# Enhancement of Power Quality in Transmission Line Using Flexible Ac Transmission System

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2 1598 ISSN: one is connected in series through a series transformer. A basic UPFC functional scheme is shown in fig.1. Fig.3 Load Voltage & current Waveforms Fig.1 Basic functional scheme of UPFC A. Basic Transmission Line The voltage measurement block is used to measure the source voltage. The current measurement block is used to measure the instantaneous current flowing in the transmission line. Fig.2 represents the source impedance and the line impedance of (6+j0.023) Ω, and the load impedance of (2+j0.02) Ω respectively. Scope displays the signals Fig. 4 Active Power & reactive Powers Fig. 5 Basic 33 KV transmission line without compensation Fig.6 Active Power & reactive Powers III. SIMULATION RESULTS generated during a simulation. In, scope is used to view both the line current and source voltage. A. Fixed Capacitor Thyristor-Controlled Reactor The Fixed Capacitor Thyristor-Controlled Reactor (FC-TCR) is a var generator arrangement using a fixed (permanently connected) capacitance with a thyristor controlled reactor as shown in Fig.7. The model of FC-TCR with the line voltage of 11KV is shown in Fig.8. The current through the TCR is measured using the current measurement block. The line impedance of (5+j0.023) Ω is represented by resistance and inductance of source side. Fig. 2 Basic 11 KV transmission line without compensation Fig. 7 Fixed Capacitor Thyristor Controlled Reactor

3 Fig. 12 Simulation Circuit of UPFC The Variation of Real power with the variation of injected angle is given in Table1. The real power is increase with the increase in the angle of injection [5]. The corresponding graph is shown in fig. 14 The Variation of Reactive power with the variation of injected angle is given in Table2. The Fig. 8 Simulation Circuit of FC-TCR Fig. 9 Active Power & reactive Powers The value of FCTCR reactor is 100mh and capacitor C is the fixed capacitor of 200 μf. The current through FCTCR is shown in Fig.10 and behavior of Real and Reactive Power is bus voltage increases with the increase in the injected voltage. The corresponding graph is shown in fig. 16 shown in Fig. 11 also the load voltage and the load current respectively. Fig. 13 Active Power & Reactive Powers The Real power and the Reactive Powers measured in the load are 0.23MW and 1.12MVAR as shown in Fig.13. By introducing FACTS Controllers in the transmission line, the power flow can be increased [6] [7]. Table.1 Variation of Real Power & Angle of injected Voltage Fig. 10 Effective current through FCTCR Fig.11 Load Voltage & current Waveforms Simulation model of two bus system with UPFC shown in Fig. 12 The series convertor is represented as Voltage source (Vseries), and shunt convertor is represented as Voltage S. No. Angle of injected Voltage in series (deg) Real Power (MW) The reactive power can be further increased by increasing source (Vshunt). Power measurement block is connected at the load side to measure Real Power and Reactive Power. the magnitude of injected voltage. The corresponding graph is shown in fig. 16. It can be seen that the reactive power 1599

4 1600 ISSN: further increases with the increase in the injected voltage. introduced. The simulation results are similar to the predicted results. S. No. Angle of injected Voltage (Deg) Source Current (A) Effective Current (A) Real Power in (MW) Reactive Power in (MVAR) Table.3 Variation of Real and Reactive Powers with variation in the angle of injected voltage V. CONCLUSION Fig. 14 Angle Vs Real Power Table.3 shows the variation of Real and Reactive powers by injecting a series voltage of fixed magnitude 3kV at different angles of injection from 0 to 360 [8] Table.2 shows the variation of Reactive Powers. Fig. 15 Simulation Circuit of Shunt injected UPFC Angle of injected Voltage in shunt (KV) Table.2 Variation of Reactive Powers Fig. 16 Reactive Power Vs Shunt Voltage IV. RESULTS Reactive Power (VAR) The real and reactive powers increase with the increase in angle of injection. Simulation results show the effectiveness of UPFC to control the real and reactive powers [10] It is found that there is an improvement in the real and reactive powers through the transmission line when UPFC is Improvements in simulation environment with the incorporation of FACTS devices, schemes with in MATLAB/SIMULINK have been presented. UPFC is capable of improving the power quality by injecting the voltage. The intention of the simulation study is to prove that the UPFC is capable of improving the voltage stability. This paper presents the control and performance of the UPFC for power quality improvement. The voltage compensation using UPFC system is also studied. In the simulation study, MATLAB/ environment is used to simulate the model of UPFC. The simulation results are similar to the predicted results. Studying the results has given an indication that UPFC are very useful when it comes to organize and maintain power system. Following conclusions are made- 1. Power flow control is achieved and congestion is less. 2. Transient stability is improved. 3. Faster Steady State achievement. 4. Improved Voltage Profile RE FERE NCES [1] N. G. Hi ng or an i an d L. Gyugyi Understanding FACTS concepts and technology of flexible AC transmission systems, IEEE Press, New York, 2000.

5 [2] Raju Pandey and A. K. Kori August (2012) Real and Reactive Power flow Control Using Flexible Ac Transmission System connected to a Transmission line: a Power Injection Concept, Volume 1, Issue 6, ISSN: International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) pp [3] Gyungui. L, FIEE. (2008) Unified Power Flow Control concept for Flexible AC Transmission System IEE proceedings- C, Vol.139, No.4. [4] C.D. Schaulder et al., Operation of unified power flow controller (UPFC) under practical constraints, IEEE Trans.Power Del., vol.13, no.2. pp , Apr1998. [5] Kannan. S, Shesha Jayaram and M.M.A.Salama. (2007) Real and Reactive Power Coordination for a Unified Power Flow Controller IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2007, vol.19.no.3, pp [6] Anderson, Fouad, Power System Control and Stability, IEEE Press, [7] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw- Hill Inc., 1994, pp: [8] Gyugyi, Jul, Unified power-flow control concept for flexible AC transmission system, Proc. Inst. elect. Eng.C, vol. 139, no.4, pp [9] Sen, K.K. and A.J.F. Keri, Comparison of field results and digital simulation results of voltage sourced converter-based FACTS controller. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 18(1): [10] Padiyar. K. R and Uma Rao. K. (2008) Modeling and control of Unified Power Flow Controller for transient stability Electrical Power & Energy Systems, pp [11] Gholipour, E. and S. Saadate, A new method for improving transient stability of power systems by using UPFC. Proc. European Power Electronics, Toulouse, France, September Raju Pandey, Electrical Engineering, Jabalpur engineering college, Jabalpur [MP] India , A. K. Kori, Associate professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Jabalpur engineering college, Jabalpur [MP] India , 1601

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