Lesson 16: Asynchronous Generators/Induction Generators

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1 Lesson 16: Asynchronous s/induction s ET 332b Ac Motors, s and Power Systems et332bind.ppt 1 Learning Objectives After this presentation you will be able to: Explain how an induction generator erates List application for induction generators in the use renewable resources Discuss the limitations of induction generators Compute the power develed from an induction generator using the per phase circuit model et332bind.ppt 2 1

2 Induction s Driving an induction motor faster than synchronous speed when connected to the grid results in active power generation Induction generators (asynchronous generators) designed with lower rotor R to reduce losses and machine slip. Applications: Wind Turbines, Hydraulic Turbines (small scale hydro), Gas engines fueled by natural gas or biogas cogeneration et332bind.ppt 3 Induction Starting Sequence Electric Power Out Existing Three Phase System Induction Breaker n r >n s Prime Mover 1.) Breaker en 2.) Increase prime mover mechanical power input until n r >n s. 3.) Close Breaker 4.) Adjust mechanical power input to match electric load. P mech =P e +P loss Losses Mechanical Power In Induction generator can not vary terminal voltage or frequency. Set by system. et332bind.ppt 4 2

3 Induction Speed Power Curves Air Gap Power (kw) Induction Machine Speed-Power Curve n s 1.1ns Operation Rotor Speed (rpm) Pushover Power et332bind.ppt 5 Limitations of Induction Generations Require existing power grid for synchronous eration. Can not control frequency or voltage independently Can not erate above pushover speed Require a source of reactive power to erate When connect to grid, system supplies reactive power to erate generator When erating without grid connection frequency varies with power output. Parallel capacitors supply reactive power et332bind.ppt 6 3

4 Induction Example A three-phase, six-pole, 460 V, 60 Hz induction generator erates on a 480 V system. The generator its rated power output is 20 kw. It is driven by a turbine at a speed of 1215 rpm. The generator has the following electrical parameters: R 1 =0.200 W, R 2 = W, R fe = 320 W, X 1 =1.20 W, X 2 =1.29 W, X M =42.0 W Find the active power delivered by the generator and the reactive power it requires from the system to erate. et332bind.ppt 7 Example Solution et332bind.ppt 8 4

5 Example Solution et332bind.ppt 9 Example Solution et332bind.ppt 10 5

6 Example Solution et332bind.ppt 11 Isolated Operation of Induction s Electric Power Out Isolated Three Phase System Induction Breaker nr >ns Reactive Power from Capacitors Prime Mover Isolated Induction generator requires residual flux to build voltage Capacitors supply reactive power to load and generator when voltage builds. Voltage falls rapidly when load is applied. Losses When nr = ns, no power delivered Mechanical Power In et332bind.ppt 12 6

7 Stator Voltage (V 1/26/2016 Voltage Build-up in Isolated Induction s jx1 Vin -jxc jxm Rfe R1 R2/s jx2 External Capacitor provides Reactive power for eration V Xc0>Xc1 Operating point set by intersection between magnetization curve and X c Voltage Xc0 Current Xc1 I X c V I I C V 1 2f et332bind.ppt 13 Voltage Build-up in Isolated Induction s Lab measurements determine the magnetization curve Three Phase Induction Motor Magnetization Curve Inductance change due to rotor motion I C V 2f C F or F Stator Current (A) Lab Data Linearized Magnetization Curve Load Line et332bind.ppt 14 7

8 Voltage (V) 1/26/2016 Voltage Build-up in Isolated Induction s Single phase motor magnetization curve Magnetization Curve-Single Phase Motor I C V C f F or 127 F Current (A) Lab Measurements Linearized Data Load Line et332bind.ppt 15 ET 332b Ac Motors, s and Power Systems END LESSON 16: ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS/INDUCTION GENERATORS et332bind.ppt 16 8

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