Chapter 2 PRINCIPLES OF AFPM MACHINES In this chapter the basic principles of the AFPM machine are explained in details. Considerable attention is given to the magnetic circuits, windings, torque production,
More informationAsynchronous slipring motor synchronized with permanent magnets
ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING VOL. 66(1), pp. 199206 (2017) DOI 10.1515/aee20170015 Asynchronous slipring motor synchronized with permanent magnets TADEUSZ GLINKA, JAKUB BERNATT Institute of Electrical
More informationUniversity of L Aquila. Permanent Magnetassisted Synchronous Reluctance Motors for Electric Vehicle applications
University of L Aquila Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics Permanent Magnetassisted Synchronous Reluctance Motors for Electric Vehicle applications A. Ometto, F. Parasiliti,
More informationAspects of Permanent Magnet Machine Design
Aspects of Permanent Magnet Machine Design Christine Ross February 7, 2011 Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics Outline Permanent Magnet (PM) Machine Fundamentals Motivation and
More informationWITH the requirements of reducing emissions and
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 51, NO. 3, MARCH 2015 8201805 Investigation and Design of a HighPower FluxSwitching Permanent Magnet Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Wei Hua, Gan Zhang, and
More informationIron loss and eddycurrent loss analysis in a lowpower BLDC motor with magnet segmentation *
ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING VOL. 61(1), pp. 3346 (2012) DOI 10.2478/v1017101200035 Iron loss and eddycurrent loss analysis in a lowpower BLDC motor with magnet segmentation * ADRIAN MŁOT 1,
More informationIron loss and eddycurrent loss analysis in a lowpower BLDC motor with magnet segmentation *
ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING VOL. 61(1), pp. 3346 (2012) DOI 10.2478/v1017101200035 Iron loss and eddycurrent loss analysis in a lowpower BLDC motor with magnet segmentation * ADRIAN MŁOT 1,
More informationConcentrated Winding Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor with Plastic Bonded Magnets and Sintered Segmented Magnets
Proceedings of the 28 International Conference on Electrical Machines Paper ID 1113 Concentrated Winding Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor with Plastic Bonded Magnets and Sintered Segmented Magnets Hanne
More informationINTRODUCTION Principle
DC Generators INTRODUCTION A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by using the principle of magnetic induction. Principle Whenever a conductor is moved within a
More informationDesign Analysis of a Dual Rotor Permanent Magnet Machine driven Electric Vehicle
Design Analysis of a Dual Rotor Permanent Magnet Machine driven Electric Vehicle Mohd Izzat Bin Zainuddin 1, Aravind CV 1,* 1 School of Engineering, Taylor s University, Malaysia Abstract. Electric bike
More informationInvestigation & Analysis of Three Phase Induction Motor Using Finite Element Method for Power Quality Improvement
International Journal of Electronic and Electrical Engineering. ISSN 09742174 Volume 7, Number 9 (2014), pp. 901908 International Research Publication House http://www.irphouse.com Investigation & Analysis
More informationInvestigation of the Cooling and ThermalMeasuring System of a CompoundStructure PermanentMagnet Synchronous Machine
Energies 2014, 7, 13931426; doi:10.3390/en7031393 Article OPEN ACCESS energies ISSN 19961073 www.mdpi.com/journal/energies Investigation of the Cooling and ThermalMeasuring System of a CompoundStructure
More informationDesign of disk type PM synchronous generator based on halbach
Design of disk type PM synchronous generator based on halbach Chuan ZHANG 1, Shu Qin LIU 1,a 1 School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Ji nan 250061, Shandong Province, China; Abstract.
More informationSINGLEPHASE LINE START PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH SKEWED STATOR*
Vol. 1(36), No. 2, 2016 POWER ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES DOI: 10.5277/PED160212 SINGLEPHASE LINE START PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH SKEWED STATOR* MACIEJ GWOŹDZIEWICZ, JAN ZAWILAK Wrocław University
More informationSIMULINK Based Model for Determination of Different Design Parameters of a Three Phase Delta Connected Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSRJEEE) eissn: 22781676,pISSN: 23203331, Volume 7, Issue 4 (Sep.  Oct. 2013), PP 2532 SIMULINK Based Model for Determination of Different
More informationComparison of different 600 kw designs of a new permanent magnet generator for wind power applications
Comparison of different 600 kw designs of a new permanent magnet generator for wind power applications E. Peeters, Vito, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium, eefje.peeters@vito.be, tel +32 14 33 59 23, fax
More informationAxial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines
Jacek F. Gieras RongJie Wang Maarten J. Kamper Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines Second Edition Springer Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Scope 1 1.2 Features 1 1.3 Development of AFPM Machines
More informationPrototype of an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator for Wind Energy Systems Applications
Prototype of an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator for Wind Energy Systems Applications A. P. Ferreira 1, A. M. Silva 2, A. F. Costa 2 1 School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of
More informationMagnet Skew in Cogging Torque Minimization of Axial Gap Permanent Magnet Motors
Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical Machines Paper ID 11 Magnet Skew in Cogging Torque Minimization of Axial Gap Permanent Magnet Motors M. Aydin maydin@ieee.org Dept. of Mechatronics
More informationSoft Magnetic Composite Core A New Perspective For Small AC Motors Design
Soft Magnetic Composite Core A New Perspective For Small AC Motors Design L. Petkovska and G. Cvetkovski Ss. Cyril and Methodius University Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies
More informationGreen energy conversion
Green energy conversion Prof. Dr.Ing. habil. Andreas Binder Department of Electrical Energy Conversion Darmstadt University of Technology abinder@ew.tudarmstadt.de Prof. A. Binder 1.1/1 Contents of lecture
More information10. Starting Method for Induction Motors
10. Starting Method for Induction Motors A 3phase induction motor is theoretically self starting. The stator of an induction motor consists of 3phase windings, which when connected to a 3phase supply
More informationAE105 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING JUNE 2014
Q.2 a. Explain in detail eddy current losses in a magnetic material. Explain the factors on which it depends. How it can be reduced? IETE 1 b. A magnetic circuit with a single air gap is shown in given
More informationDERATING OF THREEPHASE SQUIRRELCAGE INDUCTION MOTOR UNDER BROKEN BARS FAULT UDC : Jawad Faiz, Amir Masoud Takbash
FACTA UNIVERSITATIS Series: Automatic Control and Robotics Vol. 12, N o 3, 2013, pp. 147156 DERATING OF THREEPHASE SQUIRRELCAGE INDUCTION MOTOR UNDER BROKEN BARS FAULT UDC 621.313.33:621.316.1.017 Jawad
More informationDoubly fed electric machine
Doubly fed electric machine Doubly fed electric machines are electric motors or electric generators that have windings on both stationary and rotating parts, where both windings transfer significant power
More informationCOMPARING SLOTTED vs. SLOTLESS BRUSHLESS DC MOTORS
COMPARING SLOTTED vs. SLOTLESS Authored By: Engineering Team Members Pittman Motors Slotless brushless DC motors represent a unique and compelling subset of motors within the larger category of brushless
More informationAutomotive Electric Drives An Overview
Automotive Electric Drives An Overview Dr. Dorin ILES R&D Laboratory for Electric Drives ebmpapstst. Georgen Dr. Dorin ILES (iles@ieee.org) FISITA 2008 September 1419, Munich, Germany Targets Overview
More informationDesign of DualMagnet Memory Machines
Design of DualMagnet Memory Machines Fuhua Li, K.T. Chau, and Chunhua Liu Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China Email: fhli@eee.hku.hk Abstract The
More informationElectrical Machines II. Week 56: Induction Motor Construction, theory of operation, rotating magnetic field and equivalent circuit
Electrical Machines II Week 56: Induction Motor Construction, theory of operation, rotating magnetic field and equivalent circuit Asynchronous (Induction) Motor: industrial construction Two types of induction
More informationLecture 20: Stator Control  Stator Voltage and Frequency Control
Lecture 20: Stator Control  Stator Voltage and Frequency Control Speed Control from Stator Side 1. V / f control or frequency control  Whenever three phase supply is given to three phase induction motor
More informationElbtalwerk GmbH. Universität Karlsruhe Elektrotechnisches Institut. Switched Reluctance Motor. Compact Hightorque Electric Motor. Current.
Elbtalwerk GmbH Switched Reluctance Motor Compact Hightorque Electric Motor Current B1 Winding A1 D4 C1 C4 Pole D1 Rotation B4 A2 Rotor tooth Shaft A4 B2 Field line D3 C2 C3 D2 Stator A3 B3 Cooling air
More informationDESIGN OF AXIAL FLUX BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR BASED ON 3D FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR UNMANNED ELECTRIC VEHICLE APPLICATIONS
DESIGN OF AXIAL FLUX BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR BASED ON 3D FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR UNMANNED ELECTRIC VEHICLE APPLICATIONS 1 H. SURYOATMOJO, R. MARDIYANTO, G. B. A. JANARDANA, M. ASHARI Department of Electrical
More informationSub:EE6604/DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES Unit V SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES. 2. What are the two type of poles used in salient pole machines?
SRI VIDYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF EEEE QUESTION BANK Sub:EE6604/DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES Unit V SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 1. Name the two types of synchronous machines. 1. Salient
More informationVIII. Threephase Induction Machines (Asynchronous Machines) Induction Machines
VIII. Threephase Induction Machines (Asynchronous Machines) Induction Machines 1 Introduction Threephase induction motors are the most common and frequently encountered machines in industry simple design,
More informationhofer powertrain GmbH
Berlin, 2.12.2009 Your Partner for energyefficient powertrain systems hofer powertrain GmbH A company of hofer AG 72644 Oberboihingen Nürtinger Strasse 78 EMail: info@hofer.de www.hofer.de www.hofer.de
More informationFachpraktikum Elektrische Maschinen. Theory of Induction Machines
Fachpraktikum Elektrische Maschinen Theory of Induction Machines Prepared by Arda Tüysüz January 2013 Fundamentals Induction machines (also known as asynchronous machines) are by far the most common type
More informationReluctance Motors Synchrel Design & Optimisation
Reluctance Motors Synchrel Design & Optimisation A Switched Reluctance Alternative Incorporating Novel Features The End Result 1 Existing Design Procedure Electromagnetic Design A Switched Reluctance solution
More informationAnalysis of Innovative Design Variations for DoubleSided CorelessStator AxialFlux PermanentMagnet Generators in MicroWind Power Applications
Analysis of Innovative Design Variations for DoubleSided CorelessStator AxialFlux PermanentMagnet Generators in MicroWind Power Applications M. Chirca, S. Breban, C.A. Oprea, M.M. Radulescu Abstract
More informationDesign Optimisation of MAGSPLIT  a Magnetic Power Split ecvt. P. Chmelicek, S.D. Calverley, R.E. Clark Magnomatics Limited
Design Optimisation of MAGSPLIT  a Magnetic Power Split ecvt P. Chmelicek, S.D. Calverley, R.E. Clark Magnomatics Limited Presentation Outline Intro Magnetic Gears principles Magnetically Geared Motors
More informationPrototyping of Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motors
Prototyping of Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motors Ferhat Daldaban and Emrah Çetin Faculty of Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Erciyes University, Turkey Contents; //CV //Axial
More informationJournal of Asian Scientific Research. DESIGN OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR FOR ELEVATOR APPLICATION T. Dinesh Kumar. A. Nagarajan
Journal of Asian Scientific Research journal homepage: http://aessweb.com/journaldetail.php?id=5003 DESIGN OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR FOR ELEVATOR APPLICATION T. Dinesh Kumar PG scholar, Department
More informationIMPACT OF SKIN EFFECT FOR THE DESIGN OF A SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR ON ITS STARTING PERFORMANCES
IMPACT OF SKIN EFFECT FOR THE DESIGN OF A SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR ON ITS STARTING PERFORMANCES Md. Shamimul Haque Choudhury* 1,2, Muhammad Athar Uddin 1,2, Md. Nazmul Hasan 1,2, M. Shafiul Alam 1,2
More informationANALYTICAL DESIGN OF AXIAL FLUX PMG FOR LOW SPEED DIRECT DRIVE WIND APPLICATIONS
ANALYTICAL DESIGN OF AXIAL FLUX PMG FOR LOW SPEED DIRECT DRIVE WIND APPLICATIONS K.Indirajith 1, Dr.R.Bharani Kumar 2 1 PG Scholar, 2 Professor, Department of EEE, Bannari Amman Institute of Technolog
More informationHighStrength Undiffused Brushless (HSUB) Machine
HighStrength Undiffused Brushless (HSUB) Machine John S. Hsu, SeongTaek Lee, and Leon Tolbert Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2360 Cherahala Boulevard Knoxville, Tennessee 37932, U.S.A. Abstract This paper
More informationPermanent Magnet Synchronous Motor. High Efficiency Industrial Motors
VoltPro is a new industrial motor range to meet high efficiency needs of industry by higher level of IE4 efficiency class. Main advantage of this product is cost effective solution ensured by using standard
More informationSynchronous Generators I. Spring 2013
Synchronous Generators I Spring 2013 Construction of synchronous machines In a synchronous generator, a DC current is applied to the rotor winding producing a rotor magnetic field. The rotor is then turned
More informationAvailable online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 129 (2015 ) International Conference on Industrial Engineering
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 129 (2015 ) 408 414 International Conference on Industrial Engineering The Comparative Analysis of Permanent Magnet Electric
More informationInverter control of low speed Linear Induction Motors
Inverter control of low speed Linear Induction Motors Stephen Colyer, Jeff Proverbs, Alan Foster Force Engineering Ltd, Old Station Close, Shepshed, UK Tel: +44(0)1509 506 025 Fax: +44(0)1509 505 433 email:
More informationMain Steam Isolation Valves (MSIV) in Nuclear Power Plants with PWR
Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIV) in Nuclear Power Plants with PWR FD2 1 E 02/2000 1 Introduction As isolating valve in the main steam line of nuclear power stations different designs are known. Beside
More informationDevelopment of r/min, 1.5 kw Permanent Magnet Motor for Automotive Supercharger
Development of 15 r/min, 1.5 kw Permanent Magnet Motor for Automotive Supercharger Toshihiko Noguchi *, IEEE Senior Member, and Masaru Kano * * Nagaoka University of Technology Address: 1631 Kamitomioka,
More informationQuietrunning family of products with the lowest torque pulsation
Press release Highly dynamic, 3phase internal rotor motor for industrial applications Quietrunning family of products with the lowest torque pulsation For industrial systems and devices, compact motors
More informationCOMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR EXCITATION OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Maszyny Elektryczne Zeszyty Problemowe Nr 3/2015 (107) 89 Stefan Schmuelling, Christian Kreischer TU Dortmund University, Chair of Energy Conversion Marek Gołȩbiowski Rzeszow University of Technology,
More information2 Principles of d.c. machines
2 Principles of d.c. machines D.C. machines are the electro mechanical energy converters which work from a d.c. source and generate mechanical power or convert mechanical power into a d.c. power. These
More informationSynchronous Generators I. EE 340 Spring 2011
Synchronous Generators I EE 340 Spring 2011 Construction of synchronous machines In a synchronous generator, a DC current is applied to the rotor winding producing a rotor magnetic field. The rotor is
More informationINDUCTION MOTOR. There is no physical electrical connection to the secondary winding, its current is induced
INDUCTION MOTOR INTRODUCTION An induction motor is an alternating current motor in which the primary winding on one member (usually the stator) is connected to the power source and a secondary winding
More informationDESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DOUBLESIDED AXIALFLUX PMSG WITH SLOTTED STATOR BY USING SIZING EQUATION AND FEA SOFTWARE
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DOUBLESIDED AXIALFLUX PMSG WITH SLOTTED STATOR BY USING SIZING EQUATION AND FEA SOFTWARE 1 SAINT SAINT SOE, YAN AUNG OO 1, Department of Electrical Power Engineering,
More informationInduction Motor Control
Induction Motor Control A much misunderstood yet vitally important facet of electrical engineering. The Induction Motor A very major consumer of electrical energy in industry today. The major source of
More informationECEg439:Electrical Machine II
ECEg439:Electrical Machine II 2.2 Main Structural Elements of DC Machine Construction of DC Machines A DC machine consists of two main parts 1. Stationary Part (Stator):It is designed mainly for producing
More informationDevelopment of a High Efficiency Induction Motor and the Estimation of Energy Conservation Effect
PAPER Development of a High Efficiency Induction Motor and the Estimation of Energy Conservation Effect Minoru KONDO Drive Systems Laboratory, Minoru MIYABE Formerly Drive Systems Laboratory, Vehicle Control
More informationAxial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines
Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines by JACEK F. GIERAS United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A. RONGJIE WANG University
More informationInternational Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 6, June ISSN
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 6, June2016 971 Speed control of SinglePhase induction motor Using Field Oriented Control Eng. Mohammad Zakaria Mohammad, A.Prof.Dr.
More informationEE6401 ELECTRICAL MACHINES I UNIT I: MAGNETIC CIRCUITS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS PART: A 1. Define EMF and MMF. 2. Name the main magnetic quantities with their symbols having the following units: Webers,
More informationTechnical Developments in the Measurement of Commutator Profiles. Carbone of America. WMEA Tucson AZ. Roy Douglas Technical Manager
Carbone of America Technical Developments in the Measurement of Commutator Profiles WMEA Tucson AZ. Roy Douglas Technical Manager Content 2 1. Tools and Methods of Measuring Commutator Profiles (9) 2.
More informationEE 742 Chap. 7: Wind Power Generation. Y. Baghzouz Fall 2011
EE 742 Chap. 7: Wind Power Generation Y. Baghzouz Fall 2011 Overview Environmental pressures have led many countries to set ambitious goals of renewable energy generation. Wind energy is the dominant renewable
More information3. What are the types of rotor in synchronous reluctance motor? Salient rotor Radially laminated rotor Axially laminated rotor.
EE 2403 SPECIAL ELECTRICAL MACHINES UNIT I SYNCHRONOUS RELUCTANCE MOTOR 1. What is a synchronous reluctance motor? It is the motor driven by reluctance torque which is produced due to tendency of the
More informationRealtime Simulation of Electric Motors
Realtime Simulation of Electric Motors SimuleD Developments in the electric drivetrain have the highest priority, but all the same proven development methods are not consequently applied. For example
More informationSTEEL CASING OVERHEATING ANALYSIS OF OPERATING POWER PIPETYPE CABLES
STEEL CASING OVERHEATING ANALYSIS OF OPERATING POWER PIPETYPE CABLES F. P. Dawalibi, J. Liu, S. Fortin, S. Tee, and Y. Yang Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd. 1544 Viel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
More informationDesign of Slotted and Slotless AFPM Synchronous Generators and their Performance Comparison Analysis by using FEA Method
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE) Vol. 5, No. 4, August 2015, pp. 810~820 ISSN: 20888708 810 Design of Slotted and Slotless AFM Synchronous Generators and their erformance
More informationDesign of a highspeed permanentmagnet brushless generator for microturbines
86 ELECTROMOTION (5) 869 Design of a highspeed permanentmagnet brushless generator for microturbines J.F. Gieras and U. Jonsson Abstract The design process of modern high speed permanent magnet (PM)
More informationDevelopment and Testing of a Low Cost High Performance Hybrid Vehicle Electric Motor
Development and Testing of a Low Cost High Performance Hybrid Vehicle Electric Motor Deepak Hari, Christian Brace, Christopher Vagg and Sam Akehurst (University of Bath) Lloyd Ash and Richard Strong (Ashwoods
More informationCFD Analysis of Oil Discharge Rate in Rotary Compressor
Purdue University Purdue epubs International Compressor Engineering Conference School of Mechanical Engineering CFD Analysis of Oil Discharge Rate in Rotary Compressor Liying Deng haitunsai@.com Shebing
More informationUniversity of New South Wales School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications ELEC ELECTRIC DRIVE SYSTEMS.
Aims of this course University of New South Wales School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications ELEC4613  ELECTRIC DRIVE SYSTEMS Course Outline The aim of this course is to equip students with
More informationEE6401 ELECTRICAL MACHINES I UNIT I: MAGNETIC CIRCUITS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS PART: A 1. Define EMF and MMF. 2. Name the main magnetic quantities
EE6401 ELECTRICAL MACHINES I UNIT I: MAGNETIC CIRCUITS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS PART: A 1. Define EMF and MMF. 2. Name the main magnetic quantities with their symbols having the following units: Webers,
More informationDevelopment of Electric Scooter Driven by Sensorless Motor Using DStateObserver
Page 48 Development of Electric Scooter Driven by Sensorless Motor Using DStateObserver Ichiro Aoshima 1, Masaaki Yoshikawa 1, Nobuhito Ohnuma 1, Shinji Shinnaka 2 Abstract This paper presents a newly
More informationInduction and PermanentMagnet Synchronous Machines for HighSpeed Applications
Induction and PermanentMagnet Synchronous Machines for HighSpeed Applications A. Arkkiol, T. Jokinen', E. Lantto2 'Laboratory of Electromechanics, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland 2High Speed
More informationDesign of Low Speed Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generators for Marine Current Application. Sanjida Moury. Supervised by Dr.
Design of Low Speed Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generators for Marine Current Application Sanjida Moury Supervised by Dr. Tariq Iqbal Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland
More informationModels: PMG A and PMG P
Models: PMG 3.0250A and PMG 2.0250P 1/6 AXCO AFPM2D generators Models: PMG 3.0250A and PMG 2.0250P Technical Data Sheet Permanent Magnet Generator for Distributed Wind Power Applications AXCOMotors
More informationNoise Lowering for a Large Variable Speed Range Use Permanent Magnet Motor by... 67
Noise Lowering for a Large Variable Speed Range Use Permanent Magnet Motor by... 67 JPE 1219 http://dx.doi.org/10.6113/jpe.2012.12.1.67 Noise Lowering for a Large Variable Speed Range Use Permanent Magnet
More informationPower Electronics & Drives [Simulink, HardwareOpen & Closed Loop]
Power Electronics & [Simulink, HardwareOpen & Closed Loop] Project code Project theme Application ISTPOW801 Estimation of Stator Resistance in Direct Torque Control Synchronous Motor ISTPOW802 OpenLoop
More informationTo study the constructional features of ammeter, voltmeter, wattmeter and energymeter.
Experiment o. 1 AME OF THE EXPERIMET To study the constructional features of ammeter, voltmeter, wattmeter and energymeter. OBJECTIVE 1. To be conversant with the constructional detail and working of common
More informationCHAPTER 7 INDUCTION MOTOR
CHAPTE 7 INDUCTION MOTO Summary: 1. Induction Motor Construction. Basic Induction Motor Concepts  The Development of Induced Torque in an Induction Motor.  The Concept of otor Slip.  The Electrical
More informationUNBALANCED MAGNETIC PULL AND AIRGAP MONITORING FOR LARGE HYDROGENERATORS
UMP  MONITORING UNBALANCED MAGNETIC PULL AND AIRGAP MONITORING FOR LARGE HYDROGENERATORS AN INNOVATIVE MEASUREMENT DEVICE FOR THE MONITORING OF STATOR AND ROTOR MAGNETIC CIRCUITS Dr. Mai Tuxuan, Prof.
More informationPermanentmagnet synchronous motors
Permanentmagnet synchronous motors Contents Product description 12/2 Overview of technical data 12/4 Motor selection data Series PE.. for Super Premium Efficiency IE4 1) 12/5 Series P, highpower motors
More informationSPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MACHINE USING MATLAB Maheshwari Prasad 1, Himmat singh 2, Hariom Sharma 3 1
SPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MACHINE USING MATLAB Maheshwari Prasad 1, Himmat singh 2, Hariom Sharma 3 1 Phd Scholar, Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakot University, Gwalior (M.P) 2,3 MITS, Gwalior, (M.P)
More informationA ROTOR CONSISTING OF TWO IRON CYLINDERS FOR SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS
Journal of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 58, NO. 2, 2007, 85 90 A ROTOR CONSISTING OF TWO IRON CYLINDERS FOR SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS Eyhab Elkharashi The shaft in a conventional switched reluctance
More informationNovel DualExcitation Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine
Novel DualExcitation Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine Akio Toba Fuji Electric Co. R &D, Ltd. Fujimachi 1, Hinocity Tokyo 1918502, JAPAN Thomas A. Lipo University of Wisconsin  Madison 1415 Engineering
More informationINTRODUCTION. I.1  Historical review.
INTRODUCTION. I.1  Historical review. The history of electrical motors goes back as far as 1820, when Hans Christian Oersted discovered the magnetic effect of an electric current. One year later, Michael
More informationStudy of a HighSpeed Motorization for Electric Vehicle based on PMSM, IM and VRSM
Study of a HighSpeed Motorization for Electric Vehicle based on PMSM, IM and VRSM D. Fodorean, D.C. Popa, P. Minciunescu, C. Irimia, L. Szabó Φ Abstract The paper presents the study of a high speed motorization
More informationCHAPTER 3 CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL FAULTS
22 CHAPTER 3 CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL FAULTS 3.1 INTRODUCTION A large number of asynchronous motors are used in industrial processes even in sensitive applications. Consequently, a defect can induce
More informationUCI224C  Winding 06. Technical Data Sheet APPROVED DOCUMENT
UCI224C  Winding 06 Technical Data Sheet UCI224C SPECIFICATIONS & OPTIONS STANDARDS Stamford industrial generators meet the requirements of BS EN 60034 and the relevant section of other international
More informationG Prasad 1, Venkateswara Reddy M 2, Dr. P V N Prasad 3, Dr. G Tulasi Ram Das 4
Speed control of Brushless DC motor with DSP controller using Matlab G Prasad 1, Venkateswara Reddy M 2, Dr. P V N Prasad 3, Dr. G Tulasi Ram Das 4 1 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
More informationAGN Unbalanced Loads
Application Guidance Notes: Technical Information from Cummins Generator Technologies AGN 017  Unbalanced Loads There will inevitably be some applications where a Generating Set is supplying power to
More information694 Electric Machines
694 Electric Machines 9.1 A 4pole woundrotor induction motor is used as a frequency changer. The stator is connected to a 50 Hz, 3phase supply. The load is connected to the rotor slip rings. What are
More informationHCI634J  Winding 311 and 312 APPROVED DOCUMENT. Technical Data Sheet
 Winding 311 and 312 Technical Data Sheet SPECIFICATIONS & OPTIONS STANDARDS Stamford industrial generators meet the requirements of BS EN 60034 and the relevant section of other international standards
More informationQuestion Number: 1. (a)
Session: Summer 2008 Page: 1of 8 Question Number: 1 (a) A single winding machine cannot generate starting torque. During starting the switch connects the starting winding via the capacitor. The capacitor
More informationModeling and Simulation of BLDC Motor using MATLAB/SIMULINK Environment
Modeling and Simulation of BLDC Motor using MATLAB/SIMULINK Environment SudhanshuMitra 1, R.SaidaNayak 2, Ravi Prakash 3 1 Electrical Engineering Department, Manit Bhopal, India 2 Electrical Engineering
More information34 th HandsOn Relay School
34 th HandsOn Relay School Generation Track Overview Lecture Generator Design, Connections, and Grounding 1 Generator Main Components Stator Core lamination Winding Rotor Shaft Poles Slip rings Stator
More informationUCI224F  Technical Data Sheet
UCI224F  Technical Data Sheet UCI224F SPECIFICATIONS & OPTIONS STANDARDS Newage Stamford industrial generators meet the requirements of BS EN 60034 and the relevant section of other international standards
More information10 MW Wind Turbine DirectDrive Generator Design with Pitch or Active Speed Stall Control
1 MW Wind Turbine DirectDrive Generator Design with Pitch or Active Speed Stall Control H. Polinder, D. Bang Electrical Power Processing / DUWIND Delft University of Technology Mekelweg, 68 CD Delft The
More information