AASHTO Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets

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1 AASHTO Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 Highlights and Major Changes Since the 1994 Edition Jim Mills, P.E. Roadway Design Office 605 Suwannee Street MS-32 Tallahassee, FL SC FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

2 Implementation FHWA Adoption NHS Highways March 14, 2002 States will have 1 year following FHWA Adoption to Begin Using (March 14, 2003) FDOT will use this time to review and make any necessary changes to FDOT Design Criteria and Update the PPM Florida Greenbook Update for 2004? FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

3 Implementation For Now on FDOT Projects PPM & 94 AASHTO In Effect Exceptions are to be based on 94 AASHTO until 2001 Edition is recognized in PPM 2001 Edition may be used as support when documenting, justifying Design Exceptions January 2003 PPM will incorporate 01 AASHTO FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

4 Development Developed by the AASHTO Task Force on Geometric Design, including representatives from: 18 State Departments of Transportation Federal Highway Administration American Public Works Association National Association of County Engineers National League of Cities Port Authority of NY and NJ FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

5 Format 8.5-in x 11-in pages with soft cover Sequence of chapters unchanged Chapter numbers are arabic rather than Roman numerals Figures and tables are uniformly called exhibits and are numbered sequentially in each chapter to reduce confusion in referencing FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

6 Units of Measurement Both metric and U.S. customary units are used In Text Metric first, followed by U.S. customary in square brackets: 80 km/h [50 mph] In Exhibits Separate exhibits for metric and U.S. customary units are presented where needed FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

7 Units of Measurement Metric values are those that would be used if the policy were entirely metric U.S. customary values are those that would be used if the policy were entirely U.S. customary Users should work entirely in one system of measurement or the other Do not attempt to convert values! FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

8 Research 2001 Green Book based on latest research projects, including: NCHRP 375 Median Intersection Design NCHRP 383 Intersection Sight Distance NCHRP 400 Stopping Sight Distance NCHRP 420 Access Management NCHRP 439 Superelevation and Transitions Highway Capacity Manual 2000 FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

9 Additional Research Also: NCHRP 240 Toll Plazas NCHRP 241 Truck Operating Characteristics NCHRP 264 Roundabouts Transportation Research Circular 430 FHWA-RD Older Driver Handbook FHWA-RD Roundabouts: An Informational Guide FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

10 Chapter 1 Highway Functions No major changes FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

11 Chapter 2 Design Controls and Criteria New design speed definition a selected speed used to determine the various geometric design features of the roadway. should be logical with respect to topography, anticipated operating speed, adjacent land use, and functional classification. Old design speed definition...maximum safe speed that can be maintained over a specific section of highway when conditions are so favorable that the design features of the highway govern. (Same wording used in Florida Greenbook) FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

12 Chapter 2 Design Controls and Criteria Revised design vehicle dimensions to better reflect the existing fleet New design vehicle turning templates Additional information on access control and access management, older drivers, and pedestrians Corresponding design speeds in metric and U.S. customary units are specified FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

13 Chapter 2 Design Controls and Criteria Revised Dimensions for Selected Design Vehicles 90 AASHTO and FGB P SU WB AASHTO 90 AASHTO and FGB 01 AASHTO 90 AASHTO and FGB 01 AASHTO Height Width Length Front Overhang Rear Overhang WB WB Min Turning Radius Min Inside Radius FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

14 Chapter 3 Elements of Design Extends range of design speeds considered 20 to 130 km/h [15 to 80 mph] Incorporates superelevation criteria and updates transitions and spirals based on research in NCHRP Report 439 Charts for critical length of grade based on a 120 kg/kw [200 lb/hp] truck, rather than a 180 kg/kw [300 lb/hp] truck FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

15 Chapter 3 Elements of Design Revised Turning Roadway Widths based on Updated Design Vehicle Dimensions FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

16 Design Widths for Turning Roadways (feet) RADIUS To Inside of Curve Traveled Way Width 1-LANE Case I-C 90 AASHTO and FGB 01 AASHTO Tangent FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

17 Design Widths for Turning Roadways (feet) RADIUS To Inside of Curve Traveled Way Width 1-LANE Case II - B Provision for Passing Stalled Vehicle 90 AASHTO and FGB 01 AASHTO Tangent FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

18 Design Widths for Turning Roadways (feet) Traveled Way Width RADIUS To 2-LANE Case III-A Inside of Includes 2' deduction for shoulder. Curve 90 AASHTO 01 AASHTO and FGB Tangent FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

19 Chapter 3 Elements of Design Stopping Sight Distance Criteria revised based on NCHRP Report 400 initial speed equal to design speed (no reduction to average running speed) based on deceleration rates for controlled braking rather than locked-wheel braking deceleration rate is 3.4 m/s 2 [11.2 ft/s 2 ], independent of speed FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

20 Chapter 3 Elements of Design Design Speed 90 AASHTO lower (FGB) upper Interstate Other Arterials Collectors A B C Stopping Sight Distance 01 AASHTO Freeways FDOT Plans Preparation Manual New/Reconstr FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29, RRR

21 Stopping Sight Distance Stopping Sight Distance - Feet AASHTO lower 01 AASHTO PPM Freeways Interstate PPM New/Reconstr Arterials PPM RRR C Design Speed - mph FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

22 Chapter 3 Elements of Design Vertical Curve Design Criteria revised based on NCHRP Report 400 driver eye height: 1,080 mm [3.5 ft], rather than 1,070 mm [3.5 ft] object height: 600 mm [2.0 ft], which represents vehicle tail light height, rather than 150 mm [6 in], which represented an arbitrary object height Improved discussion of sight distance at undercrossings FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

23 Vertical Curve Design Criteria Eye Height 90 AASHTO/FGB = AASHTO = 3.5 Object Height 90 AASHTO/FGB = 6 01 AASHTO = 2.0 FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

24 Design Speed lower FGB upper Interstate Other Arterials Collectors A B C K Value - Crest Vertical Curves 90 AASHTO PPM 01 AASHTO Freeways New and Reconstr RRR FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

25 K Value - Crest Vertical Curves AASHTO lower AASHTO K-Value - Crest Vert Curves PPM Freeways Interstate PPM New and Reconstr Arterials PPM RRR C Design Speed - mph FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

26 Design Speed lower (FGB) upper 01 AASHTO Interstate Other Arterials Collectors A B C K Value - Sag Vertical Curves 90 AASHTO PPM Freeways New and Reconstr RRR FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

27 K Value - Sag Vertical Curves AASHTO lower K Value - Sag Vert Curves AASHTO PPM Freeways Interstate PPM New and Reconstr Arterials PPM RRR C Design Speed mph FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

28 Chapter 4 Cross Section Elements Curb terminology changed vertical curb replaces barrier curb sloping curb replaces mountable curb NOTE: FDOT Type F and Type E curb meet the AASHTO definition for Sloping Curb. FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

29 Chapter 4 Cross Section Elements Eliminates material on parabolic cross sections Discusses sidewalk curb ramps and ADA compliance Incorporates research on median width and median opening design from NCHRP Report 375 FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

30 Chapter 5 Local Roads and Streets Includes discussions of: ADA compliance new AASHTO bicycle guide proposed AASHTO pedestrian guide (currently in preparation) Refers to forthcoming AASHTO report Guidelines for Geometric Design of Very Low Volume Local Roads (< 400 ADT) FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

31 Chapter 6 Collector Roads and Streets Includes discussions of: ADA compliance new AASHTO bicycle guide proposed AASHTO pedestrian guide Eliminates material on parabolic cross sections FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

32 Chapter 6 Collector Roads and Streets Incorporates research on median width and median opening design from NCHRP Report 375 Incorporates revised discussions of: traffic control devices erosion control FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

33 Chapter 7 Rural and Urban Arterials Incorporates research on median width and median opening design from NCHRP Report 375 Incorporates research on access management from NCHRP Report 420 Places more emphasis on design to accommodate pedestrians and bicycles in the arterial environment FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

34 Chapter 8 Freeways No major changes FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

35 Chapter 9 Intersections Chapter title changed from At-Grade Intersections Explicitly defines the functional area of an intersection includes the distance a vehicle travels during perception-reaction and maneuvering (braking and lane changing), and the space needed for storage (to accommodate the longest queue expected most often) FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

36 Chapter 9 Intersections Includes discussions of: access management near intersections modern roundabouts Includes expanded discussion of offset left-turn lanes advantages include better visibility, reduced conflicts and the ability to serve more vehicles. FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

37 Chapter 9 Intersections Includes revised intersection sight distance criteria based on NCHRP Report 383 revised criteria for uncontrolled intersections new gap acceptance criteria for entering or crossing major roads limited sight distances for signals and all-way stops FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

38 Intersection Sight Distance Length of SD Leg Along Major Road Length of SD Leg Along Major Road Major Road Sight Line a = driver eye setback 1990 AASHTO: a = 20 Florida Greenbook: a = AASHTO: a = 17.8' desirable a = 14.4' minimum a Minor Road Sight Line FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

39 Design Speed Length of Sight Distance Leg along Major Road Index 546 and AASHTO - 2 Lane Intersection - AASHT O Left and Right Turn Florida Greenbook W = 50' - based on Crossing Maneuver Left Turn Maneuver Right Turn & Crossing Maneuver FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

40 Intersection Sight Distance Length of Sight Distance Leg Feet Index 546 and 90 AASHTO Florida Greenbook W = 50' - based on Crossing Maneuver 01 AASHTO - 2 Lane Intersection - Left Turn Maneuver 01 AASHTO - 2 Lane Intersection - Right Turn & Crossing Maneuver Design Speed - mph FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

41 Chapter 10 Grade Separations and Interchanges Places more emphasis on design to accommodate pedestrians and bicycles at interchanges Includes expanded discussion of Single Point Urban Interchanges (SPUIs) Increases emphasis on access management on interchange crossroads FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

42 Chapter 10 Grade Separations and Interchanges Expands discussion of superelevation and cross slope within interchanges Addresses two-lane entrance ramps FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

43 AASHTO Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 Where to Get Copies: AASHTO P.O. Box Washington, DC Phone Fax Online Not available from FDOT FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

44 AASHTO Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001 Price as of June 20, 2002 BOOK ITEM NO. GDHS-4 Price per copy $102 AASHTO Members $80 CD-ROM ITEM NO. GDHS-4-CD Price per copy $165 AASHTO Members $130 BOOK & CD-ROM ITEM NO. GDHS-4-COM Price per copy $248 AASHTO Members $195 FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

45 AASHTO Guidelines for Geometric Design of Very Low-Volume Local Roads (ADT<400) Price as of June 20, 2002 BOOK ITEM NO. VLVLR-1 Price per copy $35.00 AASHTO Members $30.00 NACE Members may purchase at AASHTO Member price. (Must indicate membership when ordering.) FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

46 Florida Green Book - May 2002 Adopted by Rule Effective July 9, 2002 Includes new chapters on traffic calming and residential street design Full Document posted on the FDOT Roadway Design Office Web Site Hardcopies to be available in about 30 days. FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

47 QUESTIONS? Jim Mills, P.E. Roadway Design Office 605 Suwannee Street MS-32 Tallahassee, FL SC FACERS Annual Conference - June 26-29,

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