Concept of matching technical parameters of power supply module and plasma generation module. Design, construction and test results.

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1 Dr inz. Marcin Hołub; Dr inz. Stanisław Kalisiak; Mgr inz. Michał Bonisławski; Mgr inz. Marcin Marcinek; Mgr inz. Tomasz Jakubowski Concept of matching technical parameters of power supply module and plasma generation module. Design, construction and test results.

2 Contents 1 Introduction 2 Power supply system design 2.1 System 1 power storage 2.2 System 1 photovoltaic panel 2.3 System 1 controller and converter board design 2.4 System 1 test results 2.5 System 2 power storage 3 Summary and outlook Page Figures Water cleaning vessel visualisation Stand alone system principle Small photovoltaic panel system principle Large photovoltaic panel system principle Fuel cell system principle Supply system (design principle) System 1 main Li-Ion battery pack RICOH SOLAR RS-M155 photovoltaic panel RS-M155 panel characteristics; left: variable irradiance, right: variable panel temperature Calculation results of the photovoltaic panel output power as a function between time of day and year Calculation results of the Li-ion batteries state of charge Typical charging process of a Li-ion battery Principal design of the SMPS converter Constructed SMPS converter; left: microcontroller board, right: SMPS CAD design of the controller board; schematics Converter board layout top layer Converter board layout bottom layer System operation in battery charging mode System operation under different loads System operation in MPPT mode System operation under different loads Overview of the full supply system design proposal Tables 1 Technical parameters of chosen Li-Ion 2 Main technical properties of the RS-M155 panel 3 Possible Marine type energy storages

3 1 Introduction The West Pomeranian University of Technology contributes to the PlasTEP project i.a. in work package six (Plasma technologies for water cleaning). According to the project flow and planned milestones the project team was responsible to design and construct a mobile power supply system topology which is suitable for mobile water cleaning vessel application. Initially, vessel visualisation was prepared by giving an overview of possible vessel constructions. One visualisation is depicted in Fig. 1: Fig. 1: Water cleaning vessel visualisation Initially, rough estimation provided basic construction data: vessel area: approx. 1,5 2 m2 vessel type: free floating Also a preliminary agreement was found on the following basic electric parameters: average power demand: Pav = 100W maximum power demand: Pmax = 1000W uptime: Ton = 10h stored energy: Es = 1kWh Based on that data a preliminary set of calculations was established. Its results were four possible system configurations: stand alone, small photovoltaic panel use, large photovoltaic panel use, fuel cell implementation. All four principles are presented in Fig. 2 5 together with basic technical data and a set of most important advantages/ disadvantages. 3

4 Option 1: Stand alone battery Battery DC/ DC Loads Fig. 2: Stand alone system principle Battery: Lead-acid: 1 kwh = 12 V * 83 Ah + high power - unfavorable environment Energy: 30 Wh/kg - 35 kg + low costs - high weight Max. power: 150 W/kg - 5,2 kw + availablity - need for frequent charging Costs = 80 Li-Ion: Energy: 150 Wh/kg - 7 kg + high energy - high costs Max. power: 300 W/kg - 2,1 kw + low weight - difficult handling Costs = need for frequent charging Option 2: Battery + support solar cells Battery DC/ DC Loads Solar Cells Fig. 3: Small photovoltaic panel system principle Example for solar cell: Power: 100 W +Reduces battery size and costs Dimension: 1000 * 800 * 35 mm (0,8 m²) - Additional costs Voltage: 17 V Current: 6 A Energy production estimation: 0,025 kwh/day (winter) up to 0,27 kwh/day (summer) Costs = 400 4

5 Option 3: Solar cells and battery Battery DC/ DC Loads Solar Cells Super Capacitors Fig. 4: Large photovoltaic panel system principle Example: 5 solar cells Power max: 100 W * 5 = 500 W +Independence from grid charging Dimension: 1000 * 800 * 35 mm (0,8 m²) + Small battery Energy: 0,125 kwh/day (winter) up to - Requires additional components (supercapacitors) 1,35 kwh/day (summer) - Higher additional costs Costs = 2000 Option 4: Fuel cell + battery Fuel cell DC/ DC Loads Li-Jon Super Capacitors Fig. 5: Fuel cell system principle Example for solar cell: Power: 100 W +Reduces battery size and costs Dimension: 1000 * 800 * 35 mm (0,8 m²) - Additional costs Voltage: 17 V Current: 6 A Energy production estimation: 0,025 kwh/day (winter) up to 0,27 kwh/day (summer) Costs = 400 5

6 Due to the additional costs and system maintenance the principle as it is depicted in Fig. 3 was chosen in limited size, weight and with acceptable additional costs. According to this preliminary agreements all system components were ordered, tested and a power supply converter with a switched mode was constructed. Due to the results of preliminary chemical tests (conducted by IMP PAN, Gdańsk) an additional module had to be considered. This module was based on high power (1000 W) microwave plasma source due to the necessity of water contamination evaporation. Due to that fact a new system principle was proposed as described in following paragraphs. 2 Power supply system design An additional module was intruduced because of the change in system design. It resulted in a dual-mode supply with a dedicated microwave (MW) plasma storage and converter. An overview of the proposed soultion is given in Fig. 6: Fig. 6: Supply system (design principle) The preliminary assumption of 100W of average power was considered as System 1. This system is supplying the water contamination mover motor, a fan, the dielectric barrier discharger (DBD) reactor and small scale secondary loads. System 2 is designed in parallel and will be responsible for large loads of the magnetron gun. If it should be necessary the two systems can be operated independently or with a common ground (dotted line). A detailed system description will be given in the following subsections. 6

7 2.1 System 1 power storage The medium size Li-ion batteries were chosen due to their limited weight, size and excellent performance. In order to limit the excessive costs the overall storage consists of eight modules which are connected in series/ parallel as it was desired by the constructor. The most important technical parameters of the chosen Li-Ion energy storage solution are: 1. Type 4R(2S CGR18650CG/4S4P) 2. Nominal voltage 28,8 V 3. Minimal voltage 24 V 4. Maximal voltage 33,6 V 5. Stored energy 35,2 Ah (1,18 kwh) 6. Maximal discharge current 32 A Table 1: Technical parameters of chosen Li-Ion Fig. 7: System 1 main Li-Ion battery pack 7

8 2.2 System 1 photovoltaic panel In accordance to preliminary assumptions and due to the planned operating environment and conditions an auxiliary power source was planned. According to vessel s size a single module was chosen with an active area of approximately 1 m2. Due to costs a standard solution was chosen. Finally, an RS-M155 panel by RICOH SOLAR was planned. All basic parameters of the chosen panel are given in Table 2: 1. Model RS-M Maxiamal power 155 W 3. Size 1580 x 808 x 45 mm 4. Voltage in MPP 34,3 V 5. Output current in MPP 4,52 A 6. Short circuit current 4,90 A 7. Efficiency 12,4 % Table 2: Main technical properties of the RS-M155 panel Fig. 8: RICOH SOLAR RS-M155 photovoltaic panel 8

9 Based on these technical parameters the main characteristics for different irradiations and panel temperatures were calculated. The results are given in Fig. 9: Fig. 9: RS-M155 panel characteristics; left: variable irradiance, right: variable panel temperature The maximum power point varies as a function of both parameters. In order to estimate an available solar power and, therefore, calculate the estimated state of charge of the main energy storage, a Homer Energy software was used for the estimated north Poland conditions (53º26 N 14º32 E). Assuming a maximal panel output power and the estimated converter efficiency, a set of calculations was led for statistical weather data. The estimated output power of the panel as a function of the time of day and year is shown in Fig. 10: Fig. 10: Calculation results of the photovoltaic panel output power as a function between time of day and year Assuming the average power consumption of 70W and a 7h system continuous operation, a state of charge of Li-ion batteries can be established. Results are given in Fig

10 Fig. 11: Calculation results of the Li-ion batteries state of charge In most parts of the year the state of charge of the batteries exceeds 30% which is crucial for their proper operation and lifetime. In summer it is assumed that the panel will be able to cover the average power demand of the supply System System 1 controller and converter board design Because of specifics of a Li-ion battery charging process and the necessity to track the maximum power point of the panel, a dedicated power electronic switched mode power supply (SMPS) was developed. A typical charging process of a Li-ion battery is depicted in Fig. 12: Fig. 12: Typical charging process of a Li-ion battery Therefore, the main functionality of such a module is: Monitoring of the battery s state of charge and charging process, Maximum power point tracking of the panel (when applicable), Power flow control, Parameter monitoring and storage, 10

11 Communication and Safety routines. A simplified construction of the final topology is depicted in Fig. 13: Fig. 13: Principal design of the SMPS converter The components C1, C2, T1, L1 and D1 represent a classical buck converter topology. The switch T2 enables an auxiliary load disconnection. In order to control the state of that switch a small-scale photovoltaic contactor PVI5080N was implemented. The converter currents are measured using precise 10mΩ and 5mΩ shunts and INA169 sensors. The main controller includes an eight bit fast microcontroller AT90PWM3B by Atmel. Fig. 14: Constructed SMPS converter; left: microcontroller board, right: SMPS In case of larger computational power an adapter board was prepared. It allows a fast controller exchange with the DSP processors ezdsp TMS320F2812 by Texas Instruments. The constructed prototype is depicted in Fig. 14. Fig. 15, 16 and 17 give an overview of the system s schematics and the resulting layout. Its design was prepared by using the Eagle environment. 11

12 Fig. 11: Calculation results of the Li-ion batteries state of charge Fig. 15: CAD design of the controller board; schematics Fig. 16: Converter board layout top layer 12

13 Fig. 17: Converter board layout bottom layer 2.4 System 1 test results In order to verify the system operation, an exhaustive test programme followed. Fig. 18 presents the measurement results of the battery charging mode, Fig. 19 gives an overview of the overall system operation during variable load. Fig. 18: System operation in battery charging mode 13

14 Fig. 19: System operation under different loads The power direction changes under variable loads. In the first region (approx. 320 seconds), due to the low load, the excessive power of the photovoltaic panel is used to charge the battery pack. In the second region ( seconds), due to the increase of the load power, only about 50W are used for battery charging, the rest is used for load supply. In the high load region ( s) all power of the panel is used together with the full battery current to supply the load. System behavior is stable and as assumed. Another functionality is the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) operation in a constant current mode. The system performance is shown in Fig. 20. The system maintains the maximum power (MPP was 82 W) independent of the change of the load. In all cases the converter efficiency was in the range 95 96,5%. Fig. 20: System operation in MPPT mode 14

15 2.5 System 2 power storage Because of the large amount of the power which required for a constant MW plasma reactor operation, an additional storage was necessary. Different storage systems were analysed and the possibilities are given in Table 3. Type AGM-130Ah DP31DT HZY-MR LXV31MF PC2250 Marine Master Producer Mastervolt Deka Haze LUCAS ODYSSEY mastervolt. dekabatteries. hazebatteryusa.coonline.co.uk/ lucas-batteries- odysseybattery. com/ com/ com Nominal voltage [V] Nominal capacity [Ah] (C20) Nominal capacity [Ah] (C6) Self discharge n.d. n.d. [%/ month] 20ºC Maximal discharge 0,3 C 0,3 C 0,2 C 0,1 C 3 C current Weight [kg] 37, (?) 39 Dimensions [mm] 408x227x x241x x225x173 n.d. 286x269x233 DxWxS Mounting M 8 different M 8 n.d. n.d Price netto zł (~ 217 ) 840 zł (~ 214 ) 560 zł (~ 142 ) Table 3: Possible Marine type energy storages n.d. = no data 1 = transport costs included, possible discount Due to excellent performance and proven quality Oddysey batteries were proposed, for possible 1 hour operation 2 x PC2250 type. Main properties of the solution include: 2, 3 or 4 year full warranty 12 year military design Drycell sealed technology 60% more cranking power Deep cycle design 15

16 Deep cycle design Mount in any position and at any place Brass terminals, non-corrosive Steel jacket for severe use 2 x PC x 475 Eur About an hour of operation 2 x 39 kg An exemplary design of such battery is depicted in Fig. 21: Fig. 21: System operation under different loads Fig. 22: Overview of the full supply system design proposal 16

17 3. Summary and outlook The power supply system design proposal was described including a low power li-ion based System 1 with photovoltaic panel source and basics of high-power System 2 storage. A dedicated microcontroller-based converter was designed allowing for power flow control, MPP tracking and battery charging. A high efficiency of 95% was reached. In case of MW plasma different storage technologies were compared and resulted in classic lead-acid marine technology. Magnetron supply is still under investigation. However, an inverter-based solution is planned with intermediate DC/DC SMPS control. 17

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